Media Diversity Promotion

Republic of Korea
The Korea Communications Commission, the Korea Broadcast Advertising Promotion Agency(KOBACO)
Describe the main features of the policy/measure: 
Based on the Broadcasting Act, the Korea Communications Commission manages media diversity by maintaining fairness, publicity, diversity, balance, and realism of channels and programs. Since 2009, the Media Diversity Committee has been established and operated to protect the diversity of public opinion in broadcasting (Article 35-4 of the Broadcasting Act), and since 2018, the committee has been providing broadcast statistics such as broadcasting media usage behavior survey and broadcasting market competition evaluation via the broadcasting statistics portal, Mediastat. The committee has been also providing current status of viewing share by broadcaster to enhance media diversity, but from 2021, it has been providing detailed TV viewing records and N-Screen (Smartphone, PC, VOD) viewing records for each broadcast program to increase the utilization of the industry and academia. The viewership share survey and calculation, which is the main project of media diversity promotion, is calculated by adding the viewer share of related parties to the viewer share of broadcasters every year. For daily newspapers, the subscription rate is converted into viewer share and added to the corresponding broadcaster. The calculated results are announced every year through the decision of the 'Media Diversity Committee' and the 'Korea Communications Commission'. The current viewership share has been calculated and announced up until 2020. After the development of index to use as a base factual data for media diversity in 2014 and 2015, The Korea Communications Commission and its affiliated organization, the Korea Broadcast Advertising Promotion Agency, have been conducting the annual 「Media Diversity Survey」 since 2016. Since the index is modified by collecting the opinions of the Media Diversity Committee, it has propensity to change slightly from year to year. In the 「Media Diversity Survey」, media diversity is judged by the ‘Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI)' and the representation of media program content compared to reality. The 2016~2019 survey investigated the platforms, channels, and programs on the diversity of channel composition, diversity of the owners, diversity of supply sectors, diversity of organization and content, and the audience perception. Diversity in terms of supply, such as the ownership entity and organization, was examined through the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI), and diversity in regards to content was examined by comparing the degree of representation to reality on the distribution status of gender, age, occupation, and disability of the characters in dramas, news, entertainment shows, and investigative report programs. In 2020, the survey on the usage aspects(viewership) of media operators was intensified.
What are the results achieved so far through the implementation of the policy/measure?: 
Since 2011, the viewership share of broadcasters has been surveyed and calculated every year. After surveying and calculating the viewing share of 425 channels of 294 broadcasting companies in 2020, it showed that they all satisfied the viewership share caps of less than 30%. According to the 2021 Media Diversity Survey, dramas had more male characters (57.2%) than female characters (42.8%), with 77.8% aged between 15-29 and 30-49, and 99.6% without disabilities. As for the sociocultural characteristics of news, there were more male (71.9%) cast members than that of females (28.1%), with 87.0% aged between 30-49 and 50-69, and 99.9% without disabilities. As a response to a survey of viewers’ perception on fewer number of female cast members compared to the actual proportion of women in reality, 41.8% of TV viewers and 35.8% of TV news viewers perceived that ‘There is not’(not appearing less).
Financial resources allocated to the policy/measure in USD: 
3,491 Million Won, 265 Million Dollars /As of 2022
Partner(s) engaged in the implementation of the measure: 
Has the implementation of the policy/measure been evaluated?: 
Goal(s) of UNESCO's 2005 Convention
Cultural Domain(s)
Cinema/ Audiovisual Arts