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- Does Covid-19 Hit Women and Men Differently? U.S. Isn’t Keeping Track. Data from other countries shows that more men are dying from the virus than women — a discrepancy that should inform the response and vaccine research in the U.S. But it isn’t.
- Coronavirus: Peru limits movement by gender to stem spread. Men can only leave home on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays; women can do so on Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays. On Sundays, no-one is allowed out.
- Peru, Panama introduce gender-based rules for COVID-19. Governments hope that requiring people to stay home on certain days will reduce coronavirus cases
- Panama Employs Gender-Based Plan to Fight COVID-19. The plan permits women to leave home to buy goods on Monday, Wednesday and Friday. Men in Panama are allowed out on Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday. No one is permitted to leave home on Sunday unless it’s an emergency.
- Coronavirus - Sudan: COVID-19 is a crisis for women in Sudan
2 April 2020
1 April 2020
31 March 2020: LBTI and GNC people suffer from higher rates of underlying health conditions than the general public, which have shown to exacerbate the morbidity and mortality rate of those contracting Covid-19. LBTI and GNC people also suffer from high rates of mental health issues, including depression and anxiety, high rates of suicidal ideation, attempts, and completions, which may be aggravated by situations of worry, stigma, family harassment, ill-health, and confinement. + Containment policies have triggered a drastic increase in experiences of domestic, family, and intimate partner violence, among a community whose rates of family and domestic violence are higher than the general population.
31 March 2020: ensuring women and girls are not forgotten. How can we learn from past infectious disease outbreaks in conflict and disaster-affected settings? And how can we ensure, unlike past outbreaks, women and girls are not lost in the response?
31 March 2020: Transgender people are having to indefinitely postpone gender-affirming surgeries due to the coronavirus pandemic
DOMESTIC VIOLENCES / ECONOMIC IMPACTS/ HOUSE CHORES
31 March 2020: Women Ministry’s ‘Household Happiness’ posters could fuel gender stereotypes and domestic violence, advocacy groups say. The groups warned that the message conveyed through the posters titled “Kebahagiaan Rumahtangga” or Household Happiness could worsen gender stereotypes and to a certain extent encourage domestic violence. + At a time when women in Malaysia fear losing their jobs due to Covid-19, it is shocking that the ministry’s advice is for women to be more concerned about the way she looks and that she should wear makeup?
LACK OF GENDERED APPROACHhttps://www.lowyinstitute.org/the-interpreter/covid-19-respo...
31 March 2020. Covid-19 responses: Why feminist leadership matters in a crisis? Article stating that gender equality is a fair-weather friend quickly abandoned when “real problems” arise, as much as we can have the formal policies and rules that institute equality in good times. When a crisis strikes, informal gendered “rules of the game” dominate decision-making and discussion, with women’s perspectives and presence often entirely absent. Use G20 as example.
HOUSE CHORES / DOMESTIC VIOLENCES https://www.forbesindia.com/blog/missrepresent-women-gender-...
30 March 2020, Forbes: What the Covid-19 lockdown tells us about the gender gap in house-work: Women in India have a larger share of unpaid and unrecognised domestic labour. Social isolation at home could perhaps be a time to understand and redistribute tasks more equitably
30 March 2020, Study analysing who is more at risk in terms of gender. They present arguments saying that women are more exposed to the virus due to the role they play in society, while man are exposed due to their lifestyle. In the end, they conclude saying that our individual activities matter more than our gender...
WOMEN’S HEALTH / LACK OF GENDERED APPROACH / ECONOMIC IMPACTS
29 March 2020. “A gender lens for COVID-19”: Article by Susan Papp, managing director of Policy and Advocacy at Women Deliver; and Marcy Hersh, senior manager for Humanitarian Advocacy at Women Deliver.
29 March 2020. State control over women's bodies is an unforeseen outcome of the Covid-19 crisis: A U-turn on women’s ability to access home abortions and the cancellation of IVF means they have less say over their fertility. Pregnant women were suddenly categorised as vulnerable and advised to stay home – but then some were told to come back into work.
28 March 2020. Libération: La vulnérabilité au Covid-19 : une affaire de sexe et de genre ? Par Catherine Vidal, neurobiologiste, directrice de recherche honoraire à l’Institut Pasteur et membre du Comité d'Ethique de l'Inserm où elle co-dirige le groupe "Genre et Recherche en Santé"
28 March 2020. The informal sector is a vital lifeline for women. Market mayhem in Uganda as COVID-19 measures upend women’s lives. These sudden restrictions have led to increased violence and crimes against those working in the informal sector, such as street vendors who continue to sell their goods to earn a living and feed their families.
27 March 2020, UK: Employers do not have to report gender pay gaps for 2019/20 following a government announcement that the deadlines were suspended for this reporting year due to the coronavirus outbreak.
FRONTLINE CARE WORKERS / ECONOMIC IMPACTS / WOMEN’S HEALTH / WOMEN AND INFORMAL SECTORS
27 March 2020: Paying attention to women’s needs will strengthen COVID 19 response → the majority of women work in the informal economy, where health insurance is likely to be non-existent or inadequate, and income is not secure + when health services are overstretched, women’s access to pre- and post-natal health care and contraceptives dwindle. + the specific needs of women health workers are often overlooked. + The evidence is also mounting that the economic impacts of COVID-19 will hit women harder, as more women work in low-paying, insecure and informal jobs.
27 March 2020 - UNHRC - Statement by the UN Special Rapporteur on violence against women, Dubravka Simonovic, called on states to protect women’s rights against domestic violence in this context, by keeping all the protection measures available or creating new ones, keeping hotlines open and finding new creative solutions to deal with the proximity of the abusive partner, such as text messages services and online chats.
27 March 2020, Feminism in India: this article analyses the situation of domestic abuse in India during the 21-day lockdown and how people can provide support to women.
27 March 2020, COVID-19: Government of Ghana must consider gender dynamics: In a statement by Ms. Esther Tawiah, Executive Director for Gender Centre for Empowering Development (GenCED) said women and children were equally faced with challenges. The statement identified challenges as; increased burdens of unpaid care workers especially women and girls, increased risk of Gender Based Violence, impact on women working in the informal sector, exclusion from leadership roles, effect on women with disabilities and increased psychological stress on women.
27 Mars 2020: Les femmes victimes de violences conjugales vont pouvoir alerter en pharmacie car « En zone gendarmerie », ces violences ont augmenté de « 32 % en une semaine », a-t-il dit, et dans la zone de la préfecture de police de Paris, elles ont été en hausse de « 36 % en une semaine ».
