|Afghanistan||02 October 1951|
|Belgium||22 November 1950|
|Bolivia||22 November 1950|
|China||(See Note 1)||22 November 1950|
|Colombia||22 November 1950|
|Dominican Republic||22 November 1950|
|Ecuador||22 November 1950|
|Egypt||22 November 1950|
|El Salvador||04 December 1950|
|France||14 May 1951|
|Greece||22 November 1950|
|Guatemala||22 November 1950|
|Haiti||22 November 1950|
|Honduras||13 April 1954|
|Iran||09 February 1951|
|Israel||22 November 1950|
|Luxembourg||22 November 1950|
|Netherlands||22 November 1950|
|New Zealand||16 March 1951|
|Pakistan||19 May 1951|
|Peru||08 July 1964|
|Philippines||07 August 1979|
|Syrian Arab Republic||07 August 1979|
|Sweden||20 November 1951|
|Switzerland||22 November 1950|
|Thailand||22 November 1950|
|United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland||22 November 1950|
|United States of America||24 June 1959|
|Uruguay||27 April 1964|
The Contracting States,
Considering that the free exchange of ideas and knowledge and, in general, the widest possible dissemination of the diverse forms of self-expression used by civilizations are vitally important both for intellectual progress and international understanding, and consequently for the maintenance of world peace;
Considering that this interchange is accomplished primarily by means of books, publications and educational, scientific and cultural materials;
Considering that the Constitution of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization urges co-operation between nations in all branches of intellectual activity, including "the exchange of publications, objects of artistic and scientific interest and other materials of information" and provides further that the Organization shall "collaborate in the work of advancing the mutual knowledge and understanding of peoples, through all means of mass communication and to that end recommend such international agreements as may be necessary to promote the free flow of ideas by word and image" ;
Recognize that these aims will be effectively furthered by an international agreement facilitating the free flow of books, publications and educational, scientific and cultural materials; and
Have, therefore, agreed to the following provisions:
1. The Contracting States undertake not to apply customs duties or other charges on, or in connection with, the importation of:
(a) Books, publications and documents, listed in Annex A to this Agreement;
(b) Educational, scientific and cultural materials, listed in Annexes B, C, D and E to this Agreement; which are the products of another Contracting State, subject to the conditions laid down in those annexes.
2. The provisions of paragraph 1 of this article shall not prevent any Contracting State from levying on imported materials:
(a) Internal taxes or any other internal charges of any kind, imposed at the time of importation or subsequently, not exceeding those applied directly or indirectly to like domestic products;
(b) Fees and charges, other than customs duties, imposed by governmental authorities on, or in connection with, importation, limited in amount to the approximate cost of the services rendered, and representing neither an indirect protection to domestic products nor a taxation of imports for revenue purposes.
1. The Contracting States undertake to grant the necessary licences and/or foreign exchange for the importation of the following articles:
(a) Books and publications consigned to public libraries and collections and to the libraries and collections of public, educational, research or cultural institutions;
(b) Official government publications, that is, official, parliamentary and administrative documents published in their country of origin;
(c) Books and publications of the United Nations or any of its Specialized Agencies;
(d) Books and publications received by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and distributed free of charge by it or under its supervision;
(e) Publications intended to promote tourist travel outside the country of importation, sent and distributed free of charge;
(f) Articles for the blind:
I. Books, publications and documents of all kinds in raised characters for the blind;
II. Other articles specially designed for the educational, scientific or cultural advancement of the blind, which are imported directly by institutions or organizations concerned with the welfare of the blind, approved by the competent authorities of the importing country for the purpose of duty-free entry of these types of articles.
2. The Contracting States which at any time apply quantitative restrictions and exchange control measures undertake to grant, as far as possible, foreign exchange and licences necessary for the importation of other educational, scientific or cultural materials, and particularly the materials referred to in the annexes to this Agreement.
1. The contracting States undertake to give every possible facility to the importation of educational, scientific or cultural materials, which are imported exclusively for showing at a public exhibition approved by the competent authorities of the importing country and for subsequent re-exportation. These facilities shall include the granting of the necessary licences and exemption from customs duties and internal taxes and charges of all kinds payable on importation, other than fees and charges corresponding to the approximate cost of services rendered.
2. Nothing in this Article shall prevent the authorities of an importing country from taking such steps as may be necessary to ensure that the materials in question shall be re-exported at the close of their exhibition.
