Finland 2016 report

Technical Information
Name of Party: 
Finland
Date of ratification: 
18/12/2006
Organization(s) or entity(es) responsible for the preparation of the report: 
Ministry of Education and Culture, Foundation for Cultural Policy research Cupore
Officially designated Point of Contact: 
Title: 
Ms
First Name: 
Laura
Family Name: 
Mäkelä
Organization: 
Ministry of Education and Culture
Mailing Address: 
Meritullinkatu 10 00170 Helsinki Finlalnd
Telephone: 
Fax: 
E-mail: 
laura.makela@minedu.fi
Name of stakeholders, including civil society organizations, involved in the preparation of the report: 
Describe the multi-stakeholder consultation process established for the preparation of this report: 

This draft has been prepared in cooperation with researcher Anna Kanerva from the Foundation for Cultural Policy Research CUPORE.The draft has been sent for comments to National Unesco Committee as well as to main Civil Society organisations in the field of culture and audiovisual, State agencies in the field of culture and audiovisual, Public Service Radio YLE, and to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Communications and Transport, Ministry of Employment and Economy and the Ministry of Finance.

Executive Summary
Please summarize in max 3500 characters the main achievements and challenges in implementing the Convention and the outlook for the future. Please note this is not an introduction to the report or an annotated table of contents.: 
UNESCO’s convention on cultural diversity (2005) has reached a stage where the importance of creativity and innovation for the development of society, and especially for economic development, has begun to be emphasised internationally in new ways.  The importance of culture and creative sectors has also been recognized in the national level.  The implementation of the UNESCO 2005 Convention forms a natural part of the Finnish cultural policy, as well as of the Finnish objectives for sustainable development. Finland implements the Convention as a Member State of the European Union.The objective of Finnish education and cultural policy is to guarantee all people - irrespective of their ethnic origin, background or wealth – equal opportunities and rights to culture, free quality education, and prerequisites for full citizenship.The Finnish Government’s basic premise is that culture plays a central role in building a sustainable society. Arts and culture are essential elements of social life, and their creative effects extend into every sector of life. The Government aims to develop a cultural policy which recognises cultural diversity, provides proper working conditions for artists and creative sector and ensures that culture is available to every citizen. Special steps are currently taken to enhance participation in culture of vulnerable groups and especially children and young people. However, there remain challenges as regards the possibilities of artists to do their work and contribute to the society in the best possible ways. Artists position in the labour market and the level of artists' income are not on a solid base. Gender equality, freedom of artistic expression and self sencorship of artists are topical questions as well. The possibilities of culture and creative sector in the field of development cooperation have not been fully recognized and exploited. Steps are taken in this field as well.  
Overview of cultural policy context
Parties shall describe the key objectives and priorities of their current cultural policy and the impact the Convention has had in their formulation or reformulation. They will also report on the opportunities and challenges to promote the diversity of cultural expressions in a digital environment.: 

UNESCO’s convention on cultural diversity (2005) has reached a stage where the importance of creativity and innovation for the development of society, and especially for economic development, has begun to be emphasised internationally in new ways.  There has been talk about creative sectors and the creative economy.In 2006, Finland published its national creativity strategy. Creativity was seen not only as a motor for economic development, but also as a force which could have an impact on society’s spiritual base, its civilisation and social development.  In the spirit of the convention on cultural diversity, it was considered that cultural and societal diversity was a precondition for creativity. Cultural diversity and inclusivity increases the opportunities to utilise human resources in many different ways in the development of society. The creativity strategy did not just address issues related to cultural policy, but more broadly across different areas of government.   By putting creativity as the main defining factor of social development, it also reinforced the importance of cultural strategy in social policy.In 2009 Ministry of Education and Culture launched the Strategy for Cultural Policy 2020, and actually it was the first strategy ever for cultural policy made in the Ministry. In the strategy the following "key functions" for cultural policy were listed:

  • safeguarding equal access to education and culture;
  • promoting intellectual growth and learning;
  • enhancing opportunities for sharing and participation;
  • providing resources for improving the cultural and economic competitive capacity of the Finnish society;
  • opening up new channels in order to diversify the Finnish impact in the international community; and
  • improving effectiveness in the cultural sector.

