Expansion of international relations and cooperation
As to the framework on expansion of our international relations and cooperation, a number of documents including “the Foreign Policy Guidelines” (10th Resolution of the State Ikh Hural (Parliament) of Mongolia from 2011), “the State Policy on Culture of Mongolia” (15th Resolution of the State Ikh Hural (Parliament) of Mongolia from 1996), and “Directive on the Advocacy of Mongolian Culture and Arts Abroad” (Resolution by Minister of ECS from 2001) were adopted and being implemented; these documents reflect the further perspectives on the field of culture and arts regarding its foreign relations and cooperation indicating that in order to help intensify our development in culture and arts and use the comparatively advantageous position in this field, the access onto the foreign market by our culture and arts institutions is as an important market opportunity for the increase in the capability of the cultural and arts institutions of Mongolia.
Mongolia honors a combination of state and popular diplomacy, respect human rights and freedom, and mutually respectful and beneficial principles in the cooperation in the field of culture and humanity. In the field of culture, Mongolia has developed multilateral cooperation; in particular, cultural partnership relations have been reached with many countries at the level of Government and civil society.
Currently, Mongolia has signed joint agreements and protocols in the field of culture at the level of the Governments as well as Government and Non-Government Institutions with those of Republic of Bulgaria, Republic of Greece, Republic of Korea, Republic of Turkey, Russian Federation, People’s Republic of China, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of PRC, Kingdom of Spain, Republic of Hungaria, Republic of Poland, Kingdom of Nepal, Socialist Republic of Vietnam, Republic of Lithuania, Republic of Philippines, Republic of Latvia, Republic of Uzbekistan, France, Democratic Republic of Korea, Kingdom of Kuwait, Republic of Lao, Romania, USA, Federal Republic of Germany, Republic of India, Japan, and Austria.
As to the framework of cooperation, cooperation activities and plans are established between artists and producers of professional art institutions, and professional art associations, are conducted mutual exchanges of art performances, exhibitions, and artists; in addition, activities are organized with respect to training of specialists including in professional training, upgrading facilities, conducting joint studies in culture and history, restoration of cultural heritage; international joint projects are implemented with respect to creation of books and publications, expansion of cultural exchanges, mutually organizing cultural days, and participating in the international art and culture competitions, festivals, meetings and symposiums.
In future, the legal framework is needed to be elaborated that would allow facilitating expansion of foreign cultural cooperation and international cultural exchange, encourage the joint projects and programs, increase of foreign investment, preparation of specialists in the field of culture and art abroad, and advocacy of culturally creative products in foreign market, and generation of research information in above respect.
Mongolia as a developing country enjoys tariff concessions from world’s developed countries of the USA, Canada, and over 38 countries of the European Union. On the basis of Certificate of Origin of Goods from Mongolia, these concessions are valid on the basis of Certificate of Origin of Goods from Mongolia.
As to Mongolia, handcraft goods and products are produced by private persons and by a few of companies.
In accordance to the concession, 14 types of goods are exported to the USA, and although they do not have much impact on total trade turnover, and economic relations, exporting those goods might have the important implications in reducing poverty, and provide an impetus in the development of small and medium-sized enterprises, which in turn, would have an important significance on the Millennium Development Goals as well as the social policy of the Government of Mongolia. In addition, listing of the above products in General Tariff Concession Scheme of USA would allow increase names of the export goods to the USA and open an exit way to penetrate into the foreign market for the handcraft goods of Mongolia.
The legal basis of Trade and Economic Relations between Mongolia and Canada has been formed by a Mongolia-Canada Intergovernmental Trade Agreement signed in 1994 and an Agreement on Avoidance of Double Taxation signed 2002.
Since July 2003, when Mongolia started being incorporated in Canada’s General Concession Scheme, export of gold, raw skin, hide, leather goods, carpet, wool and cashmere products as well as knitted products started enjoying the tariff concessions.
The European Union is unilaterally providing the system of import tariff concession (General Concession Scheme) to the developing countries of the world. European Union is usually revises its trade policy in period of each 10 years and issues rules of implementation and concession schemes for each of 3 years. In accordance of the EU policy with respect to its trade concession for the period of 2006-2015, Mongolia exports a number products including handcгаfted items and inset items; small wooden boxes for decorative items, wooden holder for knife, statues and the other decorative items made of wood, paints, photos, leather and semi-leather cloths, items for the cloth decoration, boxes, hand bags, purse, wallet, bags for glass bottles, boxes for jewellery, utensils for animal, leather items for animals (reins, halter, chain, harness, saddle utensils, bag, blanket, pad and similar items to them).
Although Mongolia exports the culturally creative products in line with tariff concessions, in further, it is needed to increase types of products for the market supply and to conduct market demand studies.
As to Mongolia, the government policy for the creative sector of culture and arts is urgently needed to be elaborated and introduced in the society because the public understanding regarding the contribution of creative cultural products toward the socio-economic development of the country has not been fully recognized by both individuals and collectives, and because there is a lack of government policy for such support and encouragement and because the public demand and social value for culturally creative products are still low within the society.
This period of the fastest development of the creative products, for our Mongolians being only customer for and buyer of products and productive services might be quite risky as to become constrained in the consumption pattern of the foreign culture as well as to become alienated from his or her own culture, traditional custom and cultural heritage.
Therefore, during the contemporary period, when there is an increased trend for the development of the creative production sector is being one of largest economic sector, State must initiate and stick to a policy for development of the creative production sector that includes the specific features of national culture with a content internationally would facilitate advocating for public support and encouragement. In addition, these contemporary trends of development in culture and arts need to be appropriately informed to the public and to the creators of arts and culture; there are a number of measures needed to be taken in steps including from supporting of arts education, training of skilled professionals, encouraging initiatives of artists, presenting and selling of the produced productions, and providing the suitable conditions to creators of creative products of culture and arts function sustainably and profitably under the market economy circumstances.
Budgeted Funds on Culture and Art Cooperation Expense
As Allocated in the Culture and Art Development Fund
/in million tugruks/
- 2009 : 103.9
- 2010 : 501.8
- 2011 : 388.0
- 2012 : 420.2
Percentage of Budgeted Funds on Measures Organized Abroad in Culture and Art
As Allocated in the Culture and Art Development Fund
- 2007 : 5.8
- 2008 : 7.5
- 2009 : 10.7%
- 2010 : 29.0%
- 2011 : 34.5%