For the preparation of the third Quadrennial Periodic Report of Mexico on the implementation of the 2005 Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions of UNESCO, the Ministry of Culture of the Federal Government carried out a process of direct consultations of the public specialized institutions directly linked to the areas of application of the 2005 Convention, through which the main national policies, actions and initiatives in favor of creation, production, distribution and access to cultural goods, products and services were identified, as part of the creative economy and as an element of sustainable development.
Likewise, for the definition of objectives, priorities and challenges in the implementation in Mexico of the 2005 Convention on the protection and promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions of UNESCO, the guiding documents of the country's public policy on culture were taken as a basis, in which the principles of the Convention are incorporated.
Simultaneously, a consultation was carried out with Civil Society Organizations (CSO), in which various associations that are part of the Red U40 México (U40 Mexico Network) participated, this network brings together organizations and cultural professionals focused on the implementation of the Convention of 2005 in Mexico, and is coordinated by the association Creatividad y Cultura Glocal AC, member of the International Federation of Coalitions for Cultural Diversity (IFCCD).
The Ministry of Culture is the public body in charge of establishing and conducting the national policy on culture, and responsible for promoting and disseminating the artistic and cultural expressions of Mexico, as well as the projection of the country's presence abroad; promotes education and artistic and cultural research; works in favor of the preservation, promotion and dissemination of cultural heritage and diversity, supports artistic creation and the development of creative industries to reinforce the generation and access of cultural goods and services, in addition to promoting universal access to culture taking advantage of the resources offered by digital technology.
The Political Constitution of the United Mexican States establishes in its Article 4 that “everyone has the right of access to culture and the enjoyment of the goods and services that the State provides in this area, as well as the exercise of their cultural rights. The State will promote the means for the diffusion and development of culture, attending to cultural diversity in all its manifestations and expressions with full respect for creative freedom”.
In a similar vein, based on the General Law of Culture and Cultural Rights published in the Official Gazette of the Federation on June 19, 2017, the cultural policy of the Mexican State is based on the principles of respect for creative freedom and cultural manifestations; equality of cultures; recognition of the country's cultural diversity; recognition of people's identity and dignity; self-determination and autonomy of indigenous peoples and their communities; and gender equality.
This Law guarantees cultural rights to access to culture and enjoy the goods and services provided by the State in this area; to actively and creatively participate in culture; to enjoy the prefered cultural events; the protection of intellectual property rights; and the use of information and communication technologies for the exercise of cultural rights, among others.
In line with the foregoing, the Regulation of the General Law on Culture and Cultural Rights, published in the Official Gazette of the Federation on November 29, 2018, stipulates that actions of international connection in the matter of culture must be carried out based on the cultural diversity, respect for freedom of creation and under the principles of international cooperation, respect, protection and promotion of human rights.
The Regulation also recognizes that freedom of expression includes artistic expression, freedom of opinion and information, respect for cultural diversity, and the right to receive free and plural information that contributes to the full, free and complete development of cultural identity and cultural diversity.
For its part, the National Development Plan 2019-2024 defines as one of the objectives of the Government of Mexico “to promote and guarantee the human right of access to the culture, attending to cultural diversity in all its manifestations and expressions with full respect for creative, linguistic freedom, choice or belonging to a cultural identity, beliefs and participation ”.
Likewise, the Culture Sector Program 2020-2024, first in the country for the sector after the creation of the Ministry of Culture in 2016, establishes as priority objectives to reduce inequality in the exercise of cultural rights of individuals and communities, primarily in contexts of vulnerability, with its participation in processes that strengthen cultural cycles, practices and identities; consolidate the educational task of the Culture Sector to provide people with better options for training, updating and professionalization, under criteria of inclusion and recognition of diversity; progressively guarantee access to cultural goods and services to people, through the increase and diversification of the cultural offer in the territory and the cultural exchange of Mexico abroad; protect and conserve the diversity, memory and cultural heritage of Mexico through actions of preservation, research, protection, promotion of their knowledge and appropriation; strengthen the participation of culture in the national economy through the stimulation and professionalization of cultural industries and creative enterprises, as well as the protection of copyright; and enrich the diversity of the creative and cultural expressions of Mexico by recognizing and supporting creators, academics, communities and groups, among others.
