Describe the main challenges encountered to implement the Convention and the main solutions found or envisaged to overcome them:
a) At a general level, there are various challenges detected within the reporting period. The main ones focus on the following subjects:
- Regarding gender: In the different artistic areas there are gender gaps in the number of students enrolled in artistic careers, in the number of workers ,and in wages. In the music sector, for example, men have ostensibly higher salaries, surpassing women in 2014 by an average of $110,60232. But also in terms of recognition and valuation, gender gaps are identified, although these still do not have figures that allow them to account for their importance. For example, in the Visual Arts Policy, the low presence of female artists in public art collections is mentioned; in fact, of the 26 National Art Awards, only five have been, to date, awarded to women.
As specific challenges at this point, an insufficiency has been identified in the tools for monitoring and evaluating progress in gender matters: one of the main challenges for the cultural institutionality in gender matters is to apply tools for monitoring ,and evaluating the advances in gender agendas, this within the framework of programmatic action. On the other hand, the need to improve progress on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), especially: “Achieve productive employment and decent work for women, equal pay for work of equal value, protect rights particularly for migrant women and people with precarious jobs. "
- Regarding indigenous peoples: The different sectoral policies also emphasized the insufficient recognition of indigenous creation, be it traditional or contemporary. Thus, for example, the policies of Visual Arts and Performing Arts mention that there are not enough initiatives to revitalize indigenous languages. In the Music Policy, there is talk of the insufficient inclusion of the cultures of indigenous peoples and the Afro-descendant community in musical artistic education, as well as a low valuation, recognition, and protection of the cultural heritage, traditions, and memory of the natives peoples.
As challenges at this point, the need to generate transversal institutional participation and a rights approach has been identified. It is necessary to generate versatile instruments that promote the sustained participation of indigenous peoples in Cultural Institutionality, as a right that enables other specific rights. Participation, in addition to guaranteeing a right indicated in international instruments, contributes to the design, implementation ,and evaluation of relevant public policies in cultural .and territorial terms; legitimizing the State's instruments of action in the exercise of co-design.
This same exercise validates, and empowers indigenous peoples as subjects of rights, contributing to the appreciation, and recognition of their knowledge, practices, and legacy for the entire society, contributing substantively to the democratic culture. On the other hand, the establishment of a permanent dialogue with this subject enables through dialogue, the evaluation of impacts and effects of cultural policy directly and reflectively by those who are part of this action, and holders of rights and benefits of these instruments.
- Regarding migrants: The challenge of including the artistic expressions of migrants also appears in the different sectoral policies. The Performing Arts Policy, for example, mentions that there is a lack of support for international cultural and artistic exchange with neighboring countries in extreme regions. The Visual Arts Policy also identifies the lack of a policy of inclusion and integration of all citizens (people with disabilities, the elderly, migrants, indigenous peoples, sexual diversity, etc.) in the different cultural institutions. This lack implies an obstacle for the real participation of all citizens on equal terms in the different events and institutions related to the visual arts. As challenges at this point, the need for equal treatment has been identified, progress must be made on issues of inclusion towards migrant communities to reduce prejudices generated regarding differences, for this, it is necessary to promote instances that make the contribution of migration visible ,and from the migrant to the cultural diversity of the country. In addition, progress should be made in cultural participation, diversifying the participation mechanisms with these communities, and favoring the generation of culturally relevant program processes for migrant communities. Finally, overcoming the programmatic isolation, which involves promoting migration issues in the management of Cultural Institutionality, so that it is a tool for the continuity of actions aimed at promoting an intercultural country, the inclusion and effective non-discrimination of women. migrant communities.
- In matters of childhood, youth ,and older adults: The action of the cultural institutionality must consider and register within the current state framework, considering the existence of the National Council for Children, the National Policy for Children and Adolescents 2015-2025 ,and the Plan for Childhood and Adolescence Action 2016-2025. In the cultural sphere, childhood and adolescence are fundamental stages of life in the development of expressiveness, creativity and enjoyment linked to the arts. Furthermore, it constitutes an important stage in the transmission of values such as solidarity and respect for diversity. The transversal inclusion of culture, the arts ,and heritage in the school curriculum, as well as education for the arts, are central actions to favor the full development of boys, girls ,and young people in formal education spaces.
