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Giam Siak Kecil-Bukit Batu Biosphere Reserve, Indonesia

Bukit Batu, is a peatland area in Sumatra featuring sustainable timber production and two wildlife reserves, which are home to the Sumatra tiger, elephant, tapir, and sun bear. Research activities in the biosphere include the monitoring of flagship species and in-depth study on peatland ecology. Initial studies indicate good potential for sustainable economic development using flora and fauna for the inhabitants’ economic welfare.

Designation date: 2009


Regional network:  SeaBRnet

Ecosystem-based network: Mountain and Tropical Forest




    Surface :  705,271 ha

    • Core area(s): 178,722 ha
    • Buffer zone(s): 222,426 ha
    • Transition zone(s): 304,123 ha

    Location: 0°55'30"N - 101°40'30"E

    Administrative Authorities

    Natural Resources Conservation Agency of Riau
    Jl. H. R. Soebrantas KM 8.5 P.O. Box 1048
    Pekanbaru 28294

    Tel.: +62 (0)761 63135

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    Ecological Characteristics

    Recognizing as part of the Sumatra peat swamp eco-region, Giam Siak Kecil-Bukit Batu (GSK-BB) posses a unique habitat and plays a significant role to help sustain populations of rare, endangered and endemic species. About 189 plant species, consisting of 113 families and 59 genera are recorded in this area.

    29 out of the total number of this plant species are categorized as a protected species under Appendix 1 and 3 of CITES.

    Nine protected species found in this area include red costulata, Apocynaceae), nyatoh (Ganua motleyana, Sapotaceae), tiger orchid (Grammatophyllum speciosum, Orchidaceae), daradara (Knema sp., Myristicaceae), mengris (Kompassia malaccensis, Mimosaceae), kantong semar (Nephentes spp., Nepenthaceae), suntai (Palaquium leiocarpum, Sapotaceae), and balam (Palaquium burckii, Sapotaceae). The core area is dominated by peat swamp forest types. The plant species have been recorded in this area including Gonystylus bancanus (ramin), Palaquium leiocarpus (nyatoh), Durio carinatus (durian burung), Shorea teysmanniana(meranti bunga), Tetramerista glabra (punak).

    Several key animal species which are recorded in the core area and listed as a protected and endangered species under the Appendix 1 CITES including two species of birds (hornbill Buceros bicornis and Mycteria cynerea), four mammals (honey bear Helarctos malayanus, tapir Tapirus indicus, Sumatra elephant Elephas maximus, and Sumatra tiger Panthera tigris sumatrae), two reptiles (false gharial Tomistoma schlegelii and estuarine crocodiles Crocodylus porosus) and one endangered fish species Scleropages formosus, also known as the Asian bony-tongue or arwana

    Socio-Economic Characteristics

    Activities within the core areas include subsistence farming, fisheries, and non-timber forest products collection.

    The buffer zone is mainly used for fisheries, plantation forestry, palm oil and commodities cultivation, subsistence farming, and timber and non-timber forest products gathering.

    The transition area is mainly designated for settlements, livelihood and subsistence farming, oil palm and rubber farmers, employees/ laborers in large plantations, agri-based industries, forest-based industries, mining, gas and oil exploitation, and various trades/commercial uses.




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    Last updated: March 2019