section background
Joris Vens/Super Formosa Photography

2021/2 Background Papers

Background paper




Thematic part




Low-fee private schools


Human rights and non-state involvement in education

Adamson et al.

Public vs. private participation in higher education

Altbach et al.

Can private schools improve equitable access to schooling for vulnerable families? Perceptions from parents in Kinshasa and Lagos

Archambault and Kube-Barth

Shadow education in Sub-Saharan Africa


Religious networks in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Briand and Nicolai

Non-state actors and international higher education scholarships


Teacher work conditions and satisfaction in public and private schools

Cherng and Barch

Public and private schools in two international learning assessments

Cortés et al.

Impact of private schools, chains and PPPs in developing countries

Crawfurd and Hares

Popular support for public education in global perspective

Edlund and Lindh

World Bank influence on policy on private education

Edwards, et al.

Non‐state actors in non‐formal youth and adult education


Impact of privatisation on teachers in francophone sub-Saharan Africa

Lange et al.

Growth of non-state higher education in Ethiopia and eastern Africa

Levy and Tamrat

Regulating non-state technical and vocational education in Asia and Africa

Nesterova and Capsada-Munsech

Civil society organizations’ engagement on non‐state actors


Emerging roles and risks of philanthropy in global education

Patil and Brakman Reiser

Non-state actors and literacy in Afghanistan, China, Philippines, Senegal


Privatization of education in Peru, Tanzania and the Philippines


Faith-based non-state actors in sub-Saharan Africa

Scheunpflug and Wenz

Teachers’ working conditions in state and non-state school


Private teacher training in Africa, Asia and Latin America (in French)

Sirois et al.

Philanthropic and faith-based non-state actors in low-fee private schools


Parental Choice and the Right to Education


Non-state services supporting children in conflict and crisis contexts

Street Child

Private higher education in East and Southeast Asia


Impact of COVID-19 crisis on Catholic schools and universities


Faith-based schools, education pluralism and the fulfilment of the right to education


Regulating public-private partnerships: an equity perspective

Zancajo et al.



Monitoring part




Indirect survey estimates of basic numeracy in sub-Saharan Africa


International review of study/training leave policies

Batthyány et al.

Engagement in apprenticeships: a cross-national analysis of school-to-work transition surveys

Bonomelli Carrasco

Counting school children under rebel control: four case studies


Social network analysis perspectives on bilateral scholarship aid flows


Measuring language of instruction policy implementation

Wekundah and Trudell



Gender Report




Gender dimensions of non-state Islamic faith-based schools in Asia


Non-state provision of childcare services


Women’s universities and non-state actors