The diplomatic successes of the Hungarian cultural diplomacy in terms of the representation of Hungarian culture abroad
Within the framework of programmes, Hungary makes efforts to represent its culture abroad and thus promote cultural diversity. The main objective of these programmes is to make the famous works, achievements and renowned artists of Hungarian culture accessible for audiences abroad. To cite but a few example, the Liszt year or the years commemorating the l OOth birth anniversary of photographer Robert Capa, conductor GyOrgy Solti and neurologist Janos Szent:igothai are such programmes. Besides thematic years, the Hungarian cultural diplomacy organizes major events related to a given target country or to a specific Hungarian cultural institute to popularize Hungarian culture.
The tirst year of this type was MagyART in France in 2001. Then Ungheria in Primo Piano was organised in Italy, Magyar Magic in England, Hongarije aan Zee in the Netherlands, the Hungarian year in Russia, Ungarischer Akzent in Hungary, a year of Hungarian culture in China, and the very successful Extremely Hungary in New York. The reception of the programmes of the cultural years was highly positive in all countries; the Hungarian cultural diplomacy, through presenting the culture of Hungarian and of minorities living in Hungary contributed to cultural diversity actively. Artists and public participants actively cooperated in the organization of all cultural years; the programmes were compiled in cooperation by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the ministry responsible for culture. Such cultural years offer an opportunity for Hungarian artists to present their talent abroad, in interaction with other cultures.
The programmes of the government-operated Hungarian cultural institutes abroad and Hungarian embassies regularly offer the introduction of writers, representatives of cinematographic art, fine arts and music, and media of Hungary's national minorities. More frequently, these events are housed by institutes in the motherland of the given minority (Berlin, Stuttgart, Vienna, Bratislava, Bucharest, Belgrade, Zagreb, Ljubljana).
For Roma artists, programmes were launched in the Hungarian institutes of more distant countries and continents. In many cases, the Hungarian cultural institutes in the minorities' homelands involve artists of national minorities living in Hungary in their programmes. Moreover, it is our firm conviction that we contribute to intercultural dialogue with the ongoing extension of relations of cultural diplomacy. Having regard to this objective, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs has created new posts for specialised cultural diplomats in several embassies and the Hungarian government has been developing and extending the network of Hungarian cultural institutes on an ongoing basis. Hungary makes effOrts to enhance the diversity of cultural expressions with interstate culture grants as well. Presently, there are approximately 40 types of grants that can be applied for through the Hungarian Scholarship Board. The list of target countries is very extensive; it includes Vietnam, Hong Kong, India, Iran and other Asian states,as well as most European countries. All artists living in Hungary- including artists belonging to minority communities- may participate in exchange programmes in ways specified in the interstate agreements on culture and in work plans coordinated bythe Ministry of National Resources. For artists who belong to a minority Community, countries where their mother tongue is spoken qualify as prioritised target countries.