It was stated in the Strategy that primary desired outcome of cultural policy in 2020 will be a strong cultural base in society and favourable conditions for creative workers and producers of cultural services, actively participating citizens, the promotion of wellbeing, and the enhancement of the economic impact of culture.The Strategy for Cultural Policy will be updated in 2016, and the aim will be now in the year 2025.Some new notions about the development of society and cultural policy have been proposed: uncertainty in the development, especially in economy, but also in political climate and in values; polarisation in social life, which will be reflected in cultural policy, too; diversity as “a new normal”, and increasing immigration; the role of the new ICT in economic and social development, especially concerning media, cultural production, dissemination and distribution. Culture will stay in the focus of interests, but by more complicated way than the Finns have used to have it.In its new strategy, the Ministry of Education and Culture will establish the following strategic targets for cultural policy for 2025:

  • The conditions for artistic and other creative work will be improved and the modes of production and distribution will be diversified.
  • Participation in culture will increase and the differences in participation between different sectors of the population will be narrowed.
  • The foundations for culture will be strong and viable.
Has the Convention been integrated into the policy development process in any of the following ways?: 
a) It is (or has been) the basis for changing one or more policies?: 
Yes
How: 
The implementation of the UNESCO 2005 Convention forms a natural part of the Finnish cultural policy, as well as of the Finnish objectives for sustainable development. Finland implements the Convention as a Member State of the European Union.The objective of Finnish education and cultural policy is to guarantee all people - irrespective of their ethnic origin, background or wealth – equal opportunities and rights to culture, free quality education, and prerequisites for full citizenship.The Finnish Government’s basic premise is that culture plays a central role in building a sustainable society. Arts and culture are essential elements of social life, and their creative effects extend into every sector of life. The Government aims to develop a cultural policy which recognises cultural diversity and ensures that culture is available to every citizen. Special steps are currently taken to enhance participation in culture of vulnerable groups and especially children and young people. 
b) It is (or has been) a tool to promote policy discussion?: 
Yes
How: 

Yes, Through the Convention cultural policy issues have been discussd on a cross sectorial basis. Culture's wide impact in society has been recognized. The Convention has created a platform for policy discussions on topical cultural policy issues and strategies eg. on Nordic level. It also forms a platform for the cultural policy discussions within the EU, especially as regards the role of culture in EU's foreign relations. 

c) It is (or has been) a reference for ongoing policy development?: 
No
How: 
❭ CULTURAL POLICIES AND MEASURES

Public Service Media, Public broadcasting tax

Context of the measure: 
CULTURAL POLICIES AND MEASURES
b. Key objectives of the measures: 

Finnish Broadcasting Company (Yle) is Finland's national public service broadcasting company. Yle operates four national television channels as well as six radio channels and services complemented by over 20 regional radio programmes.In 2014, Yle's share of daily television viewing was 44 per cent. Yle Radio Suomi also kept its position as dominant market leader and Yle's radio listening was 52 per cent. Yle programmes and content reach 100 per cent of Finnish people yearly.The company is 99.9 per cent state-owned and supervised by an Administrative Council appointed by Parliament, and operates under the Act on Yleisradio Oy.The company is responsible for the provision of comprehensive television and radio programming with the related additional and extra services for all citizens under equal conditions. These and other content services related to public service may be provided in all telecommunications networks. The public service programming shall in particular:1. Support democracy and everyone’s opportunity to participate by providing a wide variety of information, opinions and debates as well as opportunities to interact;2. Produce, create, develop and maintain Finnish culture, art and inspiring entertainment;3. Take educational and equality aspects into consideration in the programmes, provide an opportunity to learn and study, give focus on programming for children and young people, and offer devotional programmes;4. Treat in its broadcasting Finnish-speaking and Swedish-speaking citizens on equal grounds and produce services in the Sami, Romany, and sign languages as well as, where applicable, in the languages of other language groups in the country;5. Support tolerance and multiculturalism and provide programming for minority and special groups;6. Promote cultural interaction and provide programming directed abroad; and7. Broadcast official announcements, for which further provisions shall be issued by decree, and make provisions for television and radio broadcasting in exceptional circumstances.

c. What is: 
c.1. the scope of the measure: 
National
c.2. the nature of the measure: 
legislative
financial
c.3. the main feature of the measure: 

