Medieval coinage can provide insights into not only the economy but also the politics, traditions and structures of power within a society.  From the eighth century, after the Arab conquests, coins started to be minted with Kufic Arabic inscriptions on both sides, and the various changes in the precise wording and depiction on these coins tell a fascinating story of changing political and religious values over the centuries.  The exact weight and composition of a coin also indicates the state of the economy, according to the quality of the metals used. Political unrest, such as the invasions of the Mongols from the thirteenth century, did great damage to monetary trading.

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    Afghanistan, Islamic Republic of Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Pakistan, Syrian Arab Republic