At present, there are certain issues that demand to be addressed by the cultural Institutionality from an inter-institutional logic. In terms of cultural participation, it is essential to continue acting to develop the expressiveness ,and creativity of children ,and young people, as well as access to cultural spaces, activities ,and cultural practices. In terms of developing abilities ,and aesthetic tastes, intervening in the first years of life is crucial. Training in cultural rights is another pending challenge. In the sphere of indigenous peoples, it is urgent to move forward to ensure the right to their own culture for indigenous boys, girls ,and youth, in the formal education system and in other complementary instances.
In the case of the elderly, it is worth mentioning that after the enactment of Law No. 19,828, the National Service for the Elderly was created, a State service in charge of developing public action for the elderly. Currently the Comprehensive Positive Aging Policy (PIEP) 2012-2025 is in force, which adopts a rights approach to address public action on the subject.
In this sense, the central principle is the right to remain active as a member of society. Older adults are a very important demographic category in Chile, the second oldest country in the region. According to the Casen Survey 2015, 17.5% of the Chilean population is 60 years old and over; This figure is projected to reach 20.4% in 2025, making Chile the country with the most elderly adults in the region (MDS, 2015). Despite their statistical importance, older adults present significant gaps in terms of cultural participation.
According to the National Survey of Participation and Cultural Consumption 2012, the elderly are the age group with the lowest global participation rate, well below the national average. Thus, older adults are restricted in their right to enjoy the arts and culture, by different factors, which may include isolation, cost, difficulties in accessing spaces, difficulties in accessing information, lack of adapted activities. On the other hand, there are important gaps in the social value of older adults. The 2015 survey of Social Inclusion and Exclusion of Chilean Older Adults (SENAMA – FACSO), reveals a low valuation of older people by the Chilean population. Thus, 73% of the population declares that people aged 60 or over are not capable of fending for themselves, being that, according to SENAMA, people with some degree of dependency only represent a quarter of this population.
This data shows a negative social imaginary of old age, in which older people are not considered as active subjects who contribute to society. This reality should challenge the cultural institutionality, and constitute a starting point in the work with SENAMA, in particular regarding its potential contribution to change this negative vision of the elderly, from the recognition of knowledge and the promotion of intergenerational transmission. It is also essential to think about the role of cultural Institutionality in the social, economic, cultural, and spatial integration of the elderly, helping to guarantee their rights.
- Regarding people with disabilities: The SENADIS is the institution in charge of developing public action for people with disabilities. This service uses this term in relation to physical, mental, intellectual, sensory or other health conditions, which, when interacting with various contextual, attitudinal ,and environmental barriers, present restrictions on their full ,and active participation in society.
On the other hand, the United Nations International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, ratified by Chile in 2008, in its article 30, incorporates as a right of persons with disabilities the “Participation in cultural life, recreational activities, leisure and sports”, which includes the right to participate in cultural life on equal terms with others; access to programming and cultural material in accessible formats as well as to places and spaces of cultural importance. MINCAP, in conjunction with SENADIS, has worked on different initiatives on the subject, including specific areas of work such as guaranteeing access to participation, financing ,and training in arts and culture.
Thus, the main areas to consider in the designing and implementation of the Cultural Policy are a greater inclusive culture ,and the transversal incorporation of inclusive culture in institutional actions, particularly in programmatic formulation ,and in the promotion of digital instruments, as a tool for inclusion.
- Regarding participation, local cultural management and cultural spaces: Citizen participation, cultural management and cultural spaces are linked to a vision of citizenship as an active and central element for the development of cultural policies that promote culture and human development. This experience confirms that, to talk about cultural spaces today, it is unavoidable to address with them their local and territorial dimension —in all its diversity—, which necessarily implies the active involvement of artists, creators, cultists and their communities at all levels: management and programming, development of practices, proposals for relevant mediation tools, among others.
Cultural participation itself, on the other hand, is closely linked to the spaces in which it takes place, be they a cultural infrastructure, public space, or other spaces not specialized in culture, so it is also essential to articulate cultural participation always thinking in its spatial dimension. They are concrete challenges at this point:
• Overcome insufficient trust between the State and civil society organizations: There is a need to rebuild trust between the State and civil society, their communities ,and creators, in order to advance in the fulfillment of common objectives. Cultural organizations perceive little recognition of their work by the State, so it is necessary to ensure that the cultural institutionality strengthens these organizations, in particular through work in territorial networks.