FRONTLINE CARE WORKERS / LACK OF GENDERED APPROACH / HOUSE CHORES/ WOMEN’S HEALTH
It also means tackling the 28% gender pay gap in the global health workforce and ensuring decent and safe working environments with proper protective equipment. We must dismantle the discriminatory system that excludes women health workers from the decision-making bodies that initiate life-saving emergency protocols in health-care settings.+ Past health emergencies such as the 2014-16 Ebola epidemic and the 2012 cholera outbreak in Sierra Leone show that the absence of gender-disaggregated data seriously impedes smart decisions, strong responses, and swift recoveries.+ women’s traditional role as caregivers for sick family members often increases their exposure to infectious diseases through person-to-person contact. + This can have disastrous consequences: maternal mortality in the region increased by 75% during the epidemic, and the number of women giving birth in hospitals and health clinics dropped by 30%.
26 March 2020: UN’s COVID-19 response must reach girls, women and refugees
FRONTLINE CARE WORKERS
26/03/2020: dans une usine tunisienne, 150 personnes, des ouvrières pour la plupart, se sont enfermées avec de quoi vivre en quasi autarcie, afin de continuer à fabriquer des masques et protections pour les soignants luttant contre le nouveau coronavirus.
26 March 2020: A Black, Queer, Feminist Grounding and Call for Self and Community Care. The LGBTQ+ is increasingly vulnerable to the effects of COVID-19 due to three factors: LGBTQ+ people continue to experience discrimination, unwelcoming attitudes and lack of understanding from providers and staff in many health care settings + The LGBTQ+ population also has higher rates of HIV and cancer, which means a greater number of us may have compromised immune systems, leaving us more vulnerable to COVID-19 infections. + the LGBTQ+ population uses tobacco at rates that are 50 percent higher than the general population. COVID-19 is a respiratory illness that has proven particularly harmful to smokers.
LACK OF GENDERED APPROACH
WOMEN’S HEALTH / FRONTLINE CARE WORKERS
26 March 2020 - Healthcare personnel (a majority of whom are women) suffering from lack of protective equipment, anxiety + in recent study of Chinese health care personnel by the Journal of the American Medical Association, identify that they suffered from depression, anxiety, insomnia and psychological distress, affecting more importantly ‘women and nurses’ → need to implement urgent actions for mental health of frontline care workers
EDUCATION / HOUSE CHORES / DOMESTIC VIOLENCES / WOMEN’S HEALTH / ECONOMIC IMPACTS
26 March 2020 - Must focus on education so that girls and women are not more subject to gender-based violence and exploitation + need to reach refugees, by setting up services in refugee camps + must not divert resources and services away from women’s health services, maternal and newborn health + risk of girls disproportionately affected by negative economic impacts of the outbreak.
DOMESTIC VIOLENCES / ECONOMIC IMPACTS
26 March 2020 - Report by UNFPA and UNHCR - Risks of increased pressures in all family, close proximity with violent partners, no escape plan + online sexual harassment and cyber violence + with the economic impact that will come after, survivors of gender based violence are likely to be ‘stuck’ with an abusive partners, by lack of economic resources → should adapt communication and community engagement material to women + keep hotlines open + integrate GBV specialists in Covid-19 response teams, advocate for women and girls, identify most vulnerable groups
26 March 2020: Men are much more likely to die from coronavirus, but why ?men more likely to test positive and more likely to die from the disease. Since then, the pattern has been mirrored in France, Germany, Iran, Italy, South Korea and Spain. → In Italy, men have accounted for 71% of deaths. Causes: cigarettes in China + Some studies have shown that men are less likely to wash their hands, less likely to use soap, less likely to seek medical care and more likely to ignore public health advice. + Previous research, including by Klein, has revealed that men have lower innate antiviral immune responses to a range of infections including hepatitis C and HIV.
FRONTLINE CARE WORKERS
26 March 2020, testimonials of women working on the frontline of the pandemic
26 March 2020, IOL: Johannesburg - The Commission for Gender Equality will have foot soldiers working with the police to combat violence against women and children during 21- day Covid-19 lockdown, its spokesperson Javu Baloyi said.
26 March 2020: side effects of COVID 19 → the city of Xi’an has seen a record-breaking volume of divorce requests over the past few weeks but also family violences. It encompasses physical abuse, sexual assault, emotional and psychological abuse, economic control, social isolation and any other behaviour that may cause a person to live in fear. + In Singapore, AWARE’s Women’s Helpline has seen a 33 per cent increase in February over calls received in the same month last year. + explanations of abuses: unemployment and economic hardship at the household level were positively related to abusive behaviour. + Many victims may also feel that they can no longer seek refuge at the home of a friend or relative, especially those with elderly residents or children, for fear they could expose their families to the virus.+ the coronavirus crisis is likely going to push the world economy into recession, which will make it even more difficult for victims to leave abusive relationships
25 March 2020: Audrey Azoulay and Angelina Jolie: “When schools shut down for more than a few weeks, early marriages increase, more children are recruited into militias, sexual exploitation of girls and young women rises, teenage pregnancies increase, and child labor rises. The converse is also true: education significantly improves not only the life prospects of individuals, but the stability and prosperity of whole societies.”
25 March 2020: 180 jours de prison pour ceux qui continuent de pratiquer l’IVG. Le but est, comme en France, de libérer des lits pour les patient.e.s atteint.e.s du Covid-19 et du matériel pour les personnels soignants.
25 March 2020: Le Texas et l'Ohio interdisent l'IVG pendant l'épidémie de coronavirus. Ces deux États ont classifié les avortements comme des procédures médicales non essentielles. Le ministre de la justice du Texas a déclaré que «tous les avortements qui ne sont pas médicalement nécessaires pour préserver la vie ou la santé de la mère» seraient suspendus jusqu'au 21 avril. Les médecins qui continueront à pratiquer des IVG risquent au maximum 180 jours de prison ou 1.000 dollars d'amende.
ECONOMIC IMPACTS/ HOUSE CHORES
25 March 2020: 70% of Africa’s food is produced by women.Women are also often responsible for the care of children, the sick and elderly. This means they could have increased exposure to COVID-19 with knock-on implications for food production, food preparation and child nutrition.
