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Belambangan Biosphere Reserve, Indonesia

The Belambangan Biosphere Reserve is located in the province of East Java and incorporates three national parks (Alas Purwo, Baluran and Meru) and one nature reserve (Kawah Ijen). The reserve consists of terrestrial and marine ecosystems featuring karst landscapes, savannah and different types of forest including alpine/subalpine, upper, dry and lower montane (mountain), lowland, coastal and mangrove. The site also features seagrass beds and coral reefs. The main economic activities of the biosphere reserve are agriculture and horticulture, as well as agroforestry (teak and mahogany).

Designation date: 2016


Regional network:  SeaBRnet

Ecosystem-based network: Mountain, Tropical Rainforests, Marine, Coastal and Island Areas




    Surface :  778,647 ha

    • Core area(s): 127,855.5 ha
    • Buffer zone(s): 230,277.5 ha (terrestrial: 84,080 ha; marine: 146,197.5 ha)
    • Transition zone(s): 320,514 ha

    Location: 8°12’15”S – 114°8’10”E

    Administrative Authorities

    The Indonesian MAB National Committee
    Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI)
    Gedung Kunoto-LIPI, Jl. Ir. H. Juanda 18 Bogor
    BOGOR 16122

    Tel.: +62 (0)251 8325854

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    Ecological Characteristics

    The Belambangan Biosphere Reserve is located in the East Java Province (Java Island) and forms part of the Indo-Malayan region. It is situated within the Banyuwangi Regency, Situbondo, Bondowoso Regency and Jember Regency (East Java), and the mountain areas of Ijen and Mount Raung. The core area of the biosphere reserve is covered with tropical rainforest with altitudes ranging from 0 to 1,000 m above sea level.

    The reserve includes both terrestrial and marine ecosystems such as karst landscapes, savannah, alpine and subalpine forest, montane forest, lowland bamboo forest, coastal forest and seagrass beds. Mangroves are also present in the biosphere reserve and coral reef ecosystems can be found in the buffer zone. More than 300 species of fish have been identified and the reefs are dominated by coral species of the Acropora genus.

    The region is a biodiversity hotspot with many faunal species including the Banteng or Javanese wild bull (Bos javanicus), the Christmas frigatebird (Fregata andrewsi), the green peafowl (Pavo muticus) and the endangered Javan leopard (Panthera pardus). In addition, four species of sea turtles nest on the south and east coast of Alas Purwo National Park: the olive Ridley turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea), the leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea), the hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) and the green turtle (Chelonia mydas).


    Socio-Economic Characteristics

    The Belambangan transition area is densely populated with more then 1.5 million inhabitants. The local communities consist mainly of Java and Madura people, together with immigrant communities from various Indonesian islands. Economic activities practised in the reserve include agriculture (horticultural crops) and agroforestry, consisting mainly of teak and mahogany plantations.

    Seceral communities of the Banyuwangi area have a unique dance culture. The most known forms are the dancing art of Seblang and the Macan-macanan dance, a traditional dance carried out to repel wild animals that often interfere with villagers and their pets.




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    Last updated: March 2019