Furthermore, the Ministry of Culture recognizes culture as an essential tool for human, social, and economic development not only of people, but also for communities and the country, and in this sense, among its primary functions are the promotion of the use of information and communication technologies for the dissemination and development of culture, as well as the cultural goods and services provided by the State, attending to cultural diversity in all its manifestations and expressions, respecting creative freedom.
As part of its priorities, the Ministry of Culture highlights the protection of copyright as a fundamental task of the Mexican State, which guarantees the protection of the creations of individuals, groups and communities, through the disclosure and protection of copyright in favor of creative diversity in Mexico, which fosters the improvement of the economic conditions of creative people , as well as greater production, development and circulation of cultural goods.
Among other priority objectives of the Ministry of Culture are the strengthening of the contribution of culture in the national economy through the cultural industries and creative companies, as well as the enrichment of the diversity of the creative and cultural expressions of Mexico, by recognizing and supporting creators, academics, communities and artistic groups.
In general terms, the current administration 2018-2024 has the fundamental objective of promoting innovation in cultural products and services, stimulating national and international cooperation, and strengthening the production, dissemination, distribution and enjoyment of cultural content and products, making accessible tools to detonate the strategic development of the various agents involved in the construction of the economy of culture.
Although the actions of the State have had significant progress, expanding access to various manifestations of culture, there is still work pending to guarantee the effective exercise of cultural rights that, in its broadest sense, to involve free expression and creation, the access to information and knowledge about material and intangible heritage, the free choice of a cultural identity, the belonging to one or more cultural communities or the active and creative participation in culture, to name just a few.
For this reason, the Ministry of Culture seeks to transform the traditional paradigm in which people and communities are seen as simple recipients of State action in the field of culture, to assume them as generators and as active participants in a series of processes with the cultural institutions, which will assume the role of facilitators.
Another pending field of action consists of developing intensive actions to strengthen the cultural diversity of Mexico, which should be expressed in the training and support of creative people, as well as in a greater production of indigenous, Afro-Mexican and popular culture works. Through the promotion, support and spread of these creations, it will contribute to a greater cultural participation of disadvantaged populations, as well as an increase in the well-being of the general population.
Promoting cultural plurality in the public space makes the production of these groups visible, widens the possibilities of choice and opens the possibilities for intercultural processes, in addition to contributing to the coexistence of different cultural expressions in conditions of equality.
The promotion of these policies, within the framework of the recognition of indigenous and Afro-Mexican communities as subjects of public law, is one of the challenges of the Mexican State, as well as a historical opportunity to incorporate community initiatives into the national project.
Besides this, the COVID-19 sanitary crisis has put in evidence the vulnerability of the cultural sector in general and the precarious working conditions of cultural workers in particular, accentuating the need for innovation in the development models of this sector and the need to expand its productive relations with other sectors.
In this sense, it has been identified the need to integrate and implement comprehensive regulatory frameworks to promote the country's cultural diversity, within and outside its territory, through a public policy aimed at promoting the creative and cultural industries of Mexico. Highlighting its dual cultural and economic nature, as well as to strengthen the protection of intellectual property rights, particularly in the digital space, and around the cultural misappropriation of the intangible cultural heritage of indigenous, Afro-Mexican and comparable peoples and communities.
In the same way, the current administration aims to reach a sustainable cultural economy model that breaks the digital gap and guarantees the redistribution of cultural wealth among all sectors of society.
On the other hand, Mexico has been selected to participate in the initiative “EU/UNESCO Expert Facility on the Governance of Culture in Developing Countries: Support for new regulatory frameworks to strengthen the cultural and creative industries and promote South-South cooperation”, funded by the European Union for contributing to the implementation of the 2005 Convention, and with the aim to strengthening the system of governance for culture in developing countries and reinforce the role of culture as a vector for sustainable development and poverty reduction.
As part of this initiative, Mexico will implement within the next two years the project "Designing policies to support indigenous and community radio in Mexico and incorporate indigenous content in the public and commercial media", with the aim of generating mechanisms in favor of the legal constitution and sustainability of this radio stations, as well as the production of content in indigenous languages, a regulatory framework and an environment that encourages the inclusion of content which reflects the country's cultural and linguistic diversity in commercial and public media. The project will design a standard regulation aimed at incorporating indigenous content in commercial and public media; it will require future applicants for broadcasting licenses to specify the percentage of indigenous or community programming during their broadcasts. In order to comply with this regulation and ensure that public and private media have access to indigenous and community content, a digital platform will be created. Consultations between the community and indigenous broadcasters will also take place in order to assess their capacity for content generation and contribution towards the platform (internet access, capacity development, etc).