As a strong public service radio and television company, Yle contributes to the fact that, year after year, Finland is one of the leading countries in respect of freedom of the press and freedom of expression.Diversity, diversity of expression, equality, access to information and culture as well as financial independence are critical for ensuring democracy. Democracy for its part is a basic requirement for human rights, freedom of expression and sustainable development as well as for social peace.In all of its operations, Yle must support opportunities for everyone to be engaged by providing diverse information, opinions and discussion as well as opportunities for interaction. Yle must also produce, create, develop and preserve domestic culture, art and stimulating entertainment. In addition, Yle’s programming takes into account cultural and equality perspectives, learning and opportunities for personal development. All of these are significant dimensions in a diverse media arena.According to a resent study made by the Reuters institute for the study of journalism  at Oxford University, YLE had embraced constant change and developed strong social media strategies. According to study YLE  together with BBC has managed to attract online audiences more in keeping with their established offline reach than their European counterparts.http://reutersinstitute.politics.ox.ac.uk/news/can-public-service-news-organisations-stay-competitive-digital-environment

d. Does it specifically target individuals and/or social groups as defined in Article 7 of the Convention?: 
No
e. What are the results expected through the implementation of the measure?: 

The role of a public service broadcaster is to provide services to citizens on equal terms. Changes in the media and society are challenging public service companies throughout Europe. Many countries have examined or are examining the roles, funding and oversight of public service broadcasters. This process is currently on going also in Finland.

f.2 Financial resources allocated to implement the measure: 

YLE's total budget is approximately 500 million € annually. Yle's operations are financed by Public broadcasting tax which replaced TV licenses at the beginning of 2013. The maximum amount of this tax is €143 per year.

h. Was this measure introduced or revised in order to: 
h.1. Implement the provisions of the Convention?: 
Yes
h.2. Support/nurture policy discussion inspired by the Convention?: 
Yes
h.3. Other reasons unrelated to the Convention?: 
Yes
i. Has the implementation of the measure been evaluated?: 
Yes
i.1 At what level the evaluation was conducted?: 
National
i.2 What were the main conclusions?: 

YLE's financing model and role in the national media landscape is under evaluation at the moment. The Parlamentary working group will give its opinion on the matter at the end of June 2016.

❭ CULTURAL POLICIES AND MEASURES

The Government resolution on policy programme on intangible value creation

Context of the measure: 
CULTURAL POLICIES AND MEASURES
b. Key objectives of the measures: 

The Government resolution brings together into a Policy programme for intan­gible value creation for 2014 to 2020: 1) central updated policy measures of the natio­nal strategy concerning intellectual property rights, 2) key policy measures promoting business and entrepreneurship in the creative industries and 3)the updated national design programme. The resolution strengthens cooperation and policy interaction in the implementation of measures.The objective of the Policy programme for intangible value creation is to enhance the prerequisites for intangible investments, strengthen the expertise related to the utili­sation of intellectual capital and intangible value creation and to promote the develop­ment of innovation-based business in Finland. The aim is also to strengthen the eco­nomic base of cultural production thus ensuring the maintenance and renewal of the nation’s intellectual capital.https://www.tem.fi/files/39770/vnp_aineettoman_arvonluonnin_kehittamisohjelmasta_EN.pdf

c. What is: 
c.1. the scope of the measure: 
National
c.2. the nature of the measure: 
financial
institutional
c.3. the main feature of the measure: 

The Ministry of Education and Culture and the Ministry of Employment and the Economy will develop methods for the valuation of intellectual property rights and strengthen the expertise in the valuation intellectual property rights among financiers. IPR-Institue at University of Helsinki runs the project and it will be ready by 12/2016.Out of the funds of the Tekes fund programme for startups to be launched in 2014, one will specialise in investments in product development to be carried out in companies the creative sector. The fund will invest its funds in the development and produc­tion of individual products and services and will receive in return income in the form of royalties from their sales. The operating model guarantees that copyright and other intellectual property rights to commodities based on creative expertise will remain with Finnish producers. The aim is to involve private investors using the same prin­ciples employed in connection with other new funds by Tekes.

d. Does it specifically target individuals and/or social groups as defined in Article 7 of the Convention?: 
No
e. What are the results expected through the implementation of the measure?: 

