Development of audio-visual activities and promotion of audiovisual creative work
The main goal of the measure Development of Audio-visual Activities and Promotion of Audio-visual Creative Work is to stimulate the development of audio-visual activities, promote audio-visual creative work on an international level, preserve the values of national cinematography, establish and develop a support system for the development of audio-visual activities, protect viewer rights and interests and create conditions for coproduction. The goal is realized in accordance with the principle of the right of the author to freedom of expression as weil as of protection of intellectual property rights in the field of audio-visual activities. ln achieving the goal, particular concern is given to the preservation of the Croatian language and cultural identity in the European and global context in accordance with the principles of cultural diversity and the protection of children and youth, gender, race and ethnie minority equality.
Said goal was normatively established under the Act on Audio-visual Activities passed in 2007. The Act regulates the performance, organisation and financing of audio-visual activities as an integral part of contemporary culture, the promotion of Croatian audiovisual production and distribution, of cinematography and complementary activities, particularly the protection and study of audio-visual heritage as well as the displaying of Croatian audio-visual works both in country and abroad. The Act defines both the preparation and implementation of the National Programme for Promotion of Audiovisual Creative Work. The first National Programme for Promotion of Audio-visual Creative Work was adopted for the 2010-2014 period and consists of the following strategic goals:
- Sustaining and developing production, distribution, exhibition, electronic diffusion and promotion of audio-visual works (production, distribution, showing of films, promotion, electronic diffusion, and referral-documentation activity),
- Expanding film and audio-visual culture in general as weil as specifie knowledge related to audio-visual creative work,
- Preserving the audio-visual heritage and improving the accessibility of culturally valuable domestic and international heritage,
- Stimulating investments in domestic film production, film industry and export of film-related services.
ln order to systematically promote audio-visual creation in the Republic of Croatia, the Act has established the Public Institution- Croatian Audio-visual Centre which prepares and implements the National Programme for Promotion of Audio-visual Creative Work by encouraging the performing, organization and financing of the preparation, development, production, distribution and exhibition of Croatian, European and international audio-visual works. The Croatian Audio-visual Centre raises funds and allocates those via public tenders for encouraging audio-visual activities. The funds required for the work of the Centre and the implementation of the National Programme are ensured under the state budget and under a portion of the total annual gross income generated through audio-visual activities of the Croatian Radio Television (2%), television broadcasting companies at national (0.8%) and regional level (0.5%), cable television providers (0.5%) fixed and mobile telecommunications and internet service providers (1 %) and individuals reproducing audio-visual works for public consumption (0, 1%).
The National Programme determines the scope and method of promoting audio-visual activities as well as complementary and other activities, promoting audio-visual culture and production relevant for the development of Croatian culture, activities related to the participation to European Union programmes and other international agreements. On the basis of the National Programme, the Croatian Audio-visual Council publishes annual calls for tenders for promoting audio-visual activities and production as well as other complementary activities:
- Stimulating audio-visual activities and production: Audio-visual activities are comprised of development, production, promotion, distribution and exhibition of audiovisual works (live-action and documentary films, animated films and experimental films).
- Stimulating complementary activities: Complementary activities include preservation of audio-visual heritage including film preservation and archiving, film festivals and other audio-visual manifestations and activities helping develop audiovisual culture, promotional programmes and the sale of Croatian audio-visual products, international cooperation, research and critical evaluation of audio-visual activities, publishing in the field of audio-visual activities, in-service training programmes and programmes of audio-visual associations and organisations.
The process of public calls for tenders, the application conditions and criteria for the allocation of funds, the work of art consultants and the Arts Council, as well as the supervision of earmarked spending of allocated funds are determined by the Regulations on the Procedure, Criteria and Schedule of Implementation of the National Programme. The Act on Audio-visual Activities (Official Gazette No. 76/07, 90/11) was adopted on 23 July 2007 and entered into force on 31 July 2007. Amendments to the Act were adopted on 15 July 2011 and entered into force on 10 August 2011, except for Article 38, which entered into force on 1 January 2012. This Act regulates the performing, organising and funding of audio-visual activities as fundamental components of contemporary culture, promotion of the Croatian audio-visual creative work and distribution, promotion of cinematic showing and complementary activities, and in particular the protection and research of audio-visual heritage, as weil as showing of the Croatian audio-visual works in the country and abroad.
Article 2 of the Act stipulates that the Act promotes the development of audio-visual activities and audio-visual creative work at international level, preservation of the national cinematic values, and that it shall establish and develop a system of support for the advancement of audio-visual activities, protection of rights and interests of viewers, and create conditions for co-production. The provisions of this Act shall be implemented in accordance with the principle of protecting the author's right to free expression and protection of intellectual property rights in the area of audio-visual activities. ln the process of performing audio-visual activities special attention shall be paid to the preservation of the Croatian language and cultural identity in both the European and world context pursuant to the principles of cultural diversity and the protection of children and the young, equality between genders, and among races and national minorities.
Article 5 of the Act stipulates that The Croatian Audio-visual Centre, among others, prepares and implement the National Programme for the Promotion of Audio-visual Creative Work thus promoting the organisation and funding of the preparation, development, production, distribution and showing of the Croatian, European and international audio-visual works, presents the Croatian audio-visual activities and creative work at international festivals and events, promotes participation of the Croatian producers in European and international co-productions, promotes and organises domestic and international audio-visual festivals and events and promotes the values and measures significant for the equality of genders, races and national minorities.
Article 32 stipulates for the possibility of Foreign audio-visual work in the Republic of Croatia being publicly shawn even if it has not been translated to and processed in the standard Croatian language, if it is shawn at events, film fairs, national shows, film retrospectives, festivals, educational programmes, internal closed-type screenings for audio-visual industry players and for realisation of projects in accordance with bilateral agreements on cultural cooperation, and when the number of showing is limited. Works in the language of national minorities may be shawn in the original.
Article 38 of the Act stipulates that investment in the production of audio-visual works as cultural products is, among others, promoted with the purpose of creating beneficial conditions for the development of the Croatian and European cultural product, development of international film cooperation and international coproduction. Croatia has signed a Memorandum on the MEDIA 2007 programme (2007-2013) which was ratified in March 2008 by the Croatian Parliament. A Media Desk has been set-up within the Croatian Audio-visual Centre. A number of projects and cultural organisations (e.g. Motovun film festival, Animafest, ZagrebDOX, Ziva d.o.o., Studio dim d.o.o. etc.), have received funding through the MEDIA programme. Croatia was also very successful in the MEDIA 2007 Programme, as it drew 5.31 times more funding than membership pa id for the Cali in 2010/2011.
Croatia is a member of Eurimages since 2003, and is a signatory to the European Convention for the Protection of Audio-visual Heritage (2007).
Challenges identified in the implementation of this measure: ln implementing this measure the biggest challenge proved to be raising funds for the realisation of the National Programme of promoting audio-visual creative work under a portion of the total annual gross income generated through the performance of audiovisual activities of the Croatian Radio Television, television broadcasting companies at national and regional level, cable television providers, fixed and mobile telecommunications and internet service providers and individuals who reproducing audio-visual works for public consumption