Vindelälven-Juhtatdahka Biosphere Reserve (Sweden). Straddling the Arctic Circle, the 1.3 million hectare Biosphere Reserve includes large parts of the Vindelfjällen nature reserve, the largest in northern Europe, and 34% of its total area is protected encompassing three Ramsar sites, a national park and 90 nature reserves. The northern part of the Biosphere Reserve is mountainous, forests cover its central part, while the south is a coastal area. The area is home to two distinct cultural communities, Swedish and Sami and their rich cultural traditions. Activities in Biosphere Reserve include mining, forestry, and reindeer husbandry, which enjoys official protection as a traditional activity of public interest. The Sami Parliament is officially responsible for ensuring that Sami interests are defended in spatial planning, while Samernas Riksförbund (SSR), the National Federation of Swedish Sami people, works more directly to support ‘samebys’ on planning issues. The Sami Parliament has, moreover, drawn up an action plan for Sami livelihoods and culture to deal with climate change.