Relations between the mainstream and excluded populations


Step 1 Select a dimension of ex/inclusion Open

Selected: Relational

Exclusion is relational as both a process and an outcome. As a process, exclusion is about the rupture between individuals, groups and societies. As an outcome, it is about the end result of this rupture when the excluded cannot enjoy shared opportunities and are in a position of relative deprivation as compared to the rest of the society. In other words, both the process of exclusion and its result are about differentiated and unequal relations between the excluded and mainstream society.


Many adopt this approach in their policy actions. The World Health Organization, for example, has used it since 2008 to inform the work of its Commission on Social Determinants of Health. The body developed a policy analysis framework that examines exclusionary processes in four dimensions – social, economic, political and cultural – as drivers of health inequalities. The approach proved useful by shedding light on how and why the excluded have differential access to the resources required to protect their health, and by, subsequently, revealing ways to redress the situation.


The diagnosis and tackling of this relationality is amongst the major policy merits of ex/inclusion. Four markers can assist inclusive policy work in this regard.  

Step 2 Select an Inclusive Policy Marker Open

Selected: Relations between the mainstream and excluded populations

Redressing shortcoming and developing relations between the marginalized and the societies they live in is critical in the context of inclusive agendas. Two key considerations elaborate on why and how it can be done. 

Step 3 Select a Policy Design Consideration

No policy example in this category yet