WOMEN’S HEALTH / HOUSE CHORES / FRONTLINE CARE WORKERS / DOMESTIC VIOLENCES / WOMEN AND INFORMAL SECTORS / ECONOMIC IMPACTS
25 March 2020, By UN Women Deputy Executive Director Anita Bhatia - Women affected hardest by the economic crisis, both in formal (tourism, restauration) and informal (domestic workers, care givers) sectors + great burden of unpaid care work + less access to maternal health services and contraception + majority of women among front line care workers + women absent or under-represented in decision making groups → call for 5 actions by governments= include the needs of female nurses and doctors + keep the hotlines and services for survivors of domestic abuse open + include women’s needs in stimulus and bailout packages + include women in response and recovery decision making + support equal sharing of the burden of care
25 March 2020, Urban Fusions: Pour de nombreuses femmes et familles françaises victimes de violence domestique, le fait d’être confiné à la maison avec un partenaire violent en raison du coronavirus est en passe de devenir un cauchemar vivant.
25 March 2020 - Opinion paper - reflexion on motherhood, the responsibility of making decisions for the children and shame or self-blaming
25 March 2020 - risk of more severe abuse, more repeated, stuck in home with the abuser, so New Zealand has categorized prevention and response services to domestic violence as essential services to stay open (although no longer face-to-face services)
25 March 2020, Le Parisien, “Décès du Covid-19 en France : les hommes sont-ils vraiment plus exposés que les femmes ?” Près de 60 % des personnes décédées du nouveau coronavirus jusqu’à présent sont des hommes. Mais les proportions selon les sexes varient largement d’un département à l’autre, ainsi que dans les Ehpad.
25 March 2020, FIGO News, “Women in humanitarian settings during COVID-19”. FIGO Statement on Essential Sexual Reproductive Health services for women in humanitarian settings during COVID-19 outbreak.
HOUSE CHORES/ FRONTLINE CARE WORKERS/ ECONOMIC IMPACTS / DOMESTIC VIOLENCES / PHYSIOLOGICAL IMPACTS / LACK OF GENDERED APPROACH
25 March 2020 - Higher mortality for men but women at the forefront due to their positions in health and care systems + more risks for people relying on public transports + risk of severe job losses among women-dominated professions (tourism, sales, services such as hairdressers…), especially for migrant women + increased unpaid care work + people (in majority, women) caring for disabled persons cannot work from home + increased domestic abuse + lack of women decision-makers + need for sex-disaggregated data and gendered response policies
25 March 2020, Herald News, “Pregnant women face new challenges during COVID-19 outbreak”. Most hospitals now allow only 1 person in birthing, postpartum patient room
25 March 2020, INFORUM: “Unemployment data in Minnesota: More women than men affected by COVID-19 crisis”
LACK OF GENDERED APPROACH / WOMEN’S HEALTH / FRONTLINE CARE WORKERS
25 March 2020 - IASC, UN Women - Need to take into account specifically girls’ and women’s needs, ‘the experiences and lessons learned from the Zika and Ebola outbreaks and the HIV pandemic demonstrate that robust gender analysis and informed, gender-integrated response are vital to strengthen the access and acceptability of the humanitarian services needed to meet the distinct needs of women and girls, as well as men and boys.’
25 March 2020, Komo news: “UW Obstetrician to study COVID-19 impacts on pregnancy”. While pregnant women are included in those thought to be at high risk for COVID-19, not much is actually known yet about the virus' potential impacts on pregnancy. A University of Washington obstetrician and professor hopes to change that, shifting her lab's research into the new virus.
25 March 2020 - Contexte anxiogène propice à la violence, moins d’appels (car les hommes violents sont rarement dehors) + risque que des femmes qui ont fui leurs foyers pour aller en centre, finissent par y retourner dans ce climat d’anxiété
LACK OF GENDERED APPROACH
24 March 2020: Women’s Refugee Commission Calls for Inclusive and Gender-Sensitive Response to COVID-19 Pandemic
LACK OF GENDERED APPROACH / WOMEN’S HEALTH
24 March 2020: Pandemics are not gender-neutral, gender analysis can improve response to disease outbreaks: For example, in many parts of the world women operate as the primary caregivers in both domestic settings and professionally, where women make up more than 80 percent of the nursing and midwifery global workforce. This can leave women at greater risk of exposure to pathogens. + Disease outbreaks can have serious psychological effects.
LACK OF GENDERED APPROACH
24 March 2020, COVID-19 delays gender data collection on Colombian border: the closure of the border with Venezuela and strict quarantine orders from the Colombian government prevent CARE staff and local organizers from conducting in-person focus groups and interviews as originally planned. While gatherings of more than five people are prohibited, CARE Colombia Country Representative Marten Mylius said some of the work could be conducted via phone.
WOMEN’S HEALTH / ECONOMIC IMPACTS / DOMESTIC VIOLENCES / WOMEN AND INFORMAL SECTORS / HOUSE CHORES
24 March 2020 - Questions about how much HIV and AIDS, which affects in majority young women, will affect the spread COVID-19 + burden of daily care work in the home increased + impact of the COVID 19-related economic crisis on domestic workers (more than one million employees in South Africa) + risks for women’s health as health resources and services are diverted + increase of domestic violence and femicides
WOMEN’S HEALTH / FRONTLINE CARE WORKERS
24 March 2020 - Women in early pregnancy advised to continue working as normal, and those more than 28 weeks along are advised to avoid contact with patients, but some doctors denounce that pregnant women are still asked to work as usual, putting them at risk.
ECONOMIC IMPACTS / DOMESTIC VIOLENCES / WOMEN AND INFORMAL SECTORS
24 March 2020 - Women in Latin America working in the informal sector, now not working for at least 3 weeks, and bearing the care work burden at home + increase in femicides and domestic violence
FRONTLINE CARE WORKERS / WOMEN’S HEALTH / ECONOMIC IMPACTS
24 March 2020, Feminism in India: “COVID-19: Can A Health Crisis Become A Breeding Site For Gender Inequality?”
24 March 2020, The New York Times: “For Abused Women, a Pandemic Lockdown Holds Dangers of Its Own”: As millions across the U.S. stay home to help flatten the curve, domestic violence organizations and support systems are scrambling to adapt to the rapidly shifting landscape.
LACK OF GENDERED APPROACH / FRONTLINE CARE WORKERS / ECONOMIC IMPACTS
24 March 2020: Gender and coronavirus (podcast, start at 6min), which asks whether gender makes a difference to how the coronavirus pandemic could impact people. Majority of health workers are women.
