Research and development expenditure as a proportion of GDP
In 2013, countries invested 1.70% of GDP in research and development, on average, compared to 1.57% of GDP in 2007. Although the G20 accounted for 92% of global research expenditure (and 64% of the global population) in 2013, low-income countries doubled their investment in research and development from $1.9 billion to $3.9 billion (power parity dollars) between 2007 and 2013, carrying their global share of research spending to 0.3% in 2013.
For a breakdown of research expenditure by region, click here.
For a breakdown by country, click on the table of interest:
- Research expenditure by sector of performance and source of funds, 2009-2013
- Research expenditure as a share of GDP and in purchasing power parity dollars, 2009-2013
For detailed information on a particular country or region, read the individual chapter.
For a brief summary of global trends in research expenditure, see Facts and Figures.
These blogs may also be of interest:
- The G20 accounts for 92% of global spending on research
- China: taking stock of progress towards becoming an innovation-driven nation
- More Arab countries are seeking to orient their economies towards knowledge
- ASEAN Economic Community likely to spur scientific co-operation, says report
- Iran in pursuit of a knowledge economy
- Can Malaysia avoid the middle-income trap?
The UNESCO Institute for Statistics conducts R&D surveys in member states every two years. The most recent survey took place in 2017, so these data should be online by early 2018. Click here for a time series by country for various indicators.