The objective of the Policy programme for intangible value creation is to enhance the prerequisites for intangible investments, strengthen the expertise related to the utili­sation of intellectual capital and intangible value creation and to promote the develop­ment of innovation-based business in Finland. The aim is also to strengthen the eco­nomic base of cultural production thus ensuring the maintenance and renewal of the nation’s intellectual capital.The Ministry of Employment and Economy and the Ministry of Finance will monitor and develop the uptake of new forms of funding and operating methods such as crowdsourcing, co-creation and crownfunding. Changes in the legislation concerning crowdfunding will come into effect 7/2016.

f.2 Financial resources allocated to implement the measure: 

No special state budget funding allocated to this activity at the moment.

h. Was this measure introduced or revised in order to: 
h.1. Implement the provisions of the Convention?: 
Yes
h.2. Support/nurture policy discussion inspired by the Convention?: 
Yes
h.3. Other reasons unrelated to the Convention?: 
Yes
i. Has the implementation of the measure been evaluated?: 
No
i.1 At what level the evaluation was conducted?: 
National
i.2 What were the main conclusions?: 

The measure has not been evaluated yet. 

❭ CULTURAL POLICIES AND MEASURES

Support for artistic creativity

Context of the measure: 
CULTURAL POLICIES AND MEASURES
b. Key objectives of the measures: 

The objectives of cultural policy in Finland relate to creativity, cultural diversity and equity. One of the main policy objectives is to provide favorable conditions for the work of artists and other creative workers through financing and arts and artists’ policy.The system of arts councils and its specific art form councils is responsible for implementing arts and artists' policies in Finland. It is also the provider of the most important support system for artistic creativity from the point of view of autonomy of the arts, the peer group evaluation mechanisms, for deciding grants for artists and artist-led projects.The Arts Promotion Centre Finland (Taike) is the Finnish expert and service agency for promoting the arts. Taike replaced the former Arts Council of Finland and its activities in 2013. Taike comprises a Central Arts Council, national arts councils (10 in 2013-2014), regional arts councils (13 in 2014) and separate boards. It operates under the supervision of the Finnish Ministry of Education and Culture and is funded from the state art budget. Taike implements the art and culture policies of the Ministry of Education and Culture within the framework of its duties and under the supervision of the ministry. The Central Arts Council serves as an advisory body to the Ministry of Education and Culture in policymaking regarding the arts.According to the strategy of Taike, the centre is:

  • the key funding agency for the arts and artistic work, as well as an advocate of public support for the arts
  • a promoter of the intrinsic value and autonomy of the arts
  • an expert and active and strong influence in art and artist policies
  • a developer of new cooperation, funding and operating models for the arts and a networking organisation.

Taike promotes the livelihood and working conditions of artists and therefore the availability and accessibility of the arts, the internationalisation of the arts, the diversity of the arts and intercultural dialogue and the status and visibility of the arts in society and the rights of citizens to art and culture.

c. What is: 
c.1. the scope of the measure: 
National
c.2. the nature of the measure: 
financial
c.3. the main feature of the measure: 

The operations of Taike comprise support for artistic activities in the form of awarding grants and subsidies, as well as development and project activities that are implemented primarily by regional artists employed throughout Finland. These two fields of operation constitute arts promotion.  Taike together with its arts councils and boards awards grants to professional artists and subsidies to communities in the field of the arts. The elected bodies working in connection with Taike are art policy experts that perform peer reviews of the applications submitted to Taike.Taike grants national state grants and subsidies and regional grants and subsidies. The former include artist grants (from 0.5 to 10 years), projects grants, travel grants, grants for writers and translators, public display grants, grants for projects supporting multiculturalism, artist-in-residence grants, cultural well-being subsidies and operational grants for communities, including NGOs. Regional grants include working and project grants, cultural wellbeing subsidies and support for communities, and also include a special grant for children’s culture.   Each year Taike receives 14,000 applications on which it makes decisions. Altogether, 250 peer reviewers are involved in the decision-making process.

d. Does it specifically target individuals and/or social groups as defined in Article 7 of the Convention?: 
Yes
e. What are the results expected through the implementation of the measure?: 

Taike's grants and subsidies aim at strengthening the opportunities for practicing the arts professionally.According to its strategy, Taike wants to developed its direct artist grants to respond to the needs of professional artists and communities of free artists. Taike also aims at creating established forms of arts promotion cooperation covering the entire public administration system. With its cooperation partners, Taike wants to ensure the prerequisites for practicing the arts professionally, as well as establish social security and pensions system for artists that is sustainable and equal to that of other professions.The Arts Promotion Centre Finland publishes an annual statistical report on grant applicants and recipients. Taike evaluates the implementation of its strategic targets annually in connection with its annual report and if necessary reviews its targets on the basis of this evaluation.