During Ebola, women more affected because care-workers + impact of economic independence + markets closed and when it reopened, women were not able to catch the same economic interests than men. economic impact on women empowerment. + Need to encourage States to provide sex-disaggregated data. + Voices from women during crisis are not heard whereas they are in charge to collect water or food security for instance → they have to leave the quarantine zone for that and they are in danger in these situations. + Need more women around the table, different perspectives when decisions are taken. + most PPE are designed on the size of men’s body whereas women are most of the time smaller so materials like face mask is not appropriate for women’s body.
WOMEN’S HEALTH / ECONOMIC IMPACTS / DOMESTIC VIOLENCES / WOMEN AND INFORMAL SECTORS / HOUSE CHORES
23 March 2020, El Pulso Laboral, “Mujeres son muy vulnerables ante la emergencia del Covid-19”, the effects of a health crisis, including economic, are different for men and women, this article explains some important points.
ECONOMIC IMPACTS / DOMESTIC VIOLENCES / WOMEN AND INFORMAL SECTORS / MIGRANT WORKERS
23 March 2020 - For immigrant survivors of GBV, loss of employment (especially in care services), so increased dependence on abusive partners + for those undocumented, no access to health care or other public services, more at risk of COVID complications (or even larger economic burden) + with unemployment, scarce resources and context of anxiety, increased risk of domestic violence + isolation with an abuser can be life-threatening, dangerous and traumatic (especially if unable to escape to a safe space) + less services by non-profits due to isolation + halted immigration adjudications that may grant survivors some independence from their abusers + closed borders have separated families
23 March 2020 - Impact on trans women who are unable to take their hormones anymore, risks of long-time drugs shortages + risks because trans people more likely to delay necessary health care because of bad previous experiences, and less likely to have a primary care provider + isolation represents a psychological burden for trans youth + with schools and activities shut down, some LGBT youth rejected by their families lose their support system + risk of states using the ‘distraction’ of COVID 19 to pass anti-LGBT legislation
WOMEN AND INFORMAL SECTORS / ECONOMIC IMPACTS
23 March 2020 - Sex workers in Bangladesh called for emergency government funding after a ban on customers to prevent coronavirus spreading, the government ‘promised to give all of the sex workers a package of 30kgs of rice, $25, and a freeze on rent’, but economic impact will likely be long-term
LACK OF GENDERED APPROACH
23 March 2020: Intersectional approach to a pandemic? Gender data disaggregation and COVID 19? Data is influenced by social context and, as such, is susceptible to biased collection, interpretation, and application.It’s no secret that data on public health can center men’s perspectives. Separating and reporting data on all genders can reveal unique experiences — and pave the way forward for tailored responses. In recognition of this issue, the World Health Organization disaggregated data by sex for the first time in 2019.
23 March 2020: Government of the UK: General guidance for all domestic abuse safe accommodation settings
23 March 2020: Since the beginning of the pandemic there, the hashtag #AntiDomesticViolenceDuringEpidemic has been trending on the Chinese social media platform Sina Weibo. + many domestic violence service providers are not seeing as many clients in person because of the virus, and are pivoting their services to hotlines, phone consultations and virtual sessions. + it is harder for victims to report it.
23 Mars 2020: “Certains établissements hospitaliers et certains centres de planification n'assurent plus leurs missions dans ce domaine” + les femmes qui se renseignent en vue d'une IVG “ont peur de se rendre à l'hôpital, à cause du virus” + proposition d’un délai « allongé du nombre de semaines que durera le confinement » à travers un amendement en ce sens, déposé notamment par l'ancienne ministre socialiste des Droits des femmes Laurence Rossignol, a été rejeté au Sénat.
TELEWORK / HOUSE CHORES
22 March 2020 - Blog - With men forced to stay at home as much as women (at least in some countries), possibility to have a gender equal ‘lab’ in heterosexual couples to try new work-life balance, new parents’ balance of child care and chores
21 March 2020 - ‘The apparent gender gap in Italy echoes earlier statistics from other hard-hit countries. While preliminary, early accounts have suggested that boys and men are more likely to become seriously ill than are girls and women, and that men are more likely to die.’ → causes: cultural norms encourage men to smoke much more than women + theory that something in oestrogen protects against coronaviruses, which might enable women to fight the virus better and earlier, which leads to less complications → highlights the need to study women’s immune system as much as men’s
TELEWORK / HOUSE CHORES
20 March 2020: due to imbalance in dividing chores and roles in families, women end up having 5 ‘jobs’: their own job in telework, mother, teacher, cleaner, cook/shopper
TELEWORK / HOUSE CHORES
20 March 2020 - French podcast tackling how the confinement re-defines the balance at home in heterosexual couples, the pressure put on women to deal with everything in the family and the hope that fathers will realize thanks to this context the amount of (free) work women are expected to do their whole life
20 mars 2020: Le ministère de la Santé et les professionnels assurent que la pratique des avortements est maintenue, même si une perturbation des services est constatée. Des consignes sont données pour rediriger au maximum vers des IVG par voie médicamenteuse. + Laurence Rossignol: “pour celles qui se retrouvent hors délai légal [soit la douzième semaine de grossesse, nldr] : en temps normal, elles se rendent en Espagne ou aux Pays-Bas. La France le sait très bien et cela nous place dans une situation hypocrite, mais comment vont-elles faire désormais avec la fermeture des frontières ?”
20 mars 2020: proposition pour simplifier les procédures
ECONOMIC IMPACTS / FRONTLINE CARE WORKERS / DOMESTIC VIOLENCES / WOMEN’S HEALTH
20 March 2020 - UN Women - 1min video highlighting how women are more affected by Covid19: majority of women among health workers, bigger risks of economic fallout, increase in gender-based violence, less services and resources for women’s health
TELEWORK, DOMESTIC VIOLENCES / ECONOMIC IMPACTS HOUSE CHORES
20 March 2020: Statement by Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka, UN Under-Secretary-General and UN Women Executive Director- Women have to telework, homeschool their children, increased domestic and sexual violence, including in refugee camps, cyberviolence → need sex-disaggregated data, need sustained maternal health services, opportunity for radical positive action to improve women’s lives, need funding
19 March 2020, The New York Times: “Figuring Out Work and Family in the Age of Coronavirus”. Two journalists with five children between them have an honest discussion about what the last few days have been like.