The Contracting States undertake that they will as far as possible :
(a) Continue their common efforts to promote by every means the free circulation of educational, scientific or cultural materials, and abolish or reduce any restrictions to that free circulation which are not referred to in this agreement;
(b) Simplify the administrative procedure governing the importation of educational, scientific or cultural materials;
(c) Facilitate the expeditious and safe customs clearance of educational, scientific or cultural materials.
Nothing in this Agreement shall affect the right of Contracting States to take measures, in conformity with their legislation, to prohibit or limit the importation, or the circulation after importation, of articles on grounds relating directly to national security, public order or public morals.
This Agreement shall not modify or affect the laws and regulations of any Contracting State or any of its international treaties, conventions, agreements or proclamations, with respect to copyright, trade marks or patents.
Subject to the provisions of any previous conventions to which the contracting States may have subscribed for the settlement of disputes, the contracting States undertake to have recourse to negotiation or conciliation, with a view to settlement of any disputes regarding the interpretation or the application of this Agreement.
In case of a dispute between Contracting States relating to the educational, scientific or cultural character of imported materials, the interested Parties may, by common agreement, refer it to the Director-General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization for an advisory opinion.
1. This Agreement, of which the English and French texts are equally authentic, shall bear today's date and remain open for signature by all Member States of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, all Member States of the United Nations and any non-member State to which an invitation may have been addressed by the Executive Board of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.
2. The Agreement shall be ratified on behalf of the signatory States in accordance with their respective constitutional procedure.
3. The instruments of ratification shall be deposited with the Secretary General of the United Nations.
The States referred to in paragraph 1 of Article IX may accept this Agreement from 22 November 1950. Acceptance shall become effective on the deposit of a formal instrument with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
This Agreement shall come into force on the date on which the Secretary General of the United Nations receives instruments of ratification or acceptance from ten States.
1. The States Parties to this Agreement on the date of its coming into force shall each take all the necessary measures for its fully effective operation within a period of six months after that date.
2. For States which may deposit their instruments of ratification or acceptance after the date of the Agreement coming into force, these measures shall be taken within a period of three months from the date of deposit.
3. Within one month of the expiration of the periods mentioned in paragraphs 1 and 2 of this article, the Contracting States to this Agreement shall submit a report to the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization of the measures which they have taken for such fully effective operation.
4. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization shall transmit this report to all signatory States to this Agreement and to the International Trade Organization (provisionally, to its Interim Commission).
Any Contracting State may, at the time of signature or the deposit of its instrument of ratification or acceptance, or at any time thereafter, declare by notification addressed to the Secretary-General of the United Nations that this Agreement shall extend to all or any of the territories for the conduct of whose foreign relations that contracting State is responsible.
1. Two years after the date of the coming into force of this Agreement, any contracting State may, on its own behalf or on behalf of any of the territories for the conduct of whose foreign relations that contracting State is responsible, denounce this Agreement by an instrument in writing deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
2. The denunciation shall take effect one year after the receipt of the instrument of denunciation.
The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall inform the States referred to in paragraph 1 of Article IX, as well as the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, and the International Trade Organization (provisionally, its Interim Commission), of the deposit of all the instruments of ratification and acceptance provided for in Articles IX and X, as well as of the notifications and denunciations provided for respectively in Articles XIII and XIV.
At the request of one-third of the contracting States to this Agreement, the Director-General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization shall place on the agenda of the next session of the General Conference of that Organization, the question of convoking a meeting for the revision of this Agreement.
The Annexes to this Agreement and its Protocol are hereby made an integral part of this Agreement.
1. In accordance with Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations, this Agreement shall be registered by the Secretary-General of the United Nations on the date of its coming into force.
2. IN FAITH WHEREOF the undersigned, duly authorized, have signed this Agreement on behalf of their respective governments.
Done at Lake Success, New York, this twenty-second day of November one thousand nine hundred and fifty in a single copy, which shall remain deposited in the archives of the United Nations, and certified true copies of which shall be delivered to all the States referred to in paragraph I of Article IX, as well as to the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and to the International Trade Organization (provisionally, to its Interim Commission).
Books, publications and documents
(i) Printed books.
(ii) Newspapers and periodicals.
(iii) Books and documents produced by duplicating processes other than printing.
(iv) Official government publications, that is, official, parliamentary and administrative documents published in their country of origin.
