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Bromo Tengger Semeru-Arjuno Biosphere Reserve, Indonesia

The Bromo Tengger Semeru-Arjuno biosphere reserve is located in the province of East Java and encompasses an active volcano, Mount Bromo (2,392 m asl). There are 1,025 reported species of flora of which 226 species are orchids and 260 are medicinal and ornamental plants. Plant families commonly found in this area include Fagaceae, Moraceae and Anacardiaceae. Some of the mammal species found in the core area are included on the Red List of Threatened Species of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).

Livestock farming of cattle, goats, sheep, horses, rabbits and chickens contribute to the local economy. The main economic activity is tourism. 

Designation date: 2015


Regional network:  SeaBRnet

Ecosystem-based network: Mountain




    Surface :  413,374.56 ha

    • Core area(s): 78,144.50 ha
    • Buffer zone(s): 96,349.55 ha
    • Transition zone(s): 238,880.51 ha

    Location: 07°38’53”S – 112°46’52”E

    Administrative Authorities

    The Indonesian MAB National Committee
    Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI)
    Gedung Kunoto-LIPI, Jl. Ir. H. Juanda 18 Bogor
    BOGOR 16122

    Tel.: +62 (0)251 8325854

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    Ecological Characteristics

    The Bromo Tengger Semeru-Arjuno Biosphere Reserve is located on Java Island (East Java) and forms part of the Indo-Malayan region. The biosphere reserve lies in the mountainous area of an active volcano, Mount Bromo (2,392 m  asl), and Tengger Semeru, Arjuno and Mount Welirang. The core area of the reserve incorporates mountains with an altitude of over 1,000 m above sea level covered with tropical rainforest. Several types of terrestrial ecosystem are found in the reserve including cultivated areas, secondary forest and primary forest. The primary forest  also includes lowland rain forest, mountain rainforest, desert, savannah and sub-alpine ecosystems. In addition, the reserve incorporates lakes, aquatic and riparian ecosystems. 

    The reserve is home to about 1,025 species of flora including 226 species of the Orchidaceae family and 260 species recorded as traditional medicinal plants and ornamentals. An inventory of fauna recorded 158 species consisting of 22 mammals species (of which 15 are protected), 130 birds species (27 protected) and six species of reptiles. Protected mammal species include the Sunda pangolin (Manis javanica), leopard (Panthera pardus), Malayan porcupine (Hystryx branchyura) and Indian muntjac (Muntiacus muntjac). Protected bird species include the Brahminy kite (Halistur indus), spotted kestrel (Falcao moluccensis), green peafowl (Pavo muticus), Javan kingfisher (Halcyon cyanoventris), and Sunda minivet (Pericrocatus miniatus).

    Socio-Economic Characteristics

    The reserve has a total population of approximately 750,000 inhabitants, of which 2,000 live in the core area. The majority of the local population belongs to the Tengger tribe, living on the slopes of Mount Bromo and Semeru. The Tengger community still adheres to ancient ways of Javanese culture and Hindu Dharma and practises different modes of life compared with other Javanese tribes. The other major ethnic groups in the reserve are the Java, Madura, China and immigrant communities from various islands in Indonesia. 

    The main economic activities are tourism, agriculture, animal husbandry, and timber and non-timber forest products gathering. The Tengger community holds specialized knowledge of managing natural resources and the associated environment, such as knowledge about signs provided by nature, the use of natural resources and means to ensure their preservation.




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    Last updated: March 2019