WOMEN’S HEALTH/ TELEWORK / ECONOMIC IMPACTS / DOMESTIC VIOLENCES / HOUSE CHORES
19 March 2020 - In context of pandemic, couples are forced to make a decision about who stays home/who takes time off from work, and the burden falls on women, because of their lower salary, social norms + increase in domestic and sexual violence, in maternal mortality → policy-makers need to adopt a gendered approach
DOMESTIC VIOLENCES / WOMEN’S HEALTH / FRONTLINE CARE WORKERS
LACK OF GENDERED APPROACH / FRONTLINE CARE WORKERS/ DOMESTIC VIOLENCES
19 March 2020 - UN Women - Since women are more affected by the outbreak, need to look at their specific needs, need to take into account the gender-differential impact of Covid-19 at all levels, by including gender analysis, sex-disaggregated data and gendered recovery/mitigation solutions, and improving women’s participation in decision-making
WOMEN’S HEALTH/ DOMESTIC VIOLENCES/ WOMEN AND INFORMAL SECTORS/ FRONTLINE CARE WORKERS/ MIGRANT WORKERS / EDUCATION
19 March 2020. Though risks specific to pregnant women exposed to COVID-19 are not yet clear, the outbreak could negatively affect sexual and reproductive health and rights. + harm women’s access to contraception and pre- and post-natal and birth care.
In China, press reports suggest an increase in domestic violence under quarantine. Crises can often further limit women’s ability to get away from abuse, and place victims in an environment without appropriate access to services
Worldwide, 70 percent of health and social service providers are women.
migrant domestic workers can be vulnerable to abusive employment conditions in normal times, and are at heightened risk of abuse, losing employment, being frontline caregivers without adequate protections, and of being trapped and unable to reach their homes during a crisis.
Moves toward telecommuting – for school and work – as a means of social distancing can disproportionately harm women and girls. Women are up to 31 percent less likely to have internet access than men in some countries, and worldwide about 327 million fewer women than men have a smartphone.
19 Marzo 2020: "El 75 % de las personas que están en la primera línea en la asistencia sanitaria o en el cuidado son mujeres". Son 126 millones de mujeres en la región que dependen del trabajo informal. Es la población más vulnerable y hay que ver de qué manera se le dan apoyos, cómo se direccionan subsidios.
FRONTLINE CARE WORKERS / WOMEN’S HEALTH / ECONOMIC IMPACTS / DOMESTIC VIOLENCES / EDUCATION /HOUSE CHORES
18 March 2020 - “Times of crisis magnify the cracks in our systems and highlight disproportionate risks to the most vulnerable among us. COVID-19’s impacts, those already felt as well as those still anticipated, should serve as a wake-up call.” → call for women’s representation in decision-making, including the coronavirus/pandemic taskforce of governments, promotion of girls’ education, for better economic opportunities for women, pay attention to gender based violence during the pandemic, balance the unpaid care work burden in families, protect and expand existing health resources, and promote a gender equal health force (for now women represent 70% of workers in the health and social sectors, according to this WHO report: https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/311314/WHO-...
FRONTLINE CARE WORKERS/ HOUSE CHORES /LACK OF GENDERED APPROACH
18 March 2020: Women continue to be the vast majority of those at the higher end of exposure, and the lower end of pay in the health professions. Ninety-percent of health care workers in Hubei province in China are women. In the US, 91 percent of nurse. + Women also do more care work in our homes. + COVID-19 also calls into stark profile gender inequalities in decision-making. We must listen to women’s voices now, their demands and requests for what they need to provide quality support. As organizations, governments, and communities, we must do what it takes to support those who provide care. And individually, men must support women who are performing care, and do their own share of care work. We need more men in the care professions, and we need men doing our share at home.
17 March 2020, The New York Times: Where Women Are Ahead of Men: Hand Washing
During a global pandemic, personal hygiene habits have far-reaching consequences.
17 March 2020, La Moncloa: “Igualdad impulsa un Plan de Contingencia contra la violencia de género ante la crisis del COVID-19”. The Spanish Ministry of Equality has promoted a Contingency Plan against gender violence due to the COVID-19 crisis
17 March 2020: concerns also arose as to the potential increase in cases of gender-based domestic violence, following a previous surge in China under similar conditions. + the ‘3919’ emergency hotline service for domestic violence victims will be operating under a reduced service. + “In the case where public services reach saturation point, the treatments of domestic violence cases should definitely not be left-behind, but fully part of the whole strategy in dealing with the crisis.”+ “In a time where companies may be encouraging that their employees work remotely, and the CDC is encouraging “social distancing,” an abuser may take advantage of an already stressful situation to gain more control.”
17 March 2020: comment incorporer les femmes et l’égalité des genres dans la gestion et la réponse de la crise
Las mujeres siguen siendo las más afectadas por el trabajo de cuidados no remunerado, sobre todo en tiempos de crisis. + La reducción de la actividad económica afecta en primera instancia a las trabajadoras informales que pierden su sustento de vida de forma casi inmediata, sin ninguna red o posibilidad de sustituir el ingreso diario en general. + La migración irregular de las mujeres y niñas genera mayores riesgos de protección asociados como la violencia de género y la trata. + Las personas sobrevivientes de violencia pueden enfrentar obstáculos adicionales para huir de situaciones violentas o para acceder a órdenes de protección y/o servicios esenciales que pueden salvar vidas, debido a factores como las restricciones de la circulación o la cuarentena.
propose somes recommendations like involving women in the decision-making process, have a specific attention for women who work in the health/care sector
ECONOMIC IMPACTS / WOMEN’S HEALTH / WOMEN AND INFORMAL SECTORS
17 March 2020 - Due to lack of savings, sex workers cannot self quarantine, have to put themselves at risk + forced to accept more dangerous clients since there is little demand
DOMESTIC VIOLENCES/ PHYSIOLOGICAL IMPACTS/ FRONTLINE CARE WORKERS/ HARASSMENT/ MIGRANT WORKERS/ LACK OF GENDERED APPROACH
16 March 2020: Study about ≠ topics in China, Singapore, Iran, India, US, UK, Italy really in-depth and interesting. In China, police reports show domestic violence has tripled during the epidemic.+ Increased risk of workplace violence in the health sector due to the serious stress that the pandemic places on patients, their relatives and other healthcare workers. In China, there have been reports of physical and verbal attacks against frontline healthcare workers. In Italy, the national healthcare workers union have raised concerns about attacks against doctors and nurses as COVID-19 overwhelms health resources and patients’ families become increasingly anxious.+ Increased risk of racial and sexual harassment (both online and offline), with anecdotal reports of targeted sexualised attacks against women of East Asian appearance. + Increased risk of abuse and exploitation for vulnerable women workers. In the United States, there have been reports of more coercive and violent behaviour against street-based sex workers in Seattle since the COVID-outbreak began.+ Increased risk of sexual exploitation and violence by state officials and armed guards + propose some lessons from other similar epidemics.