Ministry of Culture
National Institute of Fine Arts and Literature (INBAL)
Mexican Film Institute (IMCINE)
National Center for the Arts (CENART)
Digital Culture Center (CCD)
National Fund for Culture and the Arts (FONCA)
National Fund for the Promotion of Handicrafts (FONART)
National Institute of Copyright (INDAUTOR)
Civil Society Organization (CSO)
Comunica-Acción y Cultura del Occidente de México A.C.
Civil Society Organization (CSO)
CIRCULAR, Gestión y Difusión de Proyectos Culturales
Civil Society Organization (CSO)
Conferencia Institutos Municipales de Cultura A.C.
Civil Society Organization (CSO)
Creatividad y Cultura Glocal A.C.
Civil Society Organization (CSO)
Civil Society Organization (CSO)
Puentes y Redes S.C.
Goal 1 - Support Sustainable Systems of Governance for Culture
Cultural and Creative Sectors
|Share of cultural and creative sectors in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in USD)||2018|
|Gross Domestic Product in USD||1,154,431|
|Cultural Gross Domestic Product in USD||36,526||3.2%|
|Disaggregated data by sector||2018|
|Visual and plastic arts||460||1.3%|
|Performance arts and shows||2,013||5.5%|
|Music and musical performances||405||1.1%|
|Books and press||1,269||3.5%|
|Design and creative services||2,983||8.2%|
|Material and natural heritage||584||1.6%|
|Cultural training and dissemination||1,697||4.6%|
|Households cultural production||6,808||18.6%|
|Topic||Women jobs||Total jobs||Total full-time equivalent employment positions||Year||Share||Share of women jobs|
|Share of employment in the cultural and creative sectors||2018|
|National Total full-time equivalent employment positions (FTEEP)||43,337,924|
|Cultural total full-time equivalent employment positions (FTEEP)||1,395,669||3.2%|
|Disaggregated data by sector, age, sex and type of employment.||2018|
|By cultural sector:|
|Visual and plastic arts||23,049||1.7%|
|Performance arts and shows||22,353||1.6%|
|Music and musical performances||48,442||3.5%|
|Books and press||74,573||5.3%|
|Design and creative services||154,836||11.1%|
|Material and natural heritage||35,368||2.5%|
|Cultural training and dissemination||87,656||6.3%|
|Households cultural production||256,302||18.4%|
|Visual and plastic arts||4,932||11,830||42%|
|Performance arts and shows||8,516||26,061||33%|
|Music and musical performances||5,588||53,011||11%|
|Books and press||30,091||99,503||30%|
|Design and creative services||47,687||122,685||39%|
|Material and natural heritage||11,488||22,315||51%|
|Cultural training and dissemination||52,578||99,463||53%|
|Trade in cultural goods and services||44,370||98,911||45%|
|Public cultural management||42,129||88,989||47%|
|Intellectual property in cultural goods and services||5,445||11,143||49%|
|Topic||USD Million||Year||Share||Share of women jobs|
|Share allocated by cultural sectors/domains||2018|
|Visual and plastic arts||76||1.7%|
|Performance arts and shows||153||3.5%|
|Music and musical performances||122||2.8%|
|Books and press||602||13.6%|
|Design and creative services||86||2.0%|
|Material and natural heritage||874||19.7%|
|Cultural training and dissemination||1,361||30.7%|
GENERAL LAW of Culture and Cultural Rights (DOF: 19/06/17)
Platform "Contigo en la Distancia" (With You in the Distance)
The Platform "With You in the Distance" has consolidated itself as a fundamental tool for the population to exercise their right to culture from home and for creators to continue their artistic work and as an alternative to being supported during the health contingency due to the presence of COVID-19.
Music and Opera Department
Department of Visual Arts
Xavier Villaurrutia Center for Literary Creation
Social Inclusion, Diversity and Equality Program
Total resource from 2016 to 2019: $1,174,907.00 MXN
Immersion and Mixed Realities Laboratory
Total resource from 2016 to 2019: $ 1,286,000.00 MXN
Educational Area – Digital Culture Center (CCD)
2017 - 2019: circa $126,377.16 US
Programme of Support for Teaching, Research and Dissemination of the Arts (PADID)
It is important to disseminate the products that are made thanks to PADID support. It is necessary to think about a computer system that allows PADID applications to be made electronically.
