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Social Inclusion through Participation: the Case of the Participatory Budget in São Paulo

Participatory budgeting implemented from 2001 to 2004 in São Paulo, Brazil, is an example of transformative participation. The exercise is a telling in two regards. First, by relying on an affirmative action methodology, it was institutionally designed to encourage and sustain, throughout the entire cycle, the participation of historically disadvantaged groups or segments of the population: Afro-Brazilians, senior citizens, children and adolescents, youth, the LGBT community, women, indigenous groups, the homeless and people with disabilities.

EFA global monitoring report

An example of early-stage interventions comes from Bangladesh, where the importance of targeting children in remote and rural areas in a proactive manner has been understood. A situational analysis identified ten different categories of exclusion-prone children. Based on these findings, the country developed an Action Plan that runs in addition to the traditional educational programs but seeks to enhance the inclusion of such vulnerable populations.

Evaluating the impact of conditional cash transfer programs

An exploratory look at public sector innovation in GCC countries

Research into individual innovation cases allows for comparisons and generalisations to be made. In 2011, NESTA in the United Kingdom piloted a survey attempting to identify the most important sources of innovation in the national public sector, targeting members of the National Health Service (NHS) and local government organisations. A similar approach was taken by the EU Innobarometer in 2010 and when the two surveys are compared, a broadly similar distribution of innovation sources was revealed. Through the analysis of individual innovation cases, patterns were identified.

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