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UNESCO Science Report


These webpages are dedicated to the UNESCO Science Report: towards 2030, which was released in November 2015. Spanning the period between 2009 and 2015, it monitors trends and developments in scientific research and governance, with data on 189 countries and profiles of 140 of them. Click on the links below to access the full report or the individual chapters and annexes.

The 2015 edition of the UNESCO Science Report was followed in 2021 by the UNESCO Science Report: the Race Against Time for Smarter Development.


Executive Summary

Read the Executive Summary: Français | English | Español | Русский | العربية | 中文 Português | Deutsch | Catalan

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Foreword (AR, CH, ES, FR, RU)
Irina Bokova, Director-General of UNESCO

Perspectives on emerging issues

(AR, CH, ES, FR, RU)

Global overview

A world in search of an effective growth strategy (AR, CAT, CH, ES, FR, GER, POR, RU)
Luc Soete, Susan Schneegans, Deniz Eröcal, Baskaran Angathevar and Rajah Rasiah

Tracking trends in innovation and mobility (AR, CH, ES, FR, RU)
Elvis Korku Avenyo, Chiao-Ling Chien, Hugo Hollanders, Luciana Marins, Martin Schaaper and Bart Verspagen

Is the gender gap narrowing in science and engineering? (AR, CH, ES, FR, RU)
Sophia Huyer

A closer look at regions and countries

Canada (AR, CH, ES, FR, RU)
Paul Dufour

United States of America (AR, CH, ES, FR, RU)
Shannon Stewart and Stacy Springs

Caricom (AR, CH, ES, FR, RU)
Harold Ramkissoon and Ishenkumba A. Kahwa

Latin America (AR, CH, ES, FR, RU)
Guillermo A. Lemarchand

Brazil (AR, CH, ES, FR, POR, RU)
Renato Hyuda de Luna Pedrosa and Hernan Chaimovich

European Union (AR, CH, ES, FR, RU)
Hugo Hollanders and Minna Kanerva

Southeast Europe (AR, CH, ES, FR, RU)
Djuro Kutlaca

European Free Trade Association (AR, CH, ES, FR, RU)
Hans Peter Hertig

Countries in the Black Sea basin (AR, CH, ES, FR, RU)
Deniz Eröcal and Igor Yegorov

Russian Federation (AR, CH, ES, FR, RU)
Leonid Gokhberg and Tatiana Kuznetsova

Central Asia (AR, CH, ES, FR, RU)
Nasibakhon Mukhitdinova

Iran (AR, CH, ES, FR, RU)
Kioomars Ashtarian

Israel (AR, CH, ES, FR, RU)
Daphne Getz and Zehev Tadmor

The Arab States (AR, CH, ES, FR, RU)
Moneef R. Zou’bi, Samia Mohamed-Nour, Jauad El-Kharraz and Nazar Hassan

West Africa (AR, CH, ES, FR, RU)
George Essegbey, Nouhou Diaby and Almamy Konte

East and Central Africa (AR, CH, ES, FR, RU)
Kevin Urama, Mammo Muchie and Remy Twiringiyimana

Southern Africa (AR, CH, ES, FR, RU)
Erika Kraemer–Mbula and Mario Scerri

South Asia (AR, CH, ES, FR, RU)
Dilupa Nakandala and Ammar Malik

India (AR, CH, ES, FR, RU)
Sunil Mani

China (AR, CH, ES, FR, RU)
Cong Cao

Japan (AR, CH, ES, FR, RU)
Yasushi Sato and Tateo Arimoto

Republic of Korea (AR, CH, ES, FR, RU)
Deok Soon Yim and Jaewon Lee

Malaysia (AR, CH, ES, FR, RU)
Rajah Rasiah and V.G.R. Chandran

Southeast Asia and Oceania (AR, CH, ES, FR, RU)
Tim Turpin, Jing A. Zhang, Bessie M. Burgos and Wasantha Amaradasa


Composition of regions and subregions (AR, CH, ES, FR, RU)
Glossary (AR, CH, ES, FR, RU)
Statistical annex
(AR, CH, ES, FR, RU)