Awareness raising about costs and value to society at-large


Step 1 Select a dimension of ex/inclusion Open

Selected: Relational

Exclusion is relational as both a process and an outcome. As a process, exclusion is about the rupture between individuals, groups and societies. As an outcome, it is about the end result of this rupture when the excluded cannot enjoy shared opportunities and are in a position of relative deprivation as compared to the rest of the society. In other words, both the process of exclusion and its result are about differentiated and unequal relations between the excluded and mainstream society.


Many adopt this approach in their policy actions. The World Health Organization, for example, has used it since 2008 to inform the work of its Commission on Social Determinants of Health. The body developed a policy analysis framework that examines exclusionary processes in four dimensions – social, economic, political and cultural – as drivers of health inequalities. The approach proved useful by shedding light on how and why the excluded have differential access to the resources required to protect their health, and by, subsequently, revealing ways to redress the situation.


The diagnosis and tackling of this relationality is amongst the major policy merits of ex/inclusion. Four markers can assist inclusive policy work in this regard.  

Step 2 Select an Inclusive Policy Marker Open

Selected: Distribution of public expenditure

The nature and redirection of resources, as well as public support for such measures, are an essential part of inclusive agendas. Two key points elaborate on why and how this issue can be approached. 

Step 3 Select a Policy Design Consideration

Selected: Awareness raising about costs and value to society at-large

To ensure public support, it may be advisable to raise general awareness and make a case for spending on inclusive development as a sound investment. Exclusion and inequalities come with a price tag not only for the excluded but for societies as a whole. For instance, due to insufficient education and participation in the labour market among Roma, the combined economic losses of four countries in Europe (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Romania, and Serbia) amount annually to as much as 5.7 billion Euros; the fiscal losses are estimated at 2 billion Euros annually. Exclusion is also a fertile ground for environmental degradation, insecurity, conflict, and disease. All these are considerable and long-term costs for societies at-large and, if remain unchecked, undermine collective progress. These facts should be made known in concrete and tangible terms to the general public and various constituency groups, as they are instrumental in boosting acceptance and support for inclusive agenda as a public matter.


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