The business of trade was demanding on the merchants who underwent the journey, whether by land or sea. Over land, the nature of the terrain and its suitability for travel on camel or horseback determined the trajectory of passing traders. By sea, developments were continually being made to ships and to the instruments used for navigation, and all merchants took measures to accurately record the merchandise they carried with them. 

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    Silk and Spice Routes, Inventions and Trade

    China, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, India, Islamic Republic of Iran, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Oman, Republic of Korea, United Arab Emirates, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Yemen