• Deficient capacities for local cultural management: A low professional preparation is perceived in territorial and participatory spheres to manage sustainable cultural spaces. This could translate into a low valuation of the authorities, and the cultural management organizations themselves, as mobilizing the development of the communities. Understanding cultural management as an instance of mediation, it is necessary to develop capacities that promote contact between citizens and creative processes.
• Insufficient link between spaces, management and local communities: A degree of disconnection between the management of some cultural spaces was identified in the regions, including issues such as the definition of their programming, and the different realities ,and expectations of local communities. Both public and private cultural management are perceived as insufficiently trained to respond and propose to an active citizenry, creators ,and cultists, new access strategies and better visibility ,and circulation of local practices ,and manifestations.
• Need to continue developing, enabling ,and recognizing spaces for cultural participation: A large number of spaces are observed whose construction responds to another purpose and that are used for cultural activities with a precarious capacity, such as gyms, community spaces or schools. In the same way, a lack of recognition of public spaces, such as streets, parks and squares, is visible as legitimate spaces for the creation, dissemination ,and exhibition of artistic activities. At the same time, there are structural insufficiencies in terms of accesses and circulation spaces that include people with mobility problems, such as people with disabilities or the elderly.
- Regarding the working conditions of cultural workers: Law No. 21.025 created by the Ministry of Cultures, Arts and Heritage contemplate among its purposes the respect for the freedom of creation and social appreciation of creators and cultists, the recognition and promotion of respect for freedom of creation, expression and its social value in the cultural development of the country; as well as the promotion of respect for the rights of creators in matters of intellectual property and labor rights.
For its part, the National Plan for the Promotion of the Creative Economy also has three guidelines dedicated to improving the professionalization and associativity of creators and cultural workers. Along these lines, the CNCA has carried out various activities to increase the rate of formalization in the sector, with learning or training instances, encourage the certification of competencies, the creation of manuals and tools for learning, as well as the development of management tools.
It is a specific challenge at this point, to overcome the precarious working conditions. The so-called moonlighting is frequently observed. That is to say, the need that the majority of national artists, creators and cultists have to develop another remunerated activity other than their artistic-cultural work, to the detriment of the latter. In turn, a visible work intermittence has been identified, which brings with it a poor quality of life ,and a high degree of instability, where there is seldom access to an employment contract and, consequently, to social welfare services.
Both phenomena, added to the scarce knowledge of the sector about its labor rights and the specific laws for each of its areas, have increased informality in the field of culture. The foregoing is exacerbated by the lack of supervision that exists over artistic-cultural work and the deficient dissemination of the legislation that protects it, especially the law that regulates the hiring of artists.
Training, professionalization and the financial sphere are also challenges. There are limited options for practitioners of traditional arts, technical trades, and early education disciplines to access a competency certification. Thus, for example, a lack of knowledge is identified about all the stages involved in the value chain, with an emphasis on administration, marketing, contract negotiation, intellectual property, and other activities that support artistic circulation. On the other hand, there is a strong gap in access to financing ,and / or training by sectors of popular art and indigenous peoples, because the application systems most of the time do not consider local realities or self-taught training contexts.
The generation of associativity and participation. The union and union entities belonging to cultural workers often have precarious financial situations, in some cases low professionalization and little representation, which can result in an informal, atomized associative dynamic with low participation.
Finally, it is a challenge to overcome the low social value of art and culture. There is a difficulty in considering artistic and cultural activities as formal work, with its consequent effect on the symbolic and economic valuation of this work. Furthermore, this situation affects the relationship modalities that are established between citizens and such activities, mediated by the importance of the "entertainment" model and the predominance of mass events.
- Regarding artistic and cultural mediation: The lack of a national arts education policy that articulates formal ,and non-formal systems with an intersectoral approach has been identified as challenges at this point. The National Plan for Arts in Education 2015–2018 is an important coordination effort between MINEDUC and MINCAP to strengthen the arts in educational processes. The Regional Tables of Artistic Education have gradually been configured as a platform for articulation between public actors and civil society, however, there is no specialized agency that ensures comprehensive educational management including education in museums, cultural and community centers. On the other hand, in the field of non-formal education, many cultural spaces do not have educators and managers adequately prepared to work in terms of artistic mediation. In turn, in the field of specialized artistic education, there is no greater recognition of the institutions that impart these processes, which has repercussions in a devaluation of their work and in the precariousness of some of these institutions. The absence of an inclusive educational paradigm aimed at developing critical thinking is also evident. Standardized tests have reduced the concept of educational quality to measurable academic achievements, relegating art education to a marginal place and making its contributions in comprehensive training ,and education invisible. development of critical thinking of children ,and young people. On the other hand, there are few lines of research that generate content and evaluate the contribution of artistic education to human development. Ignorance of the contribution of art to the development of an integral human being, violating the fundamental rights of people: Few educational establishments make visible the specific contribution of the arts in integral formation and human development. The Arts Education Week, organized by MINCAP, has contributed to this dissemination, however, more research is still required to argue the implementation of the arts in education in a broader way.