f.2 Financial resources allocated to implement the measure: 

The funds used for arts promotion come from two sources. Statutory support in the form of state artist grants and grants for writers and translators (i.e. library grants) is paid from the state budget. Other discretionary support is paid from lottery funds, which account for over 60 percent of the funds allocated for arts promotion.Funding and support for artists by the Arts promotion Centre Finland (www.taike.fi) in 2014:

  • The total arts and culture budget in Finland was 456.1 million € in 2014. Of this, Taike support (arts promotion total) was 7.7%. Despite of the current difficult financial situation, the amount of funding for artistic creativity has not decreased in the state budget.
  • In 2014 Taike supported artistic activities through grants, subsidies and awards amounting to 32.4 million euros (21.3. million euros was went to direct support for artists). This amount was 0.3 percent or approximately 100,000 euros more than in the previous year.
  • A total of 2.8 million euros was spent on development and project activities. This is approximately the same amount as in the previous year.
  • Altogether 35.2 million euros was spent on arts promotion in 2014. Support awarded on the basis of applications accounted for 91 percent of this amount, representing an increase of 0.5 percent over the previous year.

See report in http://www.taike.fi/en/publications

h. Was this measure introduced or revised in order to: 
h.1. Implement the provisions of the Convention?: 
Yes
h.2. Support/nurture policy discussion inspired by the Convention?: 
Yes
h.3. Other reasons unrelated to the Convention?: 
Yes
i. Has the implementation of the measure been evaluated?: 
No
❭ CULTURAL POLICIES AND MEASURES

Digidemo –programme

Context of the measure: 
CULTURAL POLICIES AND MEASURES
b. Key objectives of the measures: 

The aim of the DigiDemo programme is to promote the development of important cultural content and service projects, to improve the R&D prospects of businesses in the field, and to respond to challenges concerning the cultural policies of a digitalised society.For more information, http://www.kopiosto.fi/avek/en_GB/avek_subsidies/http://www.minedu.fi/export/sites/default/OPM/Julkaisut/2008/liitteet/opm39.pdf

c. What is: 
c.1. the scope of the measure: 
National
c.2. the nature of the measure: 
financial
c.3. the main feature of the measure: 

Subsidies are awarded to companies or industry experts for R&D projects based on the above content types that aim to develop new kinds of narratives or services in the fields of culture and entertainment, utilise multiple channels and have a good chance of going into production.Projects considered for subsidies are evaluated based on their innovativeness and capacity for production. Additionally, the projects’ potential for commercial success nationally or internationally is also considered.DigiDemo support is awarded from funds allocated to AVEK (The Promotion Centre for Audiovisual Culture) by the Ministry of Education and Culture since 2002.

d. Does it specifically target individuals and/or social groups as defined in Article 7 of the Convention?: 
No
e. What are the results expected through the implementation of the measure?: 

Please see the objectives of the measure above.

f.2 Financial resources allocated to implement the measure: 

DigiDemo support is awarded from funds allocated to AVEK (The Promotion Centre for Audiovisual Culture) by the Ministry of Education and Culture since 2002. Yearly around 800 000 euros are awarded to multiple projects.

h. Was this measure introduced or revised in order to: 
h.1. Implement the provisions of the Convention?: 
Yes
h.2. Support/nurture policy discussion inspired by the Convention?: 
Yes
h.3. Other reasons unrelated to the Convention?: 
Yes
i. Has the implementation of the measure been evaluated?: 
Yes
i.1 At what level the evaluation was conducted?: 
National
i.2 What were the main conclusions?: 

The programme was evaluated in 2007 regarding the years 2003-2006. The evaluation showed that DigiDemo had a clear impact in supporting the creation of new content products and services. The share of DigiDemo subsidy in the demo project budget is major, covering almost 40% of the budget on average. Compared to the group of non-funded projects, the funded projects have considerably more often reached the market.

i.3 Which indicators were used to determine impact?: 

Please see the report.

