Traders by land had to contend with the hardships and dangers inherent in crossing the Central Asian macro-region on foot; not least, those of political instability. Different traders acted along different sections of the route, although the Sogdians were among the most important and wide-reaching merchants. Trading by sea similarly involved docking at a range of ports along the way, and the interaction of merchants from different societies, languages and cultures shaped the communities and cities they passed through.
- Route:Land, MaritimeThemes:Language of article:EnglishSource:
Silk and Spice Routes, Cutlures and CivilizationsFormat:Countries:Afghanistan, China, Greece, India, Islamic Republic of Iran, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Oman, Pakistan, United Arab Emirates, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Yemen