Decrease in the content of arts and culture in the educational system, including teacher training: Despite the fact that the General Education Law recognizes the artistic option in the curricular differentiation for 3rd and 4th grade, in reality the specialized artistic establishments they have not been developed or consolidated. Partly due to the lack of a specific and specialized subsystem to support it, but also because the national school curriculum is highly centralized and homogenizing, which has resulted in it having very low local and territorial relevance. For this reason, its contents lack a greater number of local cultural processes, such as indigenous or Afro-descendant peoples.
- Regarding internationalization, interculturality and cross-border exchanges: The low international visibility of artistic production has been identified as challenges at this point. The community and cultural agents perceive the visibility of artistic and cultural production at an international level as low. This can be associated with a weak diffusion of the strategies that promote their circulation abroad. Likewise, weaknesses are recognized in the work strategies of cross-border exchanges, a situation that is more evident in the extreme areas of the country.
On the other hand, the insufficiency of instruments to promote interculturality: The existence of unequal treatment towards migrant communities, indigenous peoples, tribes and Afro-descendants is identified, many times as the result of misinformation about the intercultural reality of which we are part. Along the same lines, the instruments and instances of consultation and participation with cultural relevance for indigenous peoples, tribes and Afro-descendant communities are perceived as insufficient.
- Regarding the creative economy and local development: A weak associativity has been identified as challenges at this point. Difficulties are observed for the sustainability of rights unions and associations among artistic disciplines, which are still scarce for the demand of their sectors. Difficulties in the relationship between market logic and artistic production: The insertion of artistic creation in the market is presented as a relevant problematic issue; identifying difficulties and challenges present in the attribution of value to artistic goods and services. In the same way, the lack of mechanisms that aim to guarantee or promote economic sustainability of artistic production is denoted. Lack of incentives for the training of audiences: There is a deficit in the preparation of technicians and professionals for areas complementary to artistic creation, such as cultural management, which leads agents to exercise multifunctionality, assuming marketing and dissemination tasks in addition to the properly creative ones. Adequate outreach and mediation programs are considered of utmost importance. Regional distribution of creative opportunities: The development of creative enterprises is uneven among regions, considering the absence of sectoral planning according to each local reality. The educational offer remains concentrated in regional capitals, and for some creative sectors, it continues to be found mainly in the Metropolitan region. The lack of university and technical training is considered a risk that can lead to the “loss of talents” by inducing migration from isolated localities to regional capitals or from regions with low opportunities to the country's capital.
Uncertainty and risks of the creative business: The creative product is subject to uncertainty, because the value that the consumer gives it cannot be known immediately. Furthermore, there is a difference between the quantity of production and the final sale, which may be due to significant gaps depending on the subsector in question. The transition from production to trade is still understood as a gap in the sector, since there is a production that is never commercialized ,and whose commercialization is precarious in relation to the effort made in production. The support between artistic disciplines, which could give greater strength and sustainability to creative work, is still considered incipient.
- Regarding digital culture: Digital culture is a dynamic concept that refers to the development of spaces and forms of relationship between people and the new means of creation, production, circulation and reception of content, which can be observed, to a greater or lesser extent, to a lesser extent, in all arts and cultural fields. We understand digital culture as a collective framework that goes beyond the identification and use of a set of tools and modern technology, becoming a medium or context that modifies the construction of social ties. The digital world has an increasingly frequent and direct impact on the social ,and cultural practices of communities.
Challenges have been identified at this point, the digital divide, the absence of a systematic and consolidated digital culture that permeates the general organic of the public actions of the cultural Institutionality generates inequalities of access to the programs, initiatives and cultural material produced by the Institutionality itself.
