Maritime routes emerged along the Silk Roads provided a conduit for the emergence of trade and exchange between different populations. Historical and geographical considerations involving disagreements, or the practicality of transportation of the goods over mountainous regions permitted a significant development of these parallel routes.
As we know, for centuries, the Silk Roads have played an essential role in linking the economy and diverse cultures of the East and West. This is most notable through trade routes connecting Mediterranean regions with Eastern territories in Caucasus, Iran, Central Asia and beyond. Over time, these routes developed, changed and adapted according to different historical events.
The Silk Roads spanned across the Roman Empire. A caravan trade passed through land and sea to the East. Moreover, diplomats and state representatives also passed along these roads, due to their involvement with neighbouring populations, such as the Parthians. As a result of these socio-cultural factors, previous transmission of Roman goods to the Eastern territories, by way of the Iranian region, was altered. This meant that China became the sole silk provider. Other routes subsequently opened as a direct result of these attempts to bypass the ban and access Eastern territories. These historical and social factors illustrate the fluidity and diversity of the Silk Roads.
One of the primary access routes to the East was through the Transcaucasian region (which was under Roman rule), passing through the Caspian Sea. Indian and Babylonian goods were mainly traded along this road. This trade fostered dynamic interactions between Europeans and others including Armenians, or Persian Medes peoples.
Furthermore, the direct route, which passed through Central Asia along the Amu Darya River (Oxus) served as another primary road. It would then cross the Caspian Sea to the South Caucasus before reaching Europe. The Amu Darya’s the flood cycle contributed considerably to the development of the Maritime Silk Routes. Thus routes extending through Central Asia to the Caspian and Black seas would be considered as Pioneer of the Maritime Silk Routes. Consequently, the Amu Darya River was essential for trade and cultural exchanges, becoming the principal artery connecting East and West.
As a result, the interconnectivity between Central Asia, Transcaucasia and Europe was strengthened through trade. Hence, economic integration of ancient Central Asia with other parts of the world via the maritime routes of the Silk Roads proved to be an essential element in trade, development, and intercultural activity throughout various regions.