(v) Travel posters and travel literature (pamphlets, guides, time-tables, leaflets and similar publications), whether illustrated or not, including those published by private commercial enterprises, whose purpose is to stimulate travel outside the country of importation.
(vi) Publications whose purpose is to stimulate study outside the country of importation.
(vii) Manuscripts, including typescripts.
(viii) Catalogues of books and publications, being books and publications offered for sale by publishers or booksellers established outside the country of importation.
(ix) Catalogues of films, recordings or other visual and auditory material of an educational, scientific or cultural character, being catalogues issued by or on behalf of the United Nations or any of its Specialized Agencies.
(x) Music in manuscript or printed form, or reproduced by duplicating processes other than printing.
(xi) Geographical, hydrographical or astronomical maps and charts.
(xii) Architectural, industrial or engineering plans and designs, and reproductions thereof, intended for study in scientific establishments or educational institutions approved by the competent authorities of the importing country for the purpose of duty-free admission of these types of articles.
The exemptions provided by Annex A shall not apply to:
(b) Books, publications and documents (except catalogues, travel posters and travel literature referred to above) published by or for a private commercial enterprise, essentially for advertising purposes;
(c) Newspapers and periodicals in which the advertising matter is in excess of 70 per cent by space;
(d) All other items (except catalogues referred to above) in which the advertising matter is in excess of 25 per cent by space. In the case of travel posters and literature, this percentage shall apply only to private commercial advertising matter.
Works of art and collectors' pieces of an educational, scientific or cultural character
(i) Paintings and drawings, including copies, executed entirely by hand, but excluding manufactured decorated wares.
(ii) Hand-printed impressions, produced from hand-engraved or hand-etched blocks, plates or other material, and signed and numbered by the artist.
(iii) Original works of art of statuary or sculpture, whether in the round, in relief, or in intaglio, excluding mass-produced reproductions and works of conventional craftsmanship of a commercial character.
(iv) Collectors' pieces and objects of art consigned to public galleries, museums and other public institutions, approved by the competent authorities of the importing country for the purpose of duty-free entry of these types of articles, not intended for resale.
(v) Collections and collectors' pieces in such scientific fields as anatomy, zoology, botany, mineralogy, paleontology, archaeology and ethnography, not intended for resale.
(vi) Antiques, being articles in excess of 100 years of age.
Visual and auditory materials of an educational, scientific or cultural character
(i) Films, filmstrips, microfilms and slides, of an educational, scientific or cultural character, when imported by organizations (including, at the discretion of the importing country, broadcasting organizations), approved by the competent authorities of the importing country for the purpose of duty-free admission of these types of articles, exclusively for exhibition by these organizations or by other public or private educational, scientific or cultural institutions or societies approved by the aforesaid authorities.
(ii) Newsreels (with or without sound track), depicting events of current news value at the time of importation, and imported in either negative form, exposed and developed, or positive form, printed and developed, when imported by organizations (including, at the discretion of the importing country, broadcasting organization) approved by the competent authorities of the importing country for the purpose of duty-free admission of such films, provided that free entry may be limited to two copies of each subject for copying purposes.
(iii) Sound recordings of an educational, scientific or cultural character for use exclusively in public or private educational, scientific or cultural institutions or societies (including, at the discretion of the importing country, broadcasting organizations) approved by the competent authorities of the importing country for the purpose of duty-free admission of these types of articles.
(iv) Films, filmstrips, microfilms and sound recordings of an educational, scientific or cultural character produced by the United Nations or any of its Specialized Agencies.
(v) Patterns, models and wall charts for use exclusively for demonstrating and teaching purposes in public or private educational, scientific or cultural institutions approved by the competent authorities of the importing country for the purpose of duty-free admission of these types of articles.
Scientific instruments or apparatus
Scientific instruments or apparatus, intended exclusively for educational purposes or pure scientific research, provided:
(a) That such scientific instruments or apparatus are consigned to public or private scientific or educational institutions approved by the competent authorities of the importing country for the purpose of duty-free entry of these types of articles, and used under the control and responsibility of these institutions ;
(b) That instruments or apparatus of equivalent scientific value are not being manufactured in the country of importation.
Articles for the blind
I. Books, publications and documents of all kinds in raised characters for the blind.
II. Other articles specially designed for the educational, scientific or cultural advancement of the blind, which are imported directly by institutions or organizations concerned with the welfare of the blind, approved by the competent authorities of the importing country for the purpose of duty-free entry of these types of articles.