The gap in access is clearly identified in the diagnosis of the “digital connectivity” axis of Agenda 2020, which shows strong inequalities in the Chilean population in terms of coverage (as of January 2015, only 67% of households had with internet access), a situation of particular concern in rural and isolated areas. Similarly, high costs of internet broadband are identified (Chile has the highest cost of all OECD countries). The problem, however, goes beyond access and infrastructure, there is also a deficient training of people in the use of these tools, which reinforces the digital divide. Both factors make it difficult for various groups of the population to use ICT-related tools autonomously, which in turn makes it difficult for them to access programs, funds and public initiatives that require them.
There is also an increase in gaps at the level of artists and managers to the extent that they do not join the technological changes. E-commerce is growing faster and faster, which can be an advantage for local cultural industries, but at the same time, it can be a risk for small and medium players, considering the advancement of large platforms. On the other hand, insufficient skills in managing the Internet make it difficult for local communities to disseminate and commercialize cultural goods, such as artisans, but also other artists and cultists in the territories.
The lack of adaptability of the State: A weakness on the part of the State is identified to take charge of the complexity and flexibility of the new forms of creation, since there is a constant repetition of the traditional rigid financing structures.
Scarce distribution of art and digital practices: There is a lack of explicit instruments to promote the circulation of works of art and cultural development initiatives that guarantee their adequate use and access to all citizens, seeking the use of technological tools to reduce territorial gaps in areas far from large urban, industrial or commercial centers.
Intellectual Property in digital culture: Digital culture problematizes the authorship of other creations, since it frequently operates on the basis of the appropriation and resignification of third-party works. Weaknesses in terms of copyright are observed for the artistic development of digital works and a lack of installed capacities among the people who work for the public cultural Institutionality.
Underused digital tools: In Chile, the diversity of practices and strategies of creators and managers in the use of digital tools for creative development is not taken advantage of. The cultural institutionality does not have periodic and coordinated training with educational institutions, which results in the detriment of the instances of reflection to generate strategies that aim to optimize the resources destined for creation thanks to the new tools offered by digital culture.
- In terms of dissemination and media: Concern for cultural content in the media is a relevant issue in the discussion and reflection for cultural policies. In the new global context, the media play a crucial role in the production and reproduction of local, national and global culture. The contents they transmit are decisive in shaping the perception, and opinion we have about our society ,and in the construction of our memory. In turn, they have the potential to collaborate towards democratization of culture, making it possible for thousands of people to access it.
Some relevant concepts are the concentration of the media, considering that there is currently an important concentration in the ownership of the mass media, it is possible to affirm that in Chile there are still insufficient spaces to broadly visualize the processes and results of creating artistic and national cultural and, above all, those of an independent nature. This situation affects both freedom of expression and the right of people to access diverse information, understood as a public good, which currently remains an area of pending intervention.
The role of radio, television and digital media is also relevant. Despite the current scenario, the country is experiencing a boom in the use of alternative media, at different scales, which are supported by existing and available platforms through new technologies. These media are the result of the action of people who organize at the local level, and which we can characterize as cultural participation: that is, the generation of symbolic content, which confers and builds identity meanings. Thus, in the field of radiophony, as of 2015, there were a total of 1,724 operational broadcasting concessions, of which 300 were community-based and registered with ANARCICH, an organization that groups them at the national level and which, in accordance with its principles they are based on cultural diversity, expression and citizen participation. This type of independent and self-managed initiatives have allowed the circulation of content without any type of mediation, which determines greater freedom and diversity in their editorial criteria.
In the field of television, there are 7 national channels, 83 regional, local or community channels, and about 28 channels associated with pay television. In 2015, 62.4% of the hours offered by open television were of national origin and 37.6% were foreign. When comparing the same data with the year 2012, a decrease in the national supply of almost 10% is observed. Regarding digital media, it should be noted that social networks have emerged as a favorable scenario for the circulation of cultural content, particularly in the new generations of artists. Facebook, Twitter and Instagram are today an effective, fast and cheap way to reach a significant number of people and, at the same time, an important showcase to publicize artistic projects.
However, spaces of high scope or that have continuity in time are not visualized, but rather a series of dynamic spaces that obey, in many cases, the interests of the creators themselves. That is why, although social networks have given space to cultural diffusion, it is necessary to move towards the creation of more autonomous initiatives, capable of executing their own agendas ,and promoting their respective audiences. Thus, taking advantage of the instruments of the technologies for network communication in a decentralized way, it is possible to advance towards a greater plurality of expressions and better levels of participation.
