The Seljuqs were in origin a Turkic tribe, expanding in the tenth century under the tribal leader Seljuq and moving into Transoxania, where they were converted to Islam.  After military conquests over the Ghaznavids, Seljuq’s successors began to establish a more solid basis of power, with one ruler, Toghrïl, declaring himself emir of Khurasan in 1040. In this way, the Seljuqs came to rule as sovereigns over large areas of land, ultimately creating a sultanate in Iran, Iraq and Mesopotamia over the course of the eleventh century. The Khwarazm Shahs (the Kings of Khwarazm) were vassals of the Seljuqs, rebelling to create their own sultanate in the late twelfth century.

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    Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Turkey, Turkmenistan