Protocol annexed to the Agreement on the Importation of Educational, Scientific and Cultural Materials
The Contracting States,
In the interest of facilitating the participation of the United States of America in the Agreement on the Importation of Educational, Scientific and Cultural Materials, have agreed to the following:
1. The United States of America shall have the option of ratifying this Agreement, under Article IX, or of accepting it, under Article X, with the inclusion of the reservation hereunder.
2. In the event of the United States of America becoming Party to this Agreement with the reservation provided for in the preceding paragraph 1, the provisions of that reservation may be invoked by the Government of the United States of America with regard to any of the contracting States to this Agreement, or by any contracting State with regard to the United States of America, provided that any measure imposed pursuant to such reservation shall be applied on a non-discriminatory basis.
(Text of the reservation)
(a) If, as a result of the obligations incurred by a contracting State under this Agreement, any product covered by this Agreement is being imported into the territory of a contracting State in such relatively increased quantities and under such conditions as to cause or threaten serious injury to the domestic industry in that territory producing like or directly competitive products, the contracting State, under the conditions provided for by paragraph 2 above, shall be free, in respect of such product and to the extent and for such time as may be necessary to prevent or remedy such injury, to suspend, in whole or in part, any obligation under this Agreement with respect to such product.
(b) Before any contracting State shall take action pursuant to the provisions of paragraph (a) above, it shall give notice in writing to the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization as far in advance as may be practicable and shall afford the Organization and the contracting States which are Parties to this Agreement an opportunity to consult with it in respect of the proposed action.
(c) In critical circumstances where delay would cause damage which it would be difficult to repair, action under paragraph (a) above may be taken provisionally without prior consultation, on the condition that consultation be effected immediately after taking such action.
|Thailand||Group IV||28 June 1951|
|Cambodia||Group IV||05 November 1951|
|Sri Lanka||Group IV||08 January 1952|
|Pakistan||Group IV||17 January 1952|
|Egypt||Group V (b)||08 February 1952|
|Lao People's Democratic Republic||Group IV||28 February 1952|
|Monaco||Group I||18 March 1952|
|Israel||Group I||27 March 1952|
|Sweden||Group I||21 May 1952|
|Viet Nam||Group IV||01 June 1952|
|Cuba||Group III||27 August 1952|
|Philippines||Group IV||30 August 1952|
|Switzerland||Group I||07 April 1953|
|Liechtenstein||29 April 1953|
|El Salvador||Group III||24 June 1953|
|United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland||Group I||11 March 1954|
|Haiti||Group III||14 May 1954|
|Spain||Group I||07 July 1955|
|Greece||Group I||12 December 1955|
|Finland||Group I||30 April 1956|
|Germany||Group I||09 August 1957|
|France||Group I||14 October 1957|
|Luxembourg||Group I||31 October 1957|
|Belgium||Group I||31 October 1957|
|Netherlands||Group I||31 October 1957|
|Afghanistan||Group IV||19 March 1958|
|Ghana||Group V (a)||07 April 1958|
|Austria||Group I||12 June 1958|
|Jordan||Group V (b)||31 December 1958|
|Norway||Group I||02 April 1959|
|Malaysia||Group IV||29 June 1959|
|Denmark||Group I||04 April 1960|
|Guatemala||Group III||08 July 1960|
|Nigeria||Group V (a)||26 June 1961|
|Sierra Leone||Group V (a)||13 March 1962|
|Democratic Republic of the Congo||Group V (a)||03 May 1962|
|Madagascar||Group V (a)||23 May 1962|
|New Zealand||Group IV||29 June 1962|
|Gabon||Group V (a)||04 September 1962|
|Italy||Group I||26 November 1962|
|United Republic of Tanzania||Group V (a)||26 March 1963|
|Cyprus||Group I||16 May 1963|
|Côte d'Ivoire||Group V (a)||19 July 1963|
|Nicaragua||Group III||17 December 1963|
|Cameroon||Group V (a)||15 May 1964|
|Rwanda||Group V (a)||01 December 1964|
|Uganda||Group V (a)||15 April 1965|
|Malawi||Group V (a)||17 August 1965|
|Burkina Faso||Group V (a)||14 September 1965|
|Iran (Islamic Republic of)||Group IV||07 January 1966|