International Training Programme in the Arts for the Circus and the Street (PIFACC)
Every year an evaluation of the program is made, based on the opinions expressed by the participants in the workshops, and on the basis of the annual evaluation results, the academic offer of the following year is proposed.
Payment in Kind Program
National Institute of Copyright (INDAUTOR)
National Fund for the Promotion of Crafts (FONART)
Mexican Network of Creative Cities
Survey to measure the perception of the impact of COVID-19 in the sector of Cultural and Creative Economies in Mexico
Loom. National registry of cultural agents
Digital Agenda for Culture (ADC)
Heritage and Visual Arts
Total resource from 2016 to 2019: $1,592,355.00 MXN.
Partnering with Civil Society
2018: circa $6,209,291.13 US
2019: circa $5,026,503.39 US
Production: circa $34,593,851.39 US
Distribution: circa $2,563,825.75 US
Production: circa $30,373,831.77 US
Distribution: circa $1,837,929.44 US
Production: circa $32,636,116.04 US
Distribution: circa $1,888,412.41 US
Production: circa $31,074,621.27 US
Distribution: circa $1,765,654.23 US
Goal 2 - Achieve a Balanced Flow of Cultural Goods and Services and Increase the Mobility of Artists and Cultural Professionals
Mobility of Artists and Cultural Professionals
Promotion of international mobility
International mobility program for independent artists
Support given in 2019 by DAI for the mobility of independent creators: $27,000 USD
Mexico's Annual contribution: $480,000.00 USD (150,000.00 USD per year)
Mexico's Annual contribution: $ 60,000 USD per year
Mexico's Annual contribution: $120,000.00 USD per year
International Cycle of Music “Sound Labyrinths”
The Ciclo Laberintos Sonoros (Cycle Labyrinths of Sound) successfully met its training objectives in contemporary musical composition and the spread of topics related to this matter among new audiences.
Artist-in Residence Program
It is recommended to expand inter-institutional relations to generate more mobility at the national and international level.
Scholarship Program for Study Abroad
It was identified the need to expand networks with Academic Institutions, especially with France.
International cultural promotion actions – Support for international mobility
2019: $454,800.92 USD
Flow of Cultural Goods and Services
Treaties and agreements
Mexico-United States-Canada Agreement (T-MEC/USMCA/CUSMA, according to the signatory country)
Modernised Mexico-EU Global Agreement
Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP)
Goal 3 - Integrate Culture in Sustainable Development Frameworks
National Sustainable Development Policies & Plans
Community Culture Program
The 2019 evaluation process of the Program has not yet concluded and the National Council for the Evaluation of Social Development Policy (CONEVAL) will present its recommendations in the second half of 2020. The preliminary results given by CONEVAL place it as a highly relevant program that meets its stated objectives.
Transmedia Map / Creative Mexico Map
Training of Trainers for the Teaching of the Arts
It is a one-of-a-kind project that proposes not only the approach to arts education from the interdisciplinary methodology, but also fosters the autonomy and creativity of teaching communities in the states, which achieves an impact on children and young people of the municipal schools of basic education.
Collaboration Agreement on national biocultural heritage between CULTURA and SEMARNAT
Project “Chapultepec Forest: Nature and Culture”
International Cooperation for Sustainable Development
Ibero-American Cultural Space (ECI)
Mexico's Annual contribution:
IBERMEDIA: $250,000 US
IBERESCENA: $150,000 US
IBERMUSEOS: $60,00 US
IBERORQUESTAS JUVENILES: $120,000 US
IBER-RUTAS: $40,000 US
IBERMUSICAS: $120,000 US
IBERBIBLIOTECAS: $90,000 US
IBERARTESANIAS: $40,000 US
IBERMEMORIA: $30,000 US
IBERCULTURA VIVA Y COMUNITARIA: $35,000 US
IBERCOCINAS: $40,000 US
National Program of Associated Artistic Initiation Schools
Goal 4 - Promote Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms
“Equitativa” (Equitable) National Program
2019: circa $29,646.62 US