First Protocol to the 1954 Hague Convention

A Protocol specific to the protection of movable cultural property in the event of occupation was also adopted in 1954 along with the 1954 Hague Convention.

What does the First Protocol cover?

The First Protocol regulates the protection of cultural property during occupation through the following :

  • Prohibition of all exportations from the occupied territory and the requirement of its return to the territory of the State from which the property was exported;
  • Prohibition of retention of cultural property. When the occupation ends, the State must return the cultural object to the formerly occupied authorities;
  • Prohibition of the sale of the cultural property. If the cultural property is sold, the purchaser is entitled to fair compensation to be paid by the occupying power.