EDUCATION/DOMESTIC VIOLENCES / ECONOMIC IMPACTS / WOMEN’S HEALTH / LACK OF GENDERED APPROACH / MIGRANT WORKERS
16 March 2020: Gender implications of COVID 19 outbreaks in development and humanitarian settings: in health, women have to face GBV, economic impacts because they are employed in informal sector + female migrant workers, particularly those engaged in care and domestic work, are also likely to experience grave economic consequences.+ in education: During the 2014–16 EVD outbreak in West Africa, relief actors found that girls whose mothers were infected with EVD were forced to take over their caregiving responsibilities.+ in water, sanitation and hygiene.
Propose some recommendations at national, international level and for health and development and humanitarian actors.
WOMEN’S HEALTH/ ECONOMIC IMPACTS/ PHYSIOLOGICAL IMPACTS
16 March 2020: “We know that when emergencies hit, women and girls come last”. Some of the reasons that women and girls will be more impacted by the crisis include but are not limited to: Social norms, which put a heavy caregiving burden on women and girls in many countries, are likely to cause their physical and mental health to suffer and impede their access to education, livelihood sources, and other critical support + Women’s and girls’ needs for protection services +During public health crises, resources may be reallocated away from water, sanitation, and hygiene services, which can contribute to reduced access to hygiene and sanitary materials for women and girls.+ Food may become scarcer during a public health emergency: Where women eat last and least, this can lead to additional health complications, including increased susceptibility to COVID-19.
FRONTLINE CARE WORKERS
16 March 2020 - Now This - Video explaining how women are on the front lines since they are the majority of health workers and will thus suffer from the lack of adapted materials (masks, gloves), and extra work during the outbreak (focuses on the US)
FRONTLINE CARE WORKERS / WOMEN’S HEALTH / ECONOMIC IMPACTS / DOMESTIC VIOLENCES / EDUCATION /HOUSE CHORES
16 March 2020 - Although women might be less affected biologically speaking, they are more likely to be responsible of the children’s education, more present among health workers, lose health services, be at risk of higher maternal mortality, see their needs not met since they have less decision-making power, suffer from domestic violence…
LACK OF GENDERED APPROACH
16 March 2020: ‘Gender blind’ coronavirus policies could hinder disease fight. Women at higher risk of infection, but have less power in decision-making → Recognising the differing effects on men and women is a “fundamental step” in public health emergency responses. Gender approaches should not be treated as a separate issue that only involves women, says Hawkes. “Gender means everybody; it doesn’t just apply to 50 per cent of the population.”+ Action plans that don’t recognise gender differences will be less effective + Economic and health impacts as schools close and travel bans set in.
ECONOMIC IMPACTS / TELEWORK / HOUSE CHORES
16 March 2020 - Women expected to bear the burden of caring for the children, planning all the activities during the pandemic, making crucial decisions, following if someone in the family gets sick, planning grocery shopping despite some products lacking, bearing the burden of anxiety as well, explaining the situation to the children and reassuring them, despite their own jobs, which might be affected by the virus too.
FRONTLINE CARE WORKERS / WOMEN AND INFORMAL SECTORS
15 March 2020, IFRC, OCHA, WHO - New report was published by a UN-Women-led working group on risk communication and community engagement, on the need to include women as they play a crucial role in fighting the spread of the pandemic: “ Previous epidemics illustrate the value of engaging with women when communicating about risks: Women are a disproportionate part of the health workforce; As primary caregivers to children, the elderly, and the ill, we must recognize and engage women in risk communication and community engagement; When we don’t recognize gendered dynamics during outbreaks, we limit the effectiveness of risk communication efforts; Women’s access to information on outbreaks and available services are severely constrained when community engagement teams are dominated by men; Tailoring community engagement interventions for gender, language, and local culture improves communities’ uptake with interventions. “ (full report : https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/CO...
ECONOMIC IMPACTS / EDUCATION / WOMEN’S HEALTH / FRONTLINE CARE WORKERS/ MIGRANT WORKERS / DOMESTIC VIOLENCES / WOMEN AND INFORMAL SECTORS
15 March 2020 ? - Potential gendered implications include: interruption of humanitarian programs for women and girls, threat to women’s physical and mental health due to heavy caregiving burden , economic impact on low-wage, informal and migrant work, risk of increased GBV, pressure on girls to drop out of school, less resources for WASH, less food so high risk of malnutrition for women which makes them more vulnerable + gives recommendations for action at various levels
ECONOMIC IMPACTS / FRONTLINE CARE WORKERS/ WOMEN’S HEALTH /
13 March 2020 - Oxfam - Need to look at the most vulnerable, especially the poor (less resources to stay at the hospital or stop working) and the women (who bear the burden of caring, at work or at home) → call for information campaigns, public health measures, social protection measures, with specific measures for women (special protection for single mothers or women main breadwinners, paid dependency leaves for women who need to care for their family, cash-for-work for women at home and prioritized female-headed households for cash transfers), cooperation with businesses, frame the missions of the police and military properly during the outbreak to avoid abuse of power and violence
13 March 2020 - In context of massive school closures throughout the world, education in Asia relies a lot on digital resources (distance-learning programs), which reveals digital divide on various lines of inequality, including gender
ECONOMIC IMPACTS / WOMEN’S HEALTH / WOMEN AND INFORMAL SECTORS / MIGRANT WORKERS
12 March 2020 - Unprecedented collapse in demand for sex workers during the outbreak, big economic risks, risks of becoming homeless, losing custody of their kids + can’t self-quarantine since they need the money, and more likely to get and spread the disease due to their clientele and close contacts + with less demand, become very much in need and dependent on the clients, which leads to more abusive and dangerous behaviors by the clients + massage parlors were affected by a rise in anti-Asian xenophobia
12 March 2020 - Social distancing is much more difficult for women in abusive situations + can lead to women being stuck in abusive situations, by economic necessity, if they are laid off due to the virus for instance + trend of increased domestic violence during catastrophes, because of anxiety, more addictions (alcoholism, drugs..), more time spent at home by the perpetrator and the lack of accountability in a system in crisis
WOMEN AND INFORMAL SECTORS / FRONTLINE CARE WORKERS / HOUSE CHORES
12 March 2020 - World Economic Forum - Impact of the outbreak on women: frontline health and care workers, more hours of work for unpaid care givers and burden of the children’s education
FRONTLINE CARE WORKERS / ECONOMIC IMPACTS / WOMEN AND INFORMAL SECTORS / WOMEN’S HEALTH
12 March 2020, New York Times, “Why Women May Face a Greater Risk of Catching Coronavirus”: Analysis of the situation of why women are more at risk and how to overcome this issue with a gender-sensitive response to the coronavirus. “Policies like paid sick leave and accessible, affordable health care would be a start — both of which are notably absent for many in the U.S. Governments should also work to provide crucial resources, suggested Smith, including protective gear and even basic needs like pads and tampons, which according to some accounts, female nurses in China had difficulties finding”.
