Anniversaries 2016 -
1150th anniversary of the birth of Muhammad Zakariyā Rāzī (also known by his Latinized name: Rhazes or Rasis), physician, chemist and philosopher (866-925) (joint nomination by Iran (Islamic Republic of) and Tajikistan) (2016)
Muhammad Zakariya Razi, the renowned Persian physician, chemist and philosopher was born in Ray, in the Southern part of the Iranian capital, Tehran, in 866 AD. His works in medicine, chemistry and philosophy gained world renown to the extent that George Sarton, the founder of the history of science, named him “The Greatest Physician of Eastern World and the Medieval Ages”. His discoveries of Alcohol and Sulphuric Acid brought him the world title of “The Father of Chemistry”. In addition to Chemistry, Razi had world fame in Medical sciences. His knowledge in this area of science was such that in order to write his Canon of Medicine, Avicenna used Razi’s book of “al-Hawi fi al-Tibb” as reference. Razi was the first to differentiate smallpox from measles.
Razi played a significant role in promoting knowledge across borders. He contributed to the evolution of medical sciences, chemistry and philosophy in the world, and beyond doubt, Razi is an important figure of ninth-century science, history and medicine.
100th anniversary of the birth of Gafar Valamat-Zade, choreographer (1916-1993) (with the support of Kyrgyzstan and the Russian Federation) (2016)
Choreographer, screenwriter, director and producer of operas and films, Gafar Valamat-Zade Rustamovich (9 May 1916-12 December 1993) was the founder of modern Tajik national choreography.
Valamat-Zade received much recognition for his work throughout his career, including awards in Tajikistan, the Russian Federation, Mongolia, Ukraine, and other European countries.
1250th anniversary of the birth of Hakim at-Tirmizi, scientist (755-56? -869) (with the support of Afghanistan, India and Kazakhstan) (2016)
According to scholars, he is the first and, up until the time of Ibn al-Arabi, the only mystic author whose writings present a broad synthesis of mystic experience, anthropology, cosmology and Islamic theology. At-Tirmizi’s system of thought is representative of an old Islamic theosophy which had not yet consciously assimilated elements from the Aristotelian-Neoplatonic philosophic tradition.
Al Hakim at-Tirmizi's scientific and creative activity is closely connected with his travels to other countries and cities. He visited Balkh, Nishapur, and Baghdad, where science and culture reached its zenith, and he met famous scholars and took part in discussions. His work lends new ideas to modern understanding of religion and inter-cultural faith.
50th anniversary of the death of Mehmed Fuad Köprülü, scholar (1890-1966) (with the support of Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan) (2016)
Mehmed Fuad Köprülü (1890-1966) was the most outstanding Turkish scholar and intellectual of the twentieth century. Mehmed Fuad Köprülü is regarded as the founder of the modern, scientific Turkish research on the culture and history of the Turks. As a scholar he had an international reputation and many accolades. In the process using modern scholarly methods, he shed light on the main features of the Turkish history and literature. He introduced many poets and writers to the scholarly world. His books and articles touched on many subjects: the history of Turkish literature, literary criticism, Oriental studies, the history of Turkish civilization and culture, language, religion, art, music, political history and ethnology. Köprülü established the basis for the modern study of Turkish literature and history; he was a master at synthesizing great amounts of information and published some 1500 books, articles, essays and other writings.
His first major work, Early Mystics in Turkish Literature, which proved to be his masterpiece, appeared in 1918 when he was only 28, and earned him international reputation. In 1920, he published the first edition of Türk Edebiyatı Tarihi (The History of Turkish Literature), which further established him as a leading authority in Turkish studies. In 1922, he published Islam in Anatolia after the Turkish Invasion (Prolegomena) and The Seljuks in Anatolia: Their History and Culture According to Local Muslim Sources. In 1931 he founded Journal of Turkish Legal and Economic History, in which appeared his long article “Some Observations on the Influence of Byzantine Institutions on Ottoman Institutions”. In 1935 he published Les origines de l'Empire ottoman (The Origins of the Ottoman Empire) which was a series of lectures given at the Sorbonne the previous year.
850th anniversary of the death of Khoja Ahmed Yasawi, poet and Sufi (1093 or 1103-1166) (with the support of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan) (2016)
Ahmed Yasawi, a distinguished Sufi master of the twelfth century, is one of the oldest and most famous poets among the Turkic language speaking countries. The sources differ on his birthday and birthplace. Yasawi was born in Sayram or in Yasi (both cities now in Kazakhstan) in 1093 or 1103. After initial education by his father he studied in Bukhara, one of the principal centres of Islamic civilization at the time. He became an adherent of the celebrated Shaykh Yusuf al-Hamadani. In Bukhara Yasawi studied the exoteric sciences, becoming one of the experts of his day in rationalistic and traditional scholarship alike.
His contribution was crucial for Central Asia, where he popularized Sufism with his numerous students in the region, and contributed to the diffusion of Islam through Sufi order. His understanding of Islam is inspired by principles of love, tolerance, generosity and humanism.
Ahmed Yasawi, with his literary, intellectual and legendary life, was one of the most influential spiritual leaders in the Turkic world of Central Asia and Anatolia. He was the founder of a whole school of mystics, and is as such highly revered. He was a Sufi poet who contributed tremendously to the development of mystical orders throughout the Turkic speaking world.