Identify implementation strategies

Implementation is key to the success of the masterplan. The implementation plan outlines how the organization intends to achieve its goals. Without it, the plan is useless because implementation strategies make everything happen.

Effective implementation strategies incorporate and use the following skills to navigate challenges. These are: communication; ability to align institutions with strategies; engaging staff and stakeholders; allocating resources; making structural adjustment; and creating strategic evaluation.

Examples of cross-programme implementation strategies include the following:

Existence of the Steering Committee during implementation of the masterplan.

The Steering Committee provides policy direction during implementation; decides on major issues that cannot be settled by either coordinating or implementing units; finds ways to negotiate for better funding for ICT in Education, through additional budget from the government, or encouraging donors to provide support; and facilitates the cooperation of multi-stakeholders, include NGOs, foundations and private sector. 

Identification of the Coordinating Unit.

The Coordinating Unit acts as the focal point for implementation. It is the link between the Steering Committee and the various implementing units. Its full-time work is concentrated on the implementation of the masterplan. Other responsibilities of this unit include:

  • Monitor progress of implementation of priority programmes and activities;
  • Consolidate implementation status reports and submit to the policymaker in charge or through the proper channel such as the ICT in Education Governance Committee;
  • Identify implementation issues and provide the necessary technical support to address implementation problems. If issue is unresolved, elevate matter to the proper authorities.
How Singapore, Jordan, Uruguay and Rwanda coordinate the implementation of their masterplans

Box. Coordinating the Implementation of the Masterplan in Singapore

Within the MOE, the Educational Technology Division was established at the launch of MP1 to spearhead the implementation of the Master Plan. It provided professional development for teachers and assisted the teachers in designing ICT-based lessons, identified and recommended appropriate software or technologies to schools and provided guidance in planning and setting up physical infrastructure in schools. In MP2, an R&D section was set up in ETD and it started to provide more customized consultancy services to schools.

The implementation of the ICT Master Plans requires holistic and concerted effort of people of different expertise and a range of resources. Within the MOE, the ETD works with various divisions such as the Curriculum Planning and Development Division (CPDD), the Information Technology Branch and the Training and Development Division. Each of these divisions plays a key role in shaping and implementing the policy. For example, one of the key roles of CPDD is to review the syllabuses of various subjects in the schools. Better integration of ICT into schools’ curriculum should start at this level.

In addition, a Master Plan Project Office (MPO) was set up in 1997 for the administration, coordination and monitoring of the Master Plans.

Source: Transforming Education: The Power of ICT Policies, Chapter 3: Case Study:Singapore, p.57

Coordination of the masterplan in Uruguay

Uruguay is interesting. Since the Ministry lacked internal capacity, it decided to delegate the implementation of the policy to an institution (i.e. LATU) that did have the experience and capacity to implement national ICT strategies.

Source: Power of ICT Policies, p.206

Coordination of the masterplan in Jordan and Rwanda

ICT in education policies are implemented in close interaction with the private sector, acting as providers, donors and/or strategic partners. This is the case of Jordan, where the Government promulgated an investment environment that nurtured strong public and private sector partnerships integral to ongoing policy development and ICT implementation. Similarly, Rwanda initiated a policy to encourage and mobilize the private sector and local communities to invest in the education and, consequently, to develop the system’s capacity for further innovation.

Source: Power of ICT Policies, p.206

Provision of Incentives.

It can be monetary incentives but also other forms of incentives that bring enthusiasm during implementation. For example, organizing an annual ICT in Education Month or Week with contests, awards, recognition of best practices, and providing an annual report to update everyone on the implementation status of the masterplan can be more effective than monetary incentives. Another form of incentive is giving schools more freedom for experimentation and innovation.

Monitoring and evaluation.

A clear strategy for effective monitoring and evaluation answers the following questions:

  • How often is the submission/ collection of implementation status report? Monthly? Quarterly? Every six months?
  • Will there be an annual event (e.g. ICT Month or ICT Week) where the minister announces the major achievements for the year as well as targets for the next year?
  • What kind of evaluation will be conducted? Mid-term evaluation? Final evaluation?
  • Who will conduct the evaluations? Internal or external?
  • How to ensure the results of the evaluation are used to update the policies and masterplan? See also Toolbox 6.2 on Policy Review and Update.

“Monitoring and evaluation is the key to measuring progress and providing information that can be used to make adjustments and to refine policies and programs. Knowing whether the system is moving from one stage of development to another requires information on infrastructure development, teacher skills and classroom practices, and of course, student performance.”

Find out monitoring and evaluation (M&E) mechanisms in Singapore and Rwanda
M&E Mechanism in Singapore M&E Mechanism in Rwanda
Singapore, developed a very well structured,progressive approach to the implementation of its ICT in education policy, defining the phases, activities, products and responsible party for each step of the implementation. By implementing a feedback loop, results of each ICT master plan were analyzed in order to incorporate the lessons learned into the design of the subsequent one.

Source: Power of ICT Policies, p. 206
The Plan commits the ICT in Education and ODeL Department to the provision of periodic reports on the progress of activities and financial statements to MINEDUC. The department will also produce regular donor updates and an annual report for MINEDUC and donors.

Source: Power of ICT Policies, p. 188

Suggested Resources

How to Create an Effective Monitoring and Evaluation Framework

Strategic Overview: Managing Sustainable ICT in Further and Higher Education


  1. Invite implementation partners and stakeholders to participate in the planning meeting.
  2. Use the template to discuss the implementation strategies of the masterplan.

Plan Strategies, Mechanisms and Measures to Ensure Effective Implementation
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