12 March 2020, WeWorld: Quote in Italian from the President of WeWorld, an Italian organization that has been defending the rights of women and children in 29 countries of the world, including Italy. "Forced cohabitation with children, husbands and often elderly to look after, is increasing exponentially the family load, which as we still know today in most of the families of our country falls almost exclusively on women. With consequent increase in the stress level of women and mothers, who perhaps alongside this increased family workload must support smart working." Marco Chiesara, president of WeWorld
12 March 2020, Agenzia Dire: Information on domestic violence in Italy and how to help women
FRONTLINE CARE WORKERS / ECONOMIC IMPACTS / HOUSE CHORES
11 March 2020, Bloomberg: “Women Are Bearing the Brunt of Coronavirus Disruption”:
In a preliminary analysis of nearly 45,000 cases in China, the death rate was 2.8% for men, compared with 1.7% for women. However, the vast majority of nurses, flight attendants, teachers and service industry workers are female, and their jobs put them on the front lines of the outbreak. Advocates for equality hope this global health crisis will result in a more even distribution of professional and domestic caretaking.
HOUSE CHORES / LACK OF GENDERED APPROACH
9 March 2020 - Shows how taking care of the children during the outbreak and while schools are closed is seen as the women’s responsibility, and how it is portrayed as such in the media + decisions show a lack of gendered approach, or of women’s participation in decision-making
8 March 2020: Five ways virus upheaval is hitting women in Asia: School closures:"Having schools closed does not help stop the virus entirely from spreading. It only increases burdens of working mothers," says Natsuko Fujimaki Takeuchi who is small business owner. + domestic violences: The hashtag #AntiDomesticViolenceDuringEpidemic #疫期反家暴# has been discussed more than 3,000 times on the Chinese social media platform Sina Weibo.+ frontline care workers: Chinese media has been promoting stories praising the "saintliness" and "warrior-like" nature of women working on the frontline as nurses. But what is the reality for these female medical staff? A video showing female medical workers from Gansu province collectively having their heads shaved before being despatched to help fight the coronavirus outbreak gathered traction online this month + the BBC spoke to one nurse who said hospital staff were not allowed to eat, rest or use the toilet during their 10-hour shifts.+ migrant domestic helpers: "The panic buying of masks has driven prices so high that they are no longer affordable for migrant workers". It's not just the women themselves that are impacted. Millions of people rely on their income that they send home to the Philippines and Indonesia. + economic impact: In China, "since many migrant women do not have employment contracts, the coronavirus has meant that they do not receive any income - if they do not work, they do not get paid". No social security.
ECONOMIC IMPACTS / HOUSE CHORES https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736
6 March 2020, COVID-19: the gendered impacts of the outbreak: effect on women, who provide most of the informal care within families, with the consequence of limiting their work and economic opportunities
LACK OF GENDERED APPROACH / FRONTLINE CARE WORKERS / PHYSIOLOGICAL IMPACTS
6 March 2020 - Biologically speaking, women less affected than men, but data based on China, and many factors (ex: much more men than women smoke in China) + different risks based on how women and men travel (ex: women make more small trips, because of their part-time jobs, responsibilities with the children etc, and tend to use public transport more) + women over-represented in the care and health workforce → need sex-disaggregated data, women’s leadership, include gender approach
3 March 2020, New York Times, “What Pregnant Women Should Know About Coronavirus”. The information available so far is thin, but it appears that pregnant women are no more likely than anyone else to have severe symptoms from the coronavirus. In an analysis of 147 women, only 8 percent had severe disease and 1 percent were in critical condition, according to a report published by the World Health Organization.
2 March 2020 - Increase in domestic violence in China during the COVID 19 outbreak, because of confinement, or because the attention was focused on the virus and violence went unnoticed.
28 February 2020: example of a local all-women team of scientists in Maryland (US) working on a possible vaccine for Covid-19.
14 February 2020: Instead of receiving gratitude from the public, nurses in uniform have had to endure harassment outside their workplace, such as on public transport.
LACK OF GENDERED APPROACH / FRONTLINE CARE WORKERS/ ECONOMIC IMPACTS
4 February 2020: This is despite substantial evidence from other researchers that gender inequities exacerbate outbreaks, and responses that do not incorporate gender analysis exacerbate inequities. Gender analysis asks how socially-constructed roles and identities affect vulnerability to and experiences of an outbreak.
Around the world, women healthcare workers make less than men in the same field. Such inequities are often exacerbated during outbreaks when health workers are required to work longer hours and as resources become scarce. Women’s additional care responsibilities, such as childcare, also require additional supported.
ECONOMIC IMPACTS/ HOUSE CHORES/ FRONTLINE CARE WORKERS/ WOMEN’S HEALTH / DOMESTIC VIOLENCES / LACK OF GENDERED APPROACH
2020: Key advocacy points from asia and the pacific. Emergencing gender impacts: exacerbated burdens of unpaid care work on women and girls+ Meeting the needs of women healthcare workers +Increasing GBV and protection risks+ Impacts on women’s economic empowerment +Impacts on women migrant workers + Interrupted access to sexual and reproductive health + Exclusion from leadership roles. Propose somes recommendations like first responders must be trained on how to handle disclosures of GBV or Ensure that women are able to get information about how to prevent and respond to the epidemic in ways they can understand or Psychosocial support should be available for women and girls who may be affected by the outbreak and are also GBV survivors.
