Redirection of resources


Step 1 Select a dimension of ex/inclusion Open

Selected: Relational

Exclusion is relational as both a process and an outcome. As a process, exclusion is about the rupture between individuals, groups and societies. As an outcome, it is about the end result of this rupture when the excluded cannot enjoy shared opportunities and are in a position of relative deprivation as compared to the rest of the society. In other words, both the process of exclusion and its result are about differentiated and unequal relations between the excluded and mainstream society.


Many adopt this approach in their policy actions. The World Health Organization, for example, has used it since 2008 to inform the work of its Commission on Social Determinants of Health. The body developed a policy analysis framework that examines exclusionary processes in four dimensions – social, economic, political and cultural – as drivers of health inequalities. The approach proved useful by shedding light on how and why the excluded have differential access to the resources required to protect their health, and by, subsequently, revealing ways to redress the situation.


The diagnosis and tackling of this relationality is amongst the major policy merits of ex/inclusion. Four markers can assist inclusive policy work in this regard.  

Step 2 Select an Inclusive Policy Marker Open

Selected: Distribution of public expenditure

The nature and redirection of resources, as well as public support for such measures, are an essential part of inclusive agendas. Two key points elaborate on why and how this issue can be approached. 

Step 3 Select a Policy Design Consideration

Selected: Redirection of resources

In the context of inclusive development, distribution of public expenditure and resources entails their (re)direction towards the excluded and exclusion-prone groups and individuals. Such work requires a deep analysis of the implications of the changes in terms of group distribution of benefits. Examples of concrete measures in this regard may include gender- and child-responsive policy planning and budgeting. Participatory budgeting, especially at local levels, is another mechanism that contributes to a more equitable distribution of expenditures, provided that all groups participate on an equal footing and have the capacity to get involved in such processes. The influence of the international community, through the distribution of aid expenditure, policy dialogues and mechanisms related to priority setting (e.g., Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers and public expenditure reviews), is important in promoting such distribution of expenditure and resources.


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