❭ CULTURAL POLICIES AND MEASURES

Grant recipients’ pension insurance

Context of the measure: 
CULTURAL POLICIES AND MEASURES
b. Key objectives of the measures: 

Improvement of pension and social security for artists receiving grants.

c. What is: 
c.1. the scope of the measure: 
National
c.2. the nature of the measure: 
legislative
c.3. the main feature of the measure: 

Since 2009, grants awarded for artistic or scientific work have been insured by the Farmers’ Social Insurance Institution under the Farmers’ Pensions Act.The insured at working age are covered by sickness allowance and occupational accident insurance that is automatically included in the pension insurance. Both private and public grants and scholarships are covered by this insurance. There are approximately 3,400 monthly insured recipients.In 2015, the legislation was amended so that in future it will be possible to interrupt pension insurance on grants because of paid work.This has been possible with state awarded artistic grants since the beginning of 2016. 

d. Does it specifically target individuals and/or social groups as defined in Article 7 of the Convention?: 
Yes
e. What are the results expected through the implementation of the measure?: 

Artists' social security and pension cover improves.

f.2 Financial resources allocated to implement the measure: 

No experience yet as this is a new measure.

h. Was this measure introduced or revised in order to: 
h.1. Implement the provisions of the Convention?: 
Yes
h.2. Support/nurture policy discussion inspired by the Convention?: 
Yes
h.3. Other reasons unrelated to the Convention?: 
Yes
i. Has the implementation of the measure been evaluated?: 
No
❭ CULTURAL POLICIES AND MEASURES

Percent-for-Art Scheme

Context of the measure: 
CULTURAL POLICIES AND MEASURES
b. Key objectives of the measures: 

The Ministry of Education and Culture has supported the progress of the Percent-for-Art scheme related to new construction and renovation to the value of EUR 1.5 million over the period 2012-2015 by awarding public grants to organisations working in this field as well as through the Arts Promotion Centre. The money dedicated to promoting the scheme has had a significant impact on orders for artistic works, disseminating and increasing awareness of the Percent-for-Art scheme and thus on the income of artists. The state’s investment has stimulated the municipalities and other property developers to get involved. In addition, the Ministry has set up a steering group for the period 2015-2017 to examine and coordinate the Percent-for-Art scheme in public construction work. The role of the steering group is to make proposals for ways to provide incentives and guidance so that at least one percent of the cost of public construction and environmental planning projects is used to acquire public works of art.

c. What is: 
c.1. the scope of the measure: 
National
c.2. the nature of the measure: 
financial
c.3. the main feature of the measure: 

A three-year (2016-2018) spearhead project has been launched as part of a strategic government project to expand the Percent-for-Art scheme in cooperation with social and health care. The objective of the spearhead project is to improve accessibility to art and culture and thus promote the well-being effects of art. This will happen by increasing the offer from different fields of art and cultural services as well as their use by the social and healthcare services in their work in patient care for example in hospitals, care of the elderly and child protection. The long-term objective is to get art- and culture-based well-being services to become a permanent part of social and health care structures and the monitoring of well-being.

d. Does it specifically target individuals and/or social groups as defined in Article 7 of the Convention?: 
No
e. What are the results expected through the implementation of the measure?: 

Artists get employment, patients' accessibility to art and culture will be improved and the well-being effects of art will be enhancecd.

f.2 Financial resources allocated to implement the measure: 

Funding of two million Euros has been reserved for this spearhead project over its three-year duration 2016-2018.

h. Was this measure introduced or revised in order to: 
h.1. Implement the provisions of the Convention?: 
Yes
h.2. Support/nurture policy discussion inspired by the Convention?: 
Yes
h.3. Other reasons unrelated to the Convention?: 
Yes
i. Has the implementation of the measure been evaluated?: 
No
❭ CULTURAL POLICIES AND MEASURES

Establishing of the Arts Promotion Centre Finland

Context of the measure: 
CULTURAL POLICIES AND MEASURES
b. Key objectives of the measures: 

In 2010 the Finnish Ministry of Education and Culture prepared a draft law which proposed the dissolving of the national Arts Council system and establishing in its place another organisation named "Arts Promotion Centre Finland" (Taiteen edistämiskeskus in Finnish, abbreviation Taike). The idea behind re-organising of the system of arts councils was to increase the transparency of decision making and the flexibility of the art form councils in responding to the new art forms. Also important was to separate the peer review expert body from the administrative function of the council as they had become increasingly intermingled. This separation was felt to be essential for strengthening and safeguarding the autonomy of the arts.Instead of an expert body, the new organisation was to be of a central agency type with a centralised but light organisational structure a well-functioning and receptive information system. The draft law caused a lively policy debate in the Finnish arts and culture field, including the media. After almost two years of debate the Parliament of Finland passed the bill establishing the new Arts Promotion Centre Finland in November 2012. The Centre started operating on 1 January 2013.

