Exploring Universal Basic Income

A guide to navigating concepts, evidence, and practices


As Universal basic income (UBI) emerges as one of the most hotly debated issues in development and social protection policy, this volume by the World Bank discusses:

  • Issues and trade-offs – UBI's appropriateness and feasibility in different contexts;
  • Global evidence –  reviewing literature and survey data for a range of considerations around analytics and practice of UBI;
  • Compare and contrast – how UBI differs from or complements other social assistance programs (objectives, coverage, incidence, adequacy, incentives, effects on poverty and inequality, financing, political economy, and implementation);
  • Country experiences – existing policy proposals, and original results from micro–tax benefit simulations; 


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