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Mount Carmel Biosphere Reserve, Israel

The Carmel Mt. biosphere reserve is located in the north west of Israel.

Designation date: 2010


Regional network:  EuroMAB

Ecosystem-based network: 




    Surface : 266 sq km

    • Core area(s): N/A
    • Buffer zone(s): N/A
    • Transition zone(s): N/A

    Location: N/A

    Administrative Authorities

    Ben Rosenberg
    Nahal Mearot Nature Reserve
    D.N. Chof Carmel

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    Ecological Characteristics

    The reserve represent maquee in semiarid environment (hard-leaf woody vegetation), at the mountain area and two types of shoreline: rocky and sandy, one is highly diverse and unique representing one of the last Kurkar reefs in the world while the other is essential for logger head and green sea turtles as a nesting substrate.

    The Carmel Mt. is highly diverse geologically. Lime stone, Dolomite and Chalk are the mainrocks and at least four different underwater volcanic eruptions can be detected allowing geologist to determine precise age and geological processes.

    The maquee and its biodiversity are represented in three core areas based on different vegetation types: native Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis), Kermes Oak (Quercus calliprinos) and Mt. TaborOak (Quercus ithaburensis), each as a dominant species addressing unique vegetation diversity in its environment.

    The highlights of the biodiversity in the reserve are the fire salamander (Salamandra inframaculata) which the Carmel BR is the south point in the world where the species can be found. It responds to the arid conditions by positioning larva to winter temporal pools while the rest of the year it hides among rocks. Roe deer and fallow deer are reintroduced along with Griffon vulture Egyptian vulture and there are Bonelli's eagle.

    Among the flowers the Lilium candidumblooms in isolated cliffs and more than 10 species ofOrchids can be found in the reserve.


    Socio-Economic Characteristics

    Economic activities in the Biosphere Reserve include logging, following forest management guidelines, agriculture and tourism.

    Agriculture is very intensive in the transition zones, while in the buffer zone there are more traditional and ecofriendly practices. In terms of tourism, there are picnic areas, hiking trails as well as traditional craft markets both at the buffer and transition zones.

    Several recycling and education programmes are carried out in the Biosphere Reserve, aimed at raising awareness for conservation.




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    Last updated: March 2019