Groundwater Resources and Climate (GRAPHIC)


Transporting water © UNESCO/Giorgio Faedo
© UNESCO/Giorgio Faedo

Study Regions

GRAPHIC Study Regions


One of GRAPHIC’s goals is to establish studies in different countries and regions of the world that incorporate a similar philosophy and approach – to analyze groundwater sustainability under the impacts of human activities and climate change and identify adaptation strategies. Findings from the studies will likely provide insights and comparisons among similar countries/regions, creating a global network of groundwater projects. By encouraging and coordinating consistent regional efforts provides a means to achieve GRAPHIC objectives while broadening the impact and applicability of the program.
GRAPHIC studies in different physiographic, climatic, and water use/management settings around the world will provide an opportunity to compare data among areas, and evaluate how controlling factors influence local water quantity and quality. GRAPHIC studies are designed around aquifers rather than political boundaries. GRAPHIC also provides opportunities for nested studies that address both sub-regional variations and primary controlling processes that enable up- and downscaling of interpretations.
At present, GRAPHIC regional expert groups have been established in the following regions:
  • GRAPHIC – Africa
  • GRAPHIC – Asia
  • GRAPHIC – Australia & Oceania
  • GRAPHIC – Europe
  • GRAPHIC – Latin America & the Caribbean
  • GRAPHIC – North America
  • GRAPHIC – Middle East
  • GRAPHIC – South America

Case Studies

The GRAPHIC network currently includes more than 20 case studies from parts of 30 countries. These case studies address groundwater resources in a range of hydrogeological settings from mountainous to coastal aquifer systems, including unconfined, semi-confined, and confined aquifers in unconsolidated to fractured- rock material.
GRAPHIC case studies include several high profile aquifer systems from each of the regions, including:
GRAPHIC – Africa
  • Iullemmeden Basin, West Africa
  • Souss-Mass Basin, Morocco
  • southern Mali
  • south-western Uganda
GRAPHIC – Asia & Pacific
  • Beijing Plain, China
  • several Asian mega-cities
GRAPHIC – Australia & Oceania
  • Murray Basin
  • Pacific Island countries
GRAPHIC – Europe
  • Esker aquifers, northern Finland
  • Majorca, Spain
  • The Netherlands, coastal aquifers
  • Svalbard, Norway
GRAPHIC – Latin America & Caribbean
  • North Andros Island, Bahamas
GRAPHIC – Middle East
GRAPHIC – North America
  • British Columbia: Okanagan Basin and Grand Forks
  • High Plains aquifer
  • Central Valley aquifer
  • U.S. Principal Aquifers: Project NSF EAR #1316553, Groundwater teleconnections with interannual to multidecadal climate variability, PI Jason Gurdak (San Francisco State University), Co-I Ty Ferre (University of Arizona), and Co-I Ed Maurer (Santa Clara University), National Science Foundation (NSF), EAR – Hydrologic Sciences (HS) Program, 2013-2016.
GRAPHIC – South America
  • Santa Fe Province, Argentina
  • central Brazil