Many medium- and long-term policies and plans for sustainable cultural development have been developed and implemented by the government for years. The following are some relevant main policies and plans:
1. Law 17 of 2007 on the 2005-2025 National Long-Term Development Plan (RPJPN);
2. Presidential Regulation 2 of 2015 on the 2015-2019 National Medium-term Development Plan (RPJMN);
3. Presidential Regulation 18 of 2020 on the 2020-2024 RPJMN;
4. Presidential Regulation 60 of 2015 on the Government Work Plan (RKP) for 2016;
5. Presidential Regulation 72 of 2018 on the RKP for 2019;
6. Head of the Creative Economy Agency Regulation 8 of 2017 on the 2015-2019 Strategic Plan of the Creative Economy Agency; and
7. Presidential Regulation 59 of 2017 on Implementing the Achievement of Sustainable Development Goals.
In the 2005-2025 RPJPN, the crisis associated with weak cultural resilience, especially when dealing with the rapid flow of global culture, is considered to be one of the main problems that will be addressed through developing the nation and character. Harmony is needed between economic development which will improve the standard of living and welfare of the community, and character building which will improve the self-reliance of the community. Economic well-being coupled with the self-reliance of the individual will be resulted in community resilience with resilient, competitive and dignified society. Efforts to realize a progressively competitive and dignified society will be faster achieved if supported not only by economic development but also by other development fields.
Even though the 2005-2025 RPJPN was developed by the Ministry of National Development Planning/National Development Planning Agency, its implementation is to be carried out by all relevant ministries and government institutions of the Republic of Indonesia. Therefore, strengthening cultural resilience should be underpinned by all ministries and government institutions, with the largest being the responsibility of the Ministry of Education and Culture and the Ministry of Tourism and Creative Economy. During the last four years, implementation of the RPJPN has been translated into two separate medium-term development plans, which are the 2015-2019 RPJMN and the 2020-2024 RPJMN.
In the 2015-2019 RPJMN, the power of culture is integrated into the National Development Agenda No 6.8 namely Carrying Out a Revolution of the Nation's Character of which policy direction and strategy for realizing this agenda is through encouraging increased understanding of social plurality and cultural diversity in society, which impacts on the willingness to building social harmony, fostering respect and tolerance, and maintaining unity in diversity.
During the implementation of the 2015-2019 RPJMN, the government also launched "The National Movement of the Mental Revolution (GNRM)" to encourage the development of Indonesian people. Thus, while in the 2015-2019 RPJMN cultural strategies appear only in the context of developing national character, it is in line with the narrative in 2005-2025 RPJPN which places culture greatly as a strategic foundation.
Meanwhile, the 2020-2024 RPJMN is the last part of the 2005-2025 RPJPN, hence making it very crucial. RPJMN 2020-2024 will impact the development target of RPJPN, where Indonesia's income per capita is targeted to reach the welfare level equivalent to the income per capita in other upper-middle income countries with better infrastructure, better quality of human resources and public services, as well as better welfare for the people. Maintaining sustainability is one of the main principles to ensure that development endeavors meet the current needs of the Indonesian people without compromising the capacity of future generations in meeting their needs. Specifically, maintaining sustainability is done through taking into consideration the socio-cultural patterns and values in society to foster an inclusive development and social interaction as a system of mutual support towards development coherence.
One of the seven National Development Agendas of the 2020-2024 RPJMN is Building the Culture and Character of the Nation. This agenda is aimed at forming a nation-wide cultural-based mentality that is disciplined with forward-thinking work ethics, based on honesty, law-abiding, and perseverance characteristics. The character development is set holistically and integrated, involving the whole components of the nation through (1) strengthening of the nation's cultural resilience; (2) advancement of culture; (3) increased understanding, practices, and appreciation of religious values; (4) increased quality and resilience of families; and (5) increased cultural literacy.
In addition, to accelerate the achievement of the National Development Target, the 2020-2024 RPJMN has set six mainstreaming approaches. One of approaches is mainstreaming socio-cultural capital, which is aimed at internalizing cultural values and utilizing cultural wealth as a driving force and basic capital in the development. Supporting cultural resilience and freedom of expression are implicit in the indicators for mainstreaming socio-cultural capital, which include (1) socially inclusive society (tolerance, gender equality, and inclusiveness); (2) social cohesion (cooperation, networking, collective action, and social trust); (3) ecosystem-based communal Intellectual Property Rights; (4) percentage of Certified Traditional Territory; (5) Cultural Economic Export Value in comparison to the Total Export Value; and (6) society participation in their respective neighbourhood activities.
Presidential Regulation 60 of 2015 on the RKP of 2016 serves as the second year elaboration of the 2015-2019 RPJMN. As mandated in Law 25 of 2004 on the National Development Planning System, this RKP contains development priorities, macro-economic framework designs, ministries/non-ministerial agencies programmes, and cross-sectoral/cross-regional indicative regulatory frameworks and funding frameworks. In the 2016 RKP matrix, increasing cultural resilience is included in the Cross-Sectoral Development Matrix on Mental Revolution, where there are three development targets that specifically mainstreaming culture into development priorities. They are:
1. Development of Human Resources and Socio-Cultural Capital of Village Communities. The target is to increase services for community empowerment and the development of social and cultural characteristics by formulating 1005 social cohesion indexes. This target is under the Ministry of Villages, Disadvantaged Regions and Transmigration, but there is no clear allocation of funds therein.