ECONOMIC IMPACTS / EDUCATION / WOMEN’S HEALTH
6 November 2015 - In Sierra Leone, teenage pregnancy increased by 65% due to the socioeconomic condition imposed by Ebola and more girls were forced to sell sex, due to loss of their family because of the disease, and need for financial security, and lack of education in the epidemic’s context (and the government forbade pregnant girls from attending schools
Author: Cassie Werber, Reporter (female)
Scholar literature on women and catastrophes/pandemics
LACK OF GENDERED APPROACH
6 March 2020: Experience from past outbreaks shows the importance of incorporating a gender analysis into preparedness and response efforts to improve the effectiveness of health interventions and promote gender and health equity goals.
LACK OF GENDERED APPROACH
illustrating how the failure to challenge gender assumptions and incorporate gender as a priority at the global level has national and local impacts. The implications of neglecting gender dynamics, as well as the potential of equity-based approaches to disease outbreak responses, is illustrated through a case study of the Social Enterprise Network for Development (SEND) Sierra Leone, a non-government organisation (NGO) based in Kailahun, during the Ebola outbreak. The International Health Regulations (IHR) provide legally binding regulations on how WHO member states prepare for, report on, and respond to health emergencies.
Liu S, Zhang M, Yang L, et al, Prevalence and patterns of tobacco smoking among Chinese adult men and women: findings of the 2010 national smoking survey., J Epidemiol Community Health. 2017; 71: 154-161 https://jech.bmj.com/content/71/2/154.short
Among men, 62.4% (60.3% to 64.4%) of adults aged ≥18 years ever smoked, including 54.0% (52.2% to 55.9%) current smokers and 8.4% (7.8% to 9.0%) ex-smokers. ≠ Among women, only 3.4% (2.7% to 4.0%) ever smoked (2.6% (2.0% to 3.2%) current smokers, 0.8% (0.6% to 1.0%) ex-smokers). Tobacco smoking remains an important public health issue in China, and stronger and more efficient tobacco control is urgently needed.
LACK OF GENDERED APPROACH / FRONTLINE CARE WORKERS
Women form 70% of workers in the health and social sector.Overall, an average gender pay gap of around 28% exists in the health workforce. Once occupation and working hours are accounted for, the gender pay gap is 11%. Although the sector performs well regarding women’s participation, gender transformative policies are needed to address inequities and eliminate gender-based discrimination in earnings, remove barriers to access to full-time employment, and support access to professional development and leadership roles.
LACK OF GENDERED APPROACH / ECONOMIC IMPACTS/ PHYSIOLOGICAL IMPACTS/ WOMEN’S HEALTH
Globally gender remains a key factor in differing health outcomes for men and women. This article analyses the particular relevance of gender for debates about global health and the role for international human rights law in supporting improved health outcomes during public health emergencies. The problem in the case of both Ebola and Zika has been that leaving structural gender inequalities out of the crisis response has further compounded those inequalities. The article argues for a contextual human rights analysis that takes into account gender as a social and economic determinant of health.
In both cases, we find very few instances where gender inequality and gender discrimination were factored into the international response and the measures suggested at the initial stages of the outbreaks.
Women are more likely to experience social and economic deprivation, and limited access to resources. The provision of health care and treatment requires understanding the conditions that determine gender-equitable health care.
LACK OF GENDERED APPROACH
The international response to Ebola brings into stark contention the conspicuous invisibility of women and gender in global health governance. This article uses Ebola as a case to explore how global health rests on the conspicuous free labour of women in formal and informal care roles, yet renders women invisible in policy and practice.
WOMEN’S HEALTH / LACK OF GENDERED APPROACH
The number of indirect deaths, resulting from decreased utilization of routine health services, remains unknown. Such information is a key ingredient of health system resilience, essential for adequate allocation of resources to both ‘crisis response activities’ and ‘core functions’. This study responds to these imperatives by quantifying the extent of the drop in utilization of essential reproductive, maternal and neonatal health services in Sierra Leone during the Ebola outbreak by using interrupted time-series regression to analyse Health Management Information System (HMIS) data
LACK OF GENDERED APPROACH / ABORTION/ WOMEN’S HEALTH
This paper provides a baseline of contemporary debates taking place in the intersection of two key health policy areas, and seeks to understand how health emergency preparedness frameworks and the broader global health security infrastructure is prepared to respond to future crises which implicate sexual and reproductive rights.
LACK OF GENDERED APPROACH
Images of women cradling babies born with CZS underscored the gendered nature of the epidemic. Nonetheless, the media attention towards the highly gendered dimensions of the outbreak was not matched by a recognition of the importance of female participation in the decision-making for the control of the Aedes aegypti mosquito, the vector responsible for the spread of Zika. Moreover, while women were the target population of the public health response to the epidemic, the impact of arbovirus policies on women was largely neglected. This paradox—the absence of gender in the policy response to a problem where the gender dimensions were evident from the start—adds to other questions about the sustainability of arbovirus control.
LACK OF GENDERED APPROACH / PHYSIOLOGICAL IMPACTS
ÖHMAN, ANN. “Global Public Health and Gender Theory: The Need for Integration.” Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, vol. 36, no. 5, 2008, pp. 449–451. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/45150016
. Accessed 27 Mar. 2020.
Call for gender theory to be included in global public health, aside from biological differences between men and women, to include the gendered context and how it impacts health, for instance around social perceptions of smoking and the relation to non-communicable diseases
LACK OF GENDERED APPROACH
Marindo, Ravayi. “Gendered Epidemics and Systems of Power in Africa: A Feminist Perspective on Public Health Governance.” Africa Development / Afrique Et Développement, vol. 42, no. 1, 2017, pp. 199–219. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/90013906.
Look at global, national, patriarchal, family levels of power, to analyze how all of them combine to create increased vulnerabilities for rural, poor, African women, more at risk of pandemics and epidemics. It looks at the literature on gender and epidemics, several case studies. It calls for more equitable health care, increased participation of civil society.
LACK OF GENDERED APPROACH / PHYSIOLOGICAL IMPACTS / HOUSE CHORES
Report by the WHO, ‘Addressing sex and gender in epidemic-prone infectious diseases’, 2007
This report analyzes how sex, gender and epidemics are interrelated, to illustrate how adopting a gendered perspective could improve epidemiology. It also tackles a few examples: dengue, Ebola hemorrhagic fever and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). The report identifies 5 gender-related differences that affect exposure to the disease and the treatment possibilities: time spent at home and away from home, responsibility for caring for the sick, responsibility for caring for livestock, health seeking behaviour and access to health care, and scientific knowledge about treatment.
Author: Martha Anker, WHO 2007