International Day to End Impunity for Crimes against Journalists
About the International Day to End Impunity
The United Nations General Assembly adopted Resolution A/RES/68/163 at its 68th session in 2013 which proclaimed 2 November as the ‘International Day to End Impunity for Crimes against Journalists’ (IDEI). The Resolution urged Member States to implement definite measures countering the present culture of impunity. The date was chosen in commemoration of the assassination of two French journalists in Mali on 2 November 2013.
This landmark resolution condemns all attacks and violence against journalists and media workers. It also urges Member States to do their utmost to prevent violence against journalists and media workers, to ensure accountability, bring to justice perpetrators of crimes against journalists and media workers, and ensure that victims have access to appropriate remedies. It further calls upon States to promote a safe and enabling environment for journalists to perform their work independently and without undue interference.
The focus on impunity of this resolution stems from the worrying situation that over the last eleven years 930 journalists have been killed for bringing news and information to the public. In 2016 alone, the UNESCO Director-General condemned the killing of 102 journalists, media workers, and social media producers of public interest journalism. In 2012, the deadliest year for journalists, 124 cases were condemned.
These figures do not include the many more journalists who on a daily basis suffer from non-fatal attacks, including torture, enforced disappearances, arbitrary detention, intimidation and harassment in both conflict and non-conflict situations. Furthermore, there are specific risks faced by women journalists including sexual attacks.
Worryingly, less than one in ten cases committed against media workers over the past decade has led to a conviction. This impunity emboldens the perpetrators of the crimes and at the same time has a chilling effect on society including journalists themselves. Impunity breeds impunity and feeds into a vicious cycle.
According to the World Trends in Freedom of Expression and Media Development Report 2017/2018, 10 per cent of the 930 cases of killings of journalists from 2006-2016 have been reported as resolved. 33 per cent of the cases are considered as ongoing, meaning that either a police or judicial enquiry is reportedly still underway, or the cases have been archived or deemed to be unresolved. In 57 per cent of the cases, either no information was received or the Member State in whose jurisdiction the killing occurred sent only an acknowledgment of receiving the Director-General’s request.
Overall, out of the recorded total of 930, UNESCO has received information covering 622 cases from 2006-2016 (67 per cent), from 63 out of 75 Member States. Of these 622, 93 cases have been classified as resolved, that is to say 15 per cent of the cases for which information was received. The remaining 529 cases are either ongoing or unresolved.
A steady increase in the level of recognition among Member States of UNESCO’s monitoring and reporting mechanism can be observed: the percentage of Member State responses to the Director-General’s request has gone up, from 30 per cent in 2013 to 74 per cent in 2017. The efforts of civil society groups, such as the members of the IFEX network and Free Press Unlimited, to help secure responses by communicating with States about the importance of doing so, are likely to have played a part in this increase, complementing UNESCO’s own efforts to raise awareness about its reporting mechanism on the safety of journalists.
When attacks on journalists remain unpunished, a very negative message is sent that reporting the “embarrassing truth” or “unwanted opinions” will get ordinary people in trouble. Furthermore, society loses confidence in its own judiciary system which is meant to protect everyone from attacks on their rights. Perpetrators of crimes against journalists are thus emboldened when they realize they can attack their targets without ever facing justice.
Society as a whole suffers from impunity. The kind of news that gets “silenced” is exactly the kind that the public needs to know. Information is quintessential in order to make the best decisions in their lives, be it economic, social or political. This access to reliable and quality information is the very cornerstone of democracy, good governance, and effective institutions.
IDEI provides a strategic opportunity to all stakeholders to focus public attention on the importance of ending impunity for crimes against journalists. It also opens new possibilities to draw in constituencies whose primary interests may be other than the safety of journalists. For example, given the symbolic significance of journalists to the wider issue of impunity and justice, all of those who work in the rule of law system, such as people involved in legal and judicial processes, can be reached out to. Others who are concerned with public participation and citizen’s rights to speak out on various issues such as corruption or domestic violence will also share an interest in the resolution on combating impunity of attacks on journalists, who by definition are actors in the public eye, and whose situation sends a signal to society at large.
Significantly, sixteen points in the Jakarta Declaration on press freedom deal with safety of journalists. The Declaration was adopted by 1500 participants at the global celebration of the 2017 World Press Freedom Day in Jakarta, Indonesia (1-4 May 2017). The Declaration “condemns all forms of violence, aggression and intimidation against journalists and recognising in particular the specific threats faced by women journalists, including sexual harassment It furthermore underlines “the importance, for democratic civic and political life, of high-quality public-interest journalism, including investigative journalism, respecting professional and ethical standards and enjoying protection of confidentiality of sources, and recogniz[es] that such journalism represents a public good for all members of society”.
It is in recognition of such far-reaching consequences of impunity, especially of crimes against journalists, that the UN has declared 2 November as the International Day to End Impunity for Crimes against Journalists (IDEI). IDEI is of great significance to UN bodies, governments, the media, and to civil society as well as to potential new stakeholders where hitherto there have not been occasions to connect issues in mutual synergy. It also contributes to the new United Nations (UN) 2030 Development Agenda, and in particular Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 16 to promote just, peaceful and inclusive societies, which includes key points relevant to press freedom, access to information, safety of journalists and the rule of law.
For its part, UNESCO will work with its field offices around the world and with partners across the spectrum to ensure a success of this special opportunity to make a difference.