- Seven trade agreements concluded by the European Union since 2005 incorporate one or more explicit references to the Convention. Given that the EU has 28 member states and that the 7 agreements have been concluded with 26 other states, together they implicate 55 states as well as the EU itself, 50 of which are Parties to the Convention.
- The promotion of the objectives and principles of the Convention in other international forums is not limited to the trade arena. Since 2005, it has been referenced in over 250 texts in dozens of international, regional and bilateral organizations.
- Since 2005, there has been an increase in the use of the ‘cultural exemption’ measure to exclude some cultural goods and/or services from the trade agreements.
- New trade instruments have emerged in the past ten years, namely, Protocols for Cultural Cooperation annexed to trade agreements. These Protocols recognize the specificity of cultural goods and services, but also provide for the attribution of preferential treatment to promote the mobility of artists and cultural professionals, especially from the global South. The Protocol for Cultural Cooperation annexed to the EU and Central America free trade agreement may be seen as a best practice in this regard.