|Trinidad and Tobago||Group III||11 April 1966|
|United States of America||Group I||02 November 1966|
|Kenya||Group V (a)||14 March 1967|
|Malta||Group I||19 January 1968|
|Niger||Group V (a)||22 April 1968|
|Morocco||Group V (b)||25 July 1968|
|Congo||Group V (a)||26 August 1968|
|Singapore||Group IV||11 July 1969|
|Mauritius||Group V (a)||18 July 1969|
|Japan||Group IV||17 June 1970|
|Bolivia (Plurinational State of)||Group III||29 September 1970|
|Romania||Group II||24 November 1970|
|Tunisia||Group V (b)||14 May 1971|
|Poland||Group II||24 December 1971|
|Iraq||Group V (b)||11 August 1972|
|Fiji||Group IV||31 October 1972|
|Libya||Group V (b)||22 January 1973|
|Barbados||Group III||13 April 1973|
|Zambia||Group V (a)||04 November 1974|
|Tonga||Group IV||11 November 1977|
|Oman||Group V (b)||19 December 1977|
|Ireland||Group I||19 September 1978|
|Hungary||Group II||15 March 1979|
|Holy See||22 August 1979|
|Syrian Arab Republic||Group V (b)||16 September 1980|
|Solomon Islands||Group IV||03 September 1981|
|Portugal||Group I||11 June 1984|
|San Marino||Group I||30 July 1985|
|Australia||Group IV||05 March 1992|
|Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)||Group III||01 May 1992|
|Slovenia||Group II||06 July 1992|
|Croatia||Group II||26 July 1993|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||Group II||01 September 1993|
|Russian Federation||Group II||07 October 1994|
|Bulgaria||Group II||14 March 1997|
|Slovakia||Group II||09 June 1997|
|Czechia||Group II||22 August 1997|
|North Macedonia||02 September 1997|
|Lithuania||Group II||21 August 1998|
|Republic of Moldova||Group II||03 September 1998|
|Zimbabwe||Group V (a)||01 December 1998|
|Kazakhstan||Group IV||21 December 1998|
|Uruguay||Group III||20 April 1999|
|Serbia||Group II||12 March 2001|
|Estonia||Group II||01 August 2001|
|Latvia||Group II||20 November 2001|
|Kyrgyzstan||Group IV||19 July 2005|
|Liberia||Group V (a)||16 September 2005|
|Montenegro||Group II||23 October 2006|
|Togo||Group V (a)||16 November 2009|
|Armenia||Group II||23 August 2010|
|Mali||Group V (a)||16 July 2014|
|Benin||Group V (a)||18 May 2017|
(1) "Until the expiration of the interim period as defined in article 3 of the Treaty between France and the Federal Republic of Germany of 27 October 1956 on the Settlement of the Saar Questions, the above-mentioned Agreement does not apply to the Saar Territory;"
(2) "In accordance with the aims of the Agreement, as out lined in its preamble, the Federal Republic's interpretation of the provisions contained in article 1 of the Agreement is that the granting of customs exemption is intended to serve the promotion of a free exchange of ideas and knowledge between the States Parties; that, however, this provision does not aim at furthering the shifting of production to a foreign country if such shifts are made chiefly for commercial reasons."
The Hungarian People's Republic calls attention to the fact that articles XIII and XIV of the Agreement are at variance with resolution 1514 on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples, adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations at its XVth session on 14 December 1960.
Iraq (see note 2)
Accession by the Republic of Iraq to the Agreement shall [. . .] in no way imply recognition of Israel or lead to entry into any relations with it.
"1. Annex B (vi) of the Agreement requires free admission for "Antiques, being articles in excess of 100 years of age". Under the relevant laws in force in Kenya, such items are admitted free of duty only if
a. They can be classified as "Works of Art"; and
b. They are not intended for resale and are admitted as such by the Commissioner of Customs and Excise; and
c. They are proved to the satisfaction of the Commissioner of Customs and Excise to be "over 100 years old".
If the above conditions are not fulfilled, such articles attract appropriate duty under the Tariff.
2. With respect to Annex C (i) of the Agreement, films, filmstrips, microfilms and slides of an educational or scientific character are granted duty-free entry into Kenya under conditions which accord with those specified in the Agreement. This is not necessarily so in the case of similar materials of a cultural nature which are dutiable under the appropriate items in the Tariff. This position may be attributed to the impossibility of defining the word "cultural" with any degree of precision.
