Building peace in the minds of men and women

Working papers on education policy and planning


The Education Policy Working Paper Series is designed to nurture the international debate about a wide range of education policy issues.

This paper aims at giving an overview of private education – notably for-profit private education and the legal issues at the international level. How can the commercialization of education be reconciled with internationally recognized human rights? It looks at legal issues arising from the increase of private stakeholders in the education sector while suggesting how a private actor should consider financing or delivering education.

This paper reviews key findings from empirical research on the effects of specific modes of privatization of the school provision, particularly in developing countries. It presents a definition of privatization, elaborates on the multiple modes that privatization may take in the schools’ sector in relation to diverse policy goals and reviews findings from prior research on this issue. 

This working paper proposes a conceptual framework for obtaining ICT indicators in  education  which  is  defined  by  a  set  of  distinctive  features:  a  holistic  and systemic approach, a flexible and comprehensive strategy of analysis and, lastly, a willingness to monitor and set benchmarks to promote innovation.

This Working Paper aims to provide an overview of the international legal framework protecting the right to education of refugees worldwide, including the obligations of States, as well as the main current issues. It also shows that, despite the existence of a strong applicable framework to guarantee the right to education of refugees worldwide, the challenges and obstacles encountered in this context may dramatically prevent its enjoyment. The paper also emphasizes that, even though ensuring the right to education is fundamental in all phases of the situation, there is a particular need to draw attention to the stabilization phase.

This Working Paper provides conceptual frameworks and strategies to help countries re-orient their Education Management Information Systems (EMIS) to support inclusive and equitable quality education and lifelong learning opportunities for all, in line with Sustainable Development Goal 4 (SDG 4). It emphasizes the potential of EMIS to support the implementation of SDG 4 at the national, state, local and classroom levels.

This report looks at the conditions impacting the development of digital skills based on five international comparative surveys, the results of which reveal a sample group of twelve countries whose population have particularly high levels of digital skills. Building on these results, this report seeks to answer two questions: what has enabled these countries to rise to the top of the rankings in terms of digital skills, and what can other countries to do catch up?

Artificial Intelligence is a booming technological domain capable of altering every aspect of our social interactions. In education, AI has begun producing new teaching and learning solutions that are now undergoing testing in different contexts. This working paper, written for education policymakers, anticipates the extent to which AI affects the education sector to allow for informed and appropriate policy responses.

This paper provides analysis and insights on how the right to education for refugees could be ensured from a policy perspective. It outlines some of the extensive barriers to education that refugees face and, as a result of research, collaboration and the invaluable contributions from the participants in a dedicated Expert Meeting in Barcelona (2018), a set of policy recommendations is provided which aims to guide policymakers to ensure equal access to good quality education for refugees.

The World Education Forum (Incheon, Republic of Korea, 2015) proposed “a new vision of education” articulated around the concept of Lifelong Learning (LLL) as a requisite to achieve SDG4. UNESCO proposes LLL as a new paradigm for education and learning in the 21st century. This study analyses the LLL approach and its implications for education policy, with specific reference to Latin America and the Caribbean. 

This paper assesses how education has been addressed in massive governments’ fiscal responses, since the outbreak of the COVID-19 crisis. It provides a global overview with aggregated data on governments’ stimulus packages aimed at health response, social protection and economic recovery from COVID-19 and an analysis of how much, where and how these stimulus packages are targeted to the education and training sector. Analyses are based on government-led economic stimulus measures, with a focus on fiscal policies directed to education and training.