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Mount Huangshan Biosphere Reserve, China

This biosphere reserve is located in the hilly region of Nanling Range in south-east China. It has been a World Heritage site since 1990 and harbours a forest ecosystem almost unchanged since the last glacial period. Mount Huangshan has become a sanctuary for many ancient animal and plant species since the Quaternary glacial period. The area thus serves as an important germplasm bank and a hotspot for animal and plant biodiversity. This biosphere reserve is also an important water source for the Xin’An, Qing Yi and Qiupu river systems. 


Designation date: 2018

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Regional network: East Asian Biosphere Reserve Network (EABRN)

Ecosystem-based network:




    Surface : 42,558 ha

    • Core area(s) : 7,744 ha
    • Buffer zone(s) : 4,958 ha
    • Tansition zone(s): 29,856 ha

    Location: 30°7'45"N - 118°8'49"E

    Administrative authorities

    Huangshan Scenic Area Management Committee
    Tangquan, Huangshan City 245800

    Tel.: +86 0559 5580203


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    Ecological Characteristics

    Unique geological, topographical and climatic conditions have created and protected the remarkable biodiversity of Mount Huangshan and preserved the most intact middle subtropical granite mountain evergreen broad-leaved forest ecosystem. With the forest coverage rate as high as 90.51%, the rich variety of the plant community and the complete vertical band spectrum, it is an important germplasm gene bank and one of the hot spots for animal and plant studies in the world.

    Due to the high mountains, the ecological vertical differentiation is obvious, and the biological species are extremely rich. There are as many as 2,385 types of higher plants, 417 vertebrates (38 fishes, 28 amphibians, 52 reptiles, 224 birds, and 75 mammals), 175 species of butterflies and 138 species of spiders. There are 19 species of plants listed in the red list of IUCN species in Mount Huangshan region. 35 species are included in the CITES appendix. 20 species of animals are listed in the red list of IUCN species, and 57 species are included in the CITES appendix.

    Among these species, there are also 4 endemic species  of  Mount Huangshan and 8 species of endemic plants of Mount Huangshan. In addition, due to the minor impact of the Quaternary glacial period, Mount Huangshan has become a sanctuary for many ancient animals and plants. It is one of the distribution centers for ancient relic species in East Asia and the world.


    Socio-economic characteristics

    With rich historical and cultural resources, unique landscape and excellent ecological environment, Mount Huangshan has become a world-famous tourist attraction. In 2015, Mount Huangshan scenic area received a total of 3.18 million tourists, bringing about tourist income of 2.59 billion yuan; turn over 264 million yuan taxes.

    Tourism not only drove the community economy forward but also facilitated the inheritance of local special crafts and cultural exchange.




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    Last updated: April 2019