Entrepreneurship and philanthropy in the cultural sector
Entrepreneurship and philanthropy in the cultural sector are two sides of the same coin. Cultural entrepreneurship generates more public and own income for the sector. Giving to culture helps to increase the public’s engagement with the cultural sector. General support for culture and cultural policy is increased in both cases.
The Dutch cultural sector is entrepreneurial and that includes the state-funded sector. The average annual growth in the public income of organisations in the basic cultural infrastructure was 6% between 2005 and 2009.39 Even the income of organisations that applied for funding in 2012 to gain a place in the basic infrastructure rose, on average, from 47.1% in 2010 to 51% in 2011. In 2009, the Dutch gave approximately USD 6.6 billion to good causes. About 10% of that amount, USD 656 million, went to culture.40 The income received by organisations in the basic cultural infrastructure from private resources (gifts, friends’ associations, private funds) grew by an average of 10% per annum during the period 2005-2009. This provides opportunities that can be exploited even more effectively as individuals and businesses decide to make gifts to culture for reasons of their own.
This policy is set out in the Cultural Entrepreneurship Programme (2012-2016). Organisations and makers are supported in their entrepreneurial efforts and helped to find alternative funding with advice, coaching and supervision during organisational change and the creation of new income models. The main aim is to reinforce entrepreneurship in the cultural sector (organisations and makers). This main aim is divided into the following secondary aims:
- To increase knowledge of culture among potential private funders and other parties.
- To increase the private sector’s willingness to give and invest.
- To diversify the funding mix of organisations (in the basic cultural infrastructure).
- To have the sector bear as much responsibility as possible for supporting entrepreneurship.
a) Encouraging a culture of givingThe existing tax benefits of giving are set out in the brochure Geven aan Cultuur [Giving to Culture]43 . This communication campaign is being phased over a two-year period (2012 and 2013). The campaign is being funded by a number of government agencies. Meetings are also being organised in consultation with the sector, in which organisations and individuals can share knowledge and experience.
b) Establishing a funding and fundraising coach
The coach focuses on providing practical support for individual creative makers and small cultural organisations in terms of fundraising. Specifically, this involves a small back office and a group of experts that provide demand-led coaching and training for organisations and individual makers. The idea is to have around 300-400 coaching and/or training sessions each year.
c) Reinforcing entrepreneurship among individual makers and small institutions
The Culture-Entrepreneurship foundation will arrange special activities for individual makers (self-employed workers) and small organisations. This involves training, advice and monitoring and secondary programmes focusing on expanding the market and entrepreneurship.
d) A leadership programme for the cultural sector
The leadership programme is intended for talented, promising managers of cultural organisations. The programme involves an intensive one-year course for 10-15 participants a year. Put out to tender Europe-wide, the programme begins in the second half of 2013 and will initially remain in force for four years.
e) Research and monitoring
Three studies are involved:
- Research into the socio-psychological and financial aspects of cultural patronage.
- The entrepreneurship of the organisations in the basic infrastructure which are receiving long-term funding from the cultural funds is being monitored.
- Research into the various economic trends in the cultural sector. The development of price, public and funding will be monitored periodically as part of this research.
The Cultural Entrepreneurship Programme is being implemented by the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science in close cooperation with the Culture Federation [Federatie Cultuur], the umbrella body for organisations in the cultural sector. The Culture-Entrepreneurship [Cultuur-Ondernemen] foundation also plays a major role.
The resources available for the Entrepreneurship programme amount to USD 4.4 million per annum for reinforcing the entrepreneurship of individual makers, coaching cultural organisations on how to acquire private funding and sponsorship and setting up a leadership programme for the cultural sector.