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Tianmushan Biosphere Reserve, China

Tianmushan Biosphere Reserve is located in the Zhejiang Province in the eastern coastal region of China, about 230 km south-west of Shanghai. Also known as the ‘kingdom of big trees’, the biosphere reserve protects the most ancient wild Ginkgo biloba communities. 

Designation date: 1996

Photo gallery ǀ  Press release


Regional network: East Asian Biosphere Reserve Network (EABRN)

Ecosystem-based network:




    Surface : 4,284 ha

    • Core area(s) : 1,191 ha
    • Buffer zone(s) : 381 ha
    • Tansition zone(s): 2,712 ha

    Location: 30°18' to 30°25'N; 119°23' to 119°29'E

    Administrative authorities

    Tianmushan National Nature Reserve Management Bureau
    Lin'an County
    311311 Zhajiang Province

    Tel.: +86 571 638 77008


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    Ecological Characteristics

    Also known as the ‘kingdom of big trees’, the biosphere reserve protects the most ancient wild Ginkgo biloba communities. The vegetation in this area is very rich, covering evergreen and deciduous broadleaved forest, bamboo forest, coniferous forests, marshes and aquatic vegetation.

    Its major habitats include: Subtropical evergreen broadleaf forest with Castanopsis sclerophylla, Cyclobalanopsis glauca and Schima superba; subtropical evergreen and deciduous broadleaf mixed forest with Phoebe chekiangensis, Ginkgo biloba and Emmenopterys henryi; coniferous forest with Cryptomeria fortunei, Pseudolarix kaempferi and Pinus taiwanensis; agroecosystems with rice, vegetables and maize; forestry ecosystems with bamboo, mulberry, medicinal plants and tea (Camellia sinensis)


    Socio-economic characteristics

    Only some 170 people live in the biosphere reserve (1994). Tianmushan has a long history of human activities dating back more than 2,000 years ago. Buddhism, Taoism and Confucianism were practiced over centuries and have contributed to the conservation of nature in the region.



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    Last updated: July 2019