Traders by land had to contend with the hardships and dangers inherent in crossing the Central Asian macro-region on foot; not least, those of political instability. Different traders acted along different sections of the route, although the Sogdians were among the most important and wide-reaching merchants.  Trading by sea similarly involved docking at a range of ports along the way, and the interaction of merchants from different societies, languages and cultures shaped the communities and cities they passed through. 

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    Land, Maritime
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