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Rinjani-Lombok Biosphere Reserve, Indonesia

The biosphere includes Lombok Island, part of the Lesser Sunda Islands. It consists of relatively flat coastal areas and hilly and mountainous areas. The highest peak is Mount Rinjani, the second highest volcanic mountain in Indonesia (3,726 metres above sea level). It has a very high level of biodiversity, comprising various types of forest vegetation (savannah forest, mountain and lowland rain forest), about 40% of which are primary forests. The inhabitants’ main sources of revenue comes from horticultural (vegetables and fruits), cereal crops (rice), animal husbandry (cows, goats and chickens) and the cultivation of coffee and cacao. 


Designation date: 2018

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Regional network: South East Asian Biosphere Network (SeabrNet)

Ecosystem-based network:



    Surface :
    459,086 ha

    • Core area(s) : 41,330 ha
    • Buffer zone(s) : 109,443 ha
    • Tansition zone(s): 308,323 ha

    Location: 8°34'S - 116°17'E

    Administrative authorities

    Gunung Rinjani National Park
    Jl. Arya Banjar Getas Lingkar Selatan, Mataram 83116

    Tel: +62 370 641155


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    Ecological Characteristics

    The biosphere reserve is a lowland area from the coast to hilly and mountainous areas with varying heights from 0 m to 3,726 m above sea level, while slopes range from ramps (0-15%), moderate (15-25%), sloping (25-40%) and heavy sloping (more than 40%). A relatively sloping area located in the South and Northeast lies at an altitude of 0-1,500 m above sea level at the foothill of Mount Rinjani. The highest peak is Mount Rinjani (3,726 m above sea level). Adjacent mountains are seperated by vast valleys, deep ravines with steep and rocky slopes. In the western valley of Mount Rinjani, there is Segara Anak Lake (2,100 m above sea level) with waters rich in sulphur. In the middle of the Segara Anak Lake, the “new volcano” called Mount Barujari (2.376 m) has raised. The volcano is still active and the last eruption occurred in 2009.

    The reserve is a habitat for various important flora and fauna species of Lesser Sunda and many other important species adapted to the unique ecosystem of mountain tropical of Lombok Island. The core area houses at least 19 species of mammals, 8 species of reptiles, 5 species of amphibi, 154 species of birds, 20 species insects, 447 species of trees, 59 species of fems, 117 species of mushrooms, 55 species of orchids, 28 species of lianas and 6 species of rattans.


    Socio-economic characteristics

    Total population living in Rinjani-Lombok BR are 3,394,280 people.. No community lives in the core area of the reserve. People living in the buffer zone and transition area consists of Sasak tribe, Javanese, Balinese, Maduranese, Chinese and Arabian and several immigrant communities from various islands in Indonesia. Sasak people dominate the number of about 80% of the total population of the island of Lombok. Sasak tribe is closely related to the Bali tribe, but mostly they are moslem.

    The main economic activities are ecotourism, agricultural activities (farming, plantation), animal husbandry, fishery, non-timber forest products, industrial/manufacture sectors, agro-based industries, forest-based industries and several trades. Local people serve as guide, interpreter and porter for the tourists, sell souvenirs as well as offer homestay, food and beverage services. Food crops include rice, corn, peanuts, green beans, soybean and vegetable. Plantation development activities include coffee, cocoa, and vanilla. Livestock species such as buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), cows (Bos sundaicus), goats (Capra spp.), sheep (Ovis aries), and poultry (chickens, ducks, goose) are developed as a side activity. The types of non-timber forest products include firewood, rope materials, medicinal materials, foodstuffs (vegetables, fruits, and grains).


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    Last updated: October 2018