3. With respect to Annex C (iii), sound recordings of an educational or scientific character for use under conditions specified in the Agreement are admitted into Kenya free of duty. However, no special provision exists for the admission of sound recordings of a cultural character and these attract duty under the relevant items of the Tariff."
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
The acceptance of the Libyan Arab Republic of this Agreement does not imply recognition of Israel or the assumption towards Israel of any commitments arising out of this Agreement.
The State Council of the Socialist Republic of Romania considers that the maintenance of the state of dependence of certain territories to which the provisions of articles XIII and XIV of the Agreement refer is inconsistent with the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples, which was adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations on 14 December 1960, by resolution 1514 (XV), which proclaims the necessity of bringing to a speedy and unconditional end colonialism in all its forms and manifestations.
The State Council of the Socialist Republic of Romania considers that the provisions of paragraph 1 of article IX are inconsistent with the principle that all multilateral treaties whose aim and purpose concern the international community as a whole should be open to universal participation.
The Government of Switzerland reserves the right to resume its freedom of action with regard to contracting States which unilaterally apply quantitative restrictions and exchange control measures of a nature to render the Agreement inoperative.
Furthermore, [the signature by the Government of Switzerland] is appended without prejudice to the attitudes of the Government of Switzerland in regard to the Havana Charter for an International Trade Organization signed at Havana on 24 March 1948.
United States of America
The ratification is subject to the reservation contained in the Protocol annexed to the Agreement.
|Notification by||Date of receipt of notification||Extension to|
|Belgium||31 October 1957||Belgian Congo and the Trust Territory of Ruanda-Urundi|
|France||10 December 1951||Tunisia|
|Netherlands||31 October 1957||Surinam and Netherlands New Guinea|
|Netherlands||01 January 1986||Aruba|
|New Zealand||29 June 1962||Tokelau Islands|
|New Zealand||28 February 1964||Cook Islands (including Niue)|
|United Kingdom||11 March 1954||Aden (Colony and Protectorate), Barbados, British Guiana, British Honduras, Brunei (Protected State), Fiji, Gambia (Colony and Protectorate), Gibraltar, Gold Coast: (a) Colony, (b) Ashanti, (c) Northern Territories (d) Togoland (under United Kingdom Trusteeship), Hong Kong (see note 3), Jamaica (including Turks and Caicos Islands and the Cayman Islands), Kenya (Colony and Protectorate), Leeward Islands (Antigua, Montserrat, St. Christopher, Nevis and Anguilla), Virgin Islands, Federation of Malaya (The British Settlements of Penang and Malacca and the Protected States of Johore, Kedah, Kelantan, Negri Sembilan, Pahang, Perak, Perlis, Selangor and Trengganu), Malta, Mauritius, Nigeria: (a) Colony, (b) Protectorate, (c) Cameroons (under United Kingdom Trusteeship), St. Helena (including Ascension Island and Tristan da Cunha), Sarawak, Seychelles, Sierra Leone (Colony and Protectorate), Singapore (including Christmas and Cocos (Keeling) Islands), Somalil and Protectorate, Tanganyika (under United Kingdom Trusteeship), Trinidad and Tobago, Uganda (Protectorate), Western Pacific High Commission Territories: British Solomon Islands Protectorate, Gilbert and Ellice Islands Colony, Central and Southern Line Islands, Zanzibar Protecorate|
|United Kingdom||16 September 1954||Cyprus, Falkland Islands (Colony and Dependencies), North Borneo (including Labuan), Tonga (Protected State), Windward Islands (Dominica, Grenada, St. Lucia, St. Vincent)|
|United Kingdom||18 May 1955||The Channel Islands and the Isle of Man|
|United Kingdom||22 March 1956||The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland|
|United Kingdom||14 March 1960||Bahamas|
1. Signed on behalf of China by its representatives to the United Nations and UNESCO at the time of signature.
China is an original Member of the United Nations, the Charter having been signed and ratified in its name, on 26 and 28 September 1945, respectively, by the Government of the Republic of China, which continuously represented China in the United Nations until 25 October 1971.
China is likewise an original Member of UNESCO, the Constitution having been signed and accepted in its name by the Government of the Republic of China which continuously represented China in UNESCO until 29 October 1971.
