The Regions of Sind, Baluchistan, Multan and Kashmir: the Historical, Social and Economic Setting

The Middle Ages was a time of political turbulence in Pakistan, with a succession of political powers competing for the control of the regions of Sind, Baluchistan, Multan and Kashmir. The Abbasid caliphate of Baghdad governed the area from the eighth to the late tenth century, ensuring the dissemination of Islam, although Kashmir remained politically independent. It was replaced by the Ghaznavid Empire in the eleventh century, incorporating these regions into an Indian political structure, which was then extended by the rule of the sultanate of Delhi over northern Pakistan until the sixteenth century.  These shifts in power resulted in a cultural and religious diversity in Pakistan that exists even today.   

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