Today the challenges of cultural diffusion ,and communication strategies for national artistic creation and activity consist in considering the different channels and supports that currently play a fundamental role in the circulation of content. Social networks; community media; digital television, among others, open possibilities for diversification and expansion in the degree of coverage.
Challenges at this point have been identified as the lack of cultural content in the mass media: the possibility for the mass media - radio, television and the written media - to become agents of diffusion of national creation or other artistic and cultural expressions have not yet materialized. Likewise, the strategies through which they have tried to install cultural content in their programming have been deficient.
This has resulted in various associated problems, such as: insufficient coverage of artistic shows; precarious dissemination instruments to support exhibition strategies and initiatives; little circulation of artistic activities and lack of channels that make visible the initiatives of cultural and municipal centers, among others. In this sense, there are legal initiatives that tend to regulate the communications market in order to allow spaces for the dissemination of national artistic production, as happened in the case of the Law of 20% of Chilean music broadcasting on radio stations, as well as with the regulations that oblige television channels to transmit cultural content.
Another major challenge is the concentration on media ownership. Currently, there is only one state-owned free-to-air channel, TVN. In this scenario, there is little interest on the part of Chilean television ,and its channels for the dissemination of artistic activities, both nationally and regionally, with limited articulation between independent artistic production and mass communication channels. In this context, the Executive promoted a Cultural Channel as part of the bill that modified the National Television Law of Chile (TVN) and where it was decided to create a new television signal within this company, which is intended to impart content educational and cultural.
Few specialized dissemination media: There is a shortage of publications ,and specialized media in dissemination, and those that do exist have restricted circulation. In the same logic, the lack of space for criticism is a problem that remains latent. Although digital platforms stand out as a mechanism of increasing diffusion, they are not enough to promote itinerant activities.
Lack of recognition and support for the work of local and community media: Little recognition of local and community media is observed for their work as facilitating spaces for the circulation of content generated from local territories ,and cultures. This translates into few spaces for collaboration between the public institutions and said media. The case of community radio stations stands out, which, despite their long tradition in Chile, have very precarious legislation for their existence and projection.
Little continuity of digital diffusion spaces: Despite the existence of an important diversity of digital spaces for cultural diffusion, these tend to be dispersed and not very permanent in time. While the digital spaces that have managed to deliver a certain variety in the offer of their artistic and disciplinary content, they are still scarce, not disseminated and not very sustainable over time.
- Regarding the generation of knowledge, research and innovation: MINCAP, through the Department of Studies, the departments and program units (Citizenship, Development, Infrastructure, Heritage, indigenous peoples), and the Regional Directorates of Culture, has generated information and knowledge, largely to inform decision-making, but also to carry out monitoring and evaluation processes.
The challenges identified at this point are the insufficient transformation of information into knowledge. MINCAP and the former CNCA have produced numerous rich studies and surveys. However, this production is not sufficiently articulated and integrated into the reflection processes for decision-making. In this sense, it is important to advance in the ways to improve this articulation, which allows to systematically generate knowledge and learning at the institutional level, through the various studies and tools carried out.
Lack of knowledge and recognition at the territorial level of the arts and local cultures: To be relevant and diverse, the generation of knowledge must not only account for local realities, but also, and above all, originate from the territories. This should make it possible to diversify the voices that are considered legitimate in the generation of knowledge, and empower local actors in the production of more locally relevant knowledge. A weak link has been identified between institutions of higher education and research with artists and cultists; as well as a weak articulating role of MINCAP between both actors.
At the same time, there is insufficient openness on the part of MINCAP towards the various forms of local knowledge and know-how that have historically been silenced or made invisible. The role of MINCAP, focused on rights, should focus on strengthening artists, creators and cultists, to open spaces for the generation and valuation of knowledge at the local level, abandoning univocal logic (for example, that which says that knowledge only may be academic). On the other hand, there is an important institutional deficiency in the capacity to identify good local practices in the generation of knowledge to incorporate them as learning at the central and national levels. This implies an insufficient reflection on the modalities that would allow to identify such practices, as well as to really learn from them and generate changes throughout the institution.
Little relationship between spaces for innovation and research and artistic creation: For knowledge to truly constitute a tool for social transformation, in this case in the artistic-cultural field, it is essential to generate meeting spaces between research / knowledge and creation. The role of MINCAP has been insufficient in this field. For example, in the weak use of research financed by FONDART in other areas related to artistic endeavors.