On 25 October 1971, the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted Resolution 2758(XXVI), which reads as follows:
''The General Assembly,
Recalling the principles of the Charter of the United Nations,
Considering that the restoration of the lawful rights of the People's Republic of China is essential both for the protection of the Charter of the United Nations and for the cause that the United Nations must serve under the Charter,
Recognizing that the representatives of the Government of the People's Republic of China are the only lawful representatives of China to the United Nations and that the People's Republic of China is one of the rive permanent members of the Security Council,
Decides to restore all its rights to the People's Republic of China and to recognize the representatives of its Government as the only legitimate representatives of China to the United Nations, and to expel forthwith the representatives of Chiang Kai-chek from the place which they unlawfully occupy at the United Nations and in all the organizations related to it."
The establishing of the Government of the People's Republic of China, occurring on 1 October 1949, was made known to the United Nations on 18 November 1949. Various proposals were formulated between that date and that of the adoption of the above-quoted resolution with a view to changing the representation of China at the United Nations, but these proposals were not adopted.
On 29 October 1971, the Executive Board of UNESCO, at its 88th session, adopted the following decision (88 EX/Decision 9):
"The Executive Board,
Taking into account the resolution adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 25 October 1971, whereby the representatives of the People's Republic of China were recognized as the only lawful representatives of China to the United Nations,
Recalling resolution 396 adopted by the United Nations General Assembly at its fifth regular session on 14 December 1950 recommending that "the attitude adopted by the General Assembly" on the question of the representation of a Member State "should be taken into account in other organs of the United Nations and in the Specialized Agencies".
Decides that, from today onwards, the Government of the People's Republic of China is the only legitimate representative of China in UNESCO and invites the Director-General to act accordingly."
On 29 September 1972 the Secretary-General of the United Nations received the following communication from the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China (translation):
"As concerns the multilateral treaties which the defunct Chinese Government signed, ratified or acceded to before the establishing of the Government of the People's Republic of China, my government will examine their terms before deciding, in the light of circumstances, whether they should or not be recognized.
As from 1 October 1949; day of the founding of the People's Republic of China, the Chiang Kai-chek clique has no right to represent China. Its signing and ratifying of any multilateral treaty, or its acceding to any multilateral treaty, by usurping the name of "China", are aIl illegal and void. My government will study these multilateral treaties before deciding, in the light of circumstances, whether it is or is not appropriate to accede to them."
On depositing the instrument of acceptance of the Agreement, the Government of Romania stated that it considered the above-mentioned signature as null and void, inasmuch as the only Government competent to assume obligations on behalf of China and to represent China at the international level is the Government of the People's Republic of China.
In a letter addressed to the Secretary-General in regard to the above-mentioned declaration, the Permanent Representative of the Republic of China to the United Nations stated:
"The Republic of China, a sovereign State and member of the United Nations, attended the Fifth Session of the General Conference of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, contributed to the formulation of the Agreement on the Importation of Educational, Scientific and Cultural Materials and duly signed the said Agreement on 22 November 1950 at the Interim Headquarters of the United Nations at Lake Success. Any statement relating to the said Agreement that is incompatible with or derogatory to the legitimate position of the Government of the Republic of China shall in no way affect the rights and obligations of the Republic of China as a signatory of the said Agreement."
2. In a communication received by the Secretary-General on 20 October 1972, the Government of Israel made the following declaration :
"The Government of Israel has noted the political character of a reservation made by the Government of Iraq on that occasion. In the view of the Government of Israel, this Agreement is not the propoer place for making such political pronouncements. Moreover, that declaration cannot in any way affect whatever obligations are binding upon Iraq under general international law or under particular treaties. The Government of Israel will, in so far as concerns the substance of the matter, adopt towards the Government of Iraq an attitude of complete reciprocity."
3. On 10 June 1997, the Secretary General received communications concerning the status of Hong Kong from the Governments of the United Kingdom and China.
"In accordance with the Joint Declaration of the Government of the Unietd Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of the People's Republic of China on the Question of Hong Kong, signed on 19 December 1984, the People's Republic of china will resume the exercise of sovereignty over Hong Kong with effect from 1 July 1997. Hong Kong will, with effect from that date, become a Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China."
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland :
"In accordance with the Joint Declaration of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of the People's Republic of China on the Question of Hong Kong signe don 19 December 1984, the Government of the United Kingdom will restore Hong Kong to the People's Republic of China with effect from 1 July 1997. The Government of the United Kingdom will continue to have international responsibility for Hong Kong until that date. Therefore, from that date the Government of the United Kingdom wil cease to be responsible for the international rights and obligations arising from the application of [Conventions] to Hong Kong."