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Social Inclusion through Participation: the Case of the Participatory Budget in São Paulo

Participatory budgeting implemented from 2001 to 2004 in São Paulo, Brazil, is an example of transformative participation. The exercise is a telling in two regards. First, by relying on an affirmative action methodology, it was institutionally designed to encourage and sustain, throughout the entire cycle, the participation of historically disadvantaged groups or segments of the population: Afro-Brazilians, senior citizens, children and adolescents, youth, the LGBT community, women, indigenous groups, the homeless and people with disabilities.

EFA global monitoring report

An example of early-stage interventions comes from Bangladesh, where the importance of targeting children in remote and rural areas in a proactive manner has been understood. A situational analysis identified ten different categories of exclusion-prone children. Based on these findings, the country developed an Action Plan that runs in addition to the traditional educational programs but seeks to enhance the inclusion of such vulnerable populations.

Accounting for diversity: policy design and Māori development in Aotearoa New Zealand

In New Zealand, efforts are being made to tailor policies and associated services to the needs of Māori. This has been done through devolution and decentralization of service delivery to iwi and Māori organisations; the participation of Māori themselves in service delivery and governance; strengthened outreach and communication; and incorporation of Māori culture, philosophy (kaupapa), and language into policy design and delivery. Such a course of action has brought about notable success.

Beyond transition: towards inclusive societies

United Nations system- wide action plan on Youth Report

Cash transfers, conditions, school enrollment, and child work: evidence from a randomized experiment in Ecuador

One of the mechanisms employed for overcoming the gap between provision and uptake is conditional transfers. Imagine a poor family with several school-aged children (there is a potential demand for education), living right across the street from a public school, but not enrolled. Put simply, there is no supply-side limitation (the school exists, including teachers, textbooks etc.) and the (potential) demand exists as well, but they are not coming together.

Evaluating the impact of conditional cash transfer programs

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