Deficient permanent cultural registration ,and information systems for institutional and citizen use: Within MINCAP and the former CNCA there have been various initiatives and efforts to build stable cultural registration and information systems over time. However, there are still important deficiencies in this field, which include the dispersion of information, instability of tools over time ,and as a result, heterogeneity of information and difficult comparability.
b) At a specific level and in the field of sectoral policies, certain key work topics have been identified to encourage the development and consolidation of the artistic-cultural field as a whole, promoting its diversity and plurality: The topics that are listed are linked to the situation of the artists, the conditions for creation, the social recognition of their role, as well as the strengthening of the field (associativity, working conditions, professionalization, financing, dissemination and circulation), visibility and the strengthening of local practices, quality spaces with territorial relevance and the generation of knowledge about the different disciplines and local scenes. Thus, the main challenges encountered in this process and their respective proposals to overcome them are:
- Valuation and social visibility of the discipline, the artist and his work: Generate actions of recognition to the trajectory of artists and agents, such as awards to the creator, and his work, among others. Promote registration of creators and yearbooks that account for the creations. Generate incentives for the editorial development of publications and magazines, specialized books.
- Creation, production and productivity: strengthen creation in regions, in a decentralized way ,and recognizing diversity: Improve the productivity of the sector for its economic sustainability. Encourage creation in indigenous peoples. Promote articulation between agents through meetings /workshops ,and the link between creators and students. Strengthen creation through institutional, public-private collaboration.
- Professionalization and recognition of professions of the cultists: strengthen training for the professionalization of disciplines, and the certification of competencies. Expand the offer of training ,and specialization programs throughout the value cycle of the disciplines. Value complementary and supportive trades to the disciplines. Generate meetings and instances of transfer and exchange of knowledge.
- Research for the development of territorial artistic and disciplinary practices: Encourage the production of knowledge and critical thinking about community artistic and cultural practices. Strengthen academic research on the discipline in local scenes. Generate mechanisms for the circulation and dissemination of scientific and critical research and publications, promoting public debate. Generate research in partnership with universities and institutions.
- Diffusion, circulation and exhibition of work both in Chile ,and abroad: Generate dissemination strategies that include the creation of new platforms, strategies from cultural spaces, dissemination of projects financed by the public system. Strengthen financing and actions for the internationalization of artists from the national level and the regions. All of the above requires inter-institutional coordination.
- Employment situation ,and employability: to promote a good quality of life for the artist, in terms of occupational safety, protection and social security: Protect the health of the artist through inter-institutional ,and inter-union coordination mechanisms to address the prevention of occupational diseases.
- Diversification, and expansion of funding for the arts: Maintain, strengthen, diversify and improve culture funds, including review of support terms, sustainability of support, and improvement of bases to facilitate access. Promote coordination between funds from other institutions with the policies of the CNCA. Make visible and disseminate existing funds.
- Development of public training and mediation: Design public training plans that contain training of mediators in coordination with cultural spaces, mediation, and training actions, and delivery of tools to cultural communicators and programmers.
- Recognition of community cultural practices: Strengthening of these practices, holding meetings ,and events in which these practices are made visible, encounters between community groups with other regional ,and national groups, promoting citizen participation in creating a territorial identity ,and putting in the value of shares emanating from indigenous peoples, among others.
- Articulation and associativity of the sector agents: Promote collaborative work among the sector agents, including cultural organizations, civil society. Form contact, and articulation networks, train in self-management and self-financing. Strengthening of collegiate bodies.
- Generation of records of artistic and cultural heritage: Strengthen the dissemination of records, encouraging that this also occurs on the part of the artists and cultists themselves, generating networks of organizations that generate information, documentation centers, and public access and character cadastres.
- Raise quality standards and adaptation to the local reality of the infrastructure: generate and promote the use of technical infrastructure standards (private and municipal) appropriate to each area that allow the performance of these disciplines correctly, promote improvements in spaces of community use, use of itinerant infrastructure, adaptation of all these spaces for universal access.
- Ensure the sustainability of public and independent cultural spaces: Sustainability is understood as financial, management, human resources, and capacity for dissemination and communication with citizens. - Strengthen information systems: Promote the unification of concepts and the generation of information systems that favor contact between the artists themselves, the public institutions with the artists, and between the artists and the public.