2. Enhancement of Teachers and Education Workforce Competencies. The target is to increase the number of teachers who are competent in the Arts and Culture by 3,128 people in 2016, with 28.1 billion Rupiah fund allocation.
3. Improvement of Micro Business-based Sustainable Livelihoods implemented under the Ministry of Cooperatives & SMEs Development of HR. The targets are to improve the quality of micro business human resources in running and developing their businesses in a sustainable manner by providing training on micro business to 12,500 people and 100 business skills practice units (TPKU). The total budget for these two target examples is 113 billion Rupiah. However, this support to MSME does not specifically mention MSMEs in the field of arts and culture. Thus, from the examples above, it can be seen that special budget allocated for culture as an integral part of development was not too significant in development targets in 2016.
In the Presidential Regulation 72 of 2018 on the RKP of 2019, it is stated that cultural development is directed at the preservation and advancement of culture to enhance the role of culture in development through:
1. strengthening national character that is reliant, competitive, having high morals, and science-oriented;
2. increasing appreciation of diversity in arts and cultural-based creative industries by providing adequate tools, as well as facilitating the production of films with special messages on mental revolution and social restoration;
3. enhancing the protection, development, and utilization of cultural heritage, and building up a structured and accurate cultural heritage registration system;
4. increasing cultural promotion across regions and promoting Indonesian culture to foreign countries; and
5. improving the quality of human resources, archeological research and development, and facilities and infrastructure for the development of cultural elements of the community.
Specifically in terms of creative economy, Head of the Creative Economy Agency Regulation 8 of 2017 on the 2015-2019 Strategic Plan of the Creative Economy Agency stated that in order to establish creative economy as the new power of the Indonesian economy, Indonesia will need to develop an ecosystem that (1) supports the growth of new creative economy, (2) improve the additional value of creative products in the national economy, and (3) establish flagship creative economy products that are globally recognized and appreciated. The ecosystem will be developed using a holistic, integrative, thematic, and spatial approach comprising of (1) the development and implementation of creative economy policies, (2) protection of IPRs, (3) access to capital resources, (4) access to markets, (5) forward and backward linkage facilitation, as well as (6) fiscal incentives. Three strategic targets were set to be achieved by 2019, which are (1) increased Creative Economy GDP Growth of 6.75%, (2) workforce of 17 million people; and (3) creative product export value of USD 21.5 billion.
Lastly, in line with Indonesia's commitment in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals, the Government issued Presidential Regulation 59 of 2017 on Implementing the Achievement of Sustainable Development Goals, hence, all policies contained in the long-term, medium-term, and short-term government development plans and work plans should be aligned with the achievement of Sustainable Development Goals.
In general, the development of Medium and Long-term Sustainable Cultural Development Policies and Plans are aimed at contributing to the realization of the following National Strategy for Culture (see Goal 1, Main Policies and Measures that Contain Strategies and Frameworks for the Development of the Integrated Cultural and Creative Economy Sector):
1. Provide space for the diversity of cultural expressions and encourage cultural interaction to strengthen the inclusiveness of culture (Agenda 1);
2. Protect and develop values, expressions, and practices of traditional culture to enrich national culture (Agenda 2);
3. Develop and utilize cultural resources to strengthen the position of Indonesia internationally (Agenda 3);
4. Utilize advancement of culture objects to improve people welfare (Agenda 4);
5. Advancement of culture that protects the biodiversity and strengthens the ecosystems (Agenda 5);
6. Institutional reform and cultural budgeting to support the advancement of culture agenda (Agenda 6); and
7. Strengthen the role of government as facilitator in the advancement of culture (Agenda 7).
In the RKP for 2019, the Cultural Development targets and indicators are presented clearly and compared among targets and indicators in 2016, 2017, 2018, and 2019. These include:
1. Increased public awareness and understanding of cultural diversity: a. The indicator on number of participants internalizing cultural heritage values started with 1.2 million in 2016 and remained as 1.2 million in 2019. b. The indicator on number of participants internalizing historical values started with 32 thousand in 2016 and increased to 35.5 thousand in 2019.
2. Increased appreciation of the diversity in arts and creative cultural works: a. The indicator on number of events organized for appreciation of art works by the public was 13 events in 2016 and increased to 30 events in 2019.
3. Increased management capacity in efforts to protect, develop and utilize cultural heritage: a. The indicator on number of cultural elements preserved in 2017 was 89,152 units and increased to 95,592 units in 2019.
4. Increased cooperation and exchange of cultural information across regions, as well as between Indonesia and foreign countries: a. The indicator on number of countries establishing cooperative relations and exchange of cultural information with Indonesia (non-cumulative) began with 43 countries in 2016 and ended with 52 countries in 2019.
5. Increased capacity of cultural development resources to support efforts to protect, develop and utilize cultural heritage: a. The indicator on number of human resources trained in arts and cultural preservation was 906 in 2016 and increased to 1,275 in 2019.
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1. Ministry of Home Affairs 2. Ministry of Foreign Affairs 3. Ministry of Defense 4. Ministry of Religious Affairs 5. Ministry of Law and Human Rights 6. Ministry of Finance 7. Ministry of Education and Culture 8. Ministry of Research and Technology 9. M