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Mae Sa-Kog Ma Biosphere Reserve, Thailand

Situated in the north of Thailand, this biosphere reserve comprises one of the most populated mountain areas of the country and encompasses the watershed of Thailand’s second biggest city Chiang Mai. Five natural ecosystems are represented in Mae Sa-Kog Ma: moist evergreen forest, hill evergreen forest, coniferous forest, mixed deciduous forest and dry dipterocarp forests.

Designation date: 1977


Regional network:  

Ecosystem-based network: 




    Surface : 51,051 ha

    • Core area(s): 29,402 ha
    • Buffer zone(s): 10,213 ha
    • Transition zone(s): 11,736 ha

    Location: 18°43' to 18°37'N; 98°43' to 98°57'E

    Administrative Authorities

    The Protected Area Regional Office 16 th (Chiangmai)
    153 Charoen Prathet Rd.
    Chang Khlan, Mueang Chiangmai 50100

    Tel.: 66 53 276100

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    Ecological Characteristics

    The Hauy Tak Teak Biosphere Reserve uniquely represents the pristine mixed deciduous forests dominated by an intact stand of teak (Tectona grandis) in Thailand. It is now recognized as gene banks of teak of Thailand. Lignite deposited under the ground indicates that flora and fauna were once overwhelming. Moreover, cave paintings dated back to 2500-3000 years ago signified the importance of civilized primitive human society. Rough terrains surrounded by thick forests hindered the progress of licensed timber extraction in the past. Most parts of core area remain undisturbed.

    Six types of natural forests exist in the area, i.e. Pine Forest, Hill Evergreen Forest, Dry Evergreen Forest, Moist Evergreen Forest, Mixed Deciduous Forest and Dry Dipterocarp Forest.



    Socio-Economic Characteristics

    Some 59,500 people live in the biosphere reserve (1999). The ethnic Thai groups are settled within the peneplain area whereas a hill tribe is living in the mountainous region. Most of the people are farmers who depend on the cultivation of paddy rice, corn, tobacco, soybeans and groundnuts or on orchards and livestock raising. Main human impacts on the ecosystem derive from illegal logging, urban expansion, agriculture and shifting cultivation. With some 32,000 national and international tourists each year (1999), tourism also plays an important economic role in the biosphere reserve.




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    Last updated: May 2019