c. What is: 
c.1. the scope of the measure: 
Regional
National
c.2. the nature of the measure: 
legislative
regulatory
financial
institutional
c.3. the main feature of the measure: 

The official task of the Arts Promotion Centre Finland is to promote the arts and the work of artists on both national and international levels, as well as to promote those aspects of culture that are not covered by any other official agency. The Centre is an expert agency under the Ministry of Education and Culture. It comprises a Central Arts Council (Taideneuvosto in Finnish), national arts councils, regional arts councils and separate boards. In charge of the overall management and development of the Centre is a director, appointed for a fixed five year term.Highest in the hierarchy of the expert bodies is the Central Arts Council which is appointed by the Ministry of Education and Culture for a three-year term. The Council makes decisions regarding the number, names and roles of the national arts councils. It also appoints the members of both national and regional arts councils for two-year terms based on expert recommendations. The Central Arts Council serves as an advisory body to the Ministry of Education and Culture in policymaking regarding the arts.There are 13 regional arts councils (their number has stayed unchanged) and for the term 2015-2016 there are seven (compared to ten in 2013-2014) national arts councils: Architecture, design and environmental art; Audiovisual art; Performing arts; Literature; Music; Visual arts; and Interdisciplinary art, diversity and international activities. In addition there are two separate boards, one for grants and subsidies to writers and translators and one for public display grants to visual artists. The councils decide on the awarding of grants and awards to artists on the basis of peer reviews. The national arts councils have up to four sub-commitees for the preparation of peer reviews.

d. Does it specifically target individuals and/or social groups as defined in Article 7 of the Convention?: 
No
e. What are the results expected through the implementation of the measure?: 

The aim of the establishing of the Arts Promotion Centre Finland (Taike) was to increase the transparency of decision making and the flexibility of the art form councils in responding to the new art forms and to separate the peer review body from the administrative function to better safeguard the autonomy of the arts.According to the Strategy of the Arts Promotion Centre (Taike) for 2015-2020, Taike promotes:• the livelihood and working conditions of artists and therefore the availability and accessibility of the arts• the internationalisation of the arts• the diversity of the arts and intercultural dialogue• the status and visibility of the arts in society and the rights of citizens to art and culture.In the strategy Taike states as its core values expertise, openness and respect in relation to its customers and art community, the agency itself and its empolyees and the larger society of citizens and public administration.As operational objectives the Centre states that by 2020:• Taike has established its position as an expert in art and artist policies• Taike has created an electronic service package based on the needs of its customers and peer reviewers that is of the highest quality in terms of usability.• Taike has reorganised its structure and operating methods to correspond better with the tasks assigned to it. Taike has clarified its division of duties with other public administration bodies. As its arts promotion objectives Taike states high quality art and established cross-sector activities among artists and cooperation that promotes livelihoods. According to objectives by 2020:

  • Taike has developed its direct artist grants to respond to the needs of professional artists and communities of free artists.
  • Taike evaluates the implementation of its strategic targets annually in connection with its annual report and if necessary reviews its targets on the basis of this evaluation.
f.2 Financial resources allocated to implement the measure: 

The Centre's administrative costs, which amount to approximately five million euros per year, are covered by funds allocated by the Ministry of Education and Culture. For more information on the resources allocated to arts promotion through Taike, please see measure Support for artistic creativity in this report.  

h. Was this measure introduced or revised in order to: 
h.1. Implement the provisions of the Convention?: 
Yes
h.2. Support/nurture policy discussion inspired by the Convention?: 
Yes
h.3. Other reasons unrelated to the Convention?: 
Yes
i. Has the implementation of the measure been evaluated?: 
Yes
i.1 At what level the evaluation was conducted?: 
National
i.2 What were the main conclusions?: 

It is still early to comprehensively evaluate what role the Centre will take in the field of arts and culture. An evaluation of the legislative changes is under way (to be completed in autumn 2016) and will provide a starting point.

i.3 Which indicators were used to determine impact?: 

See above.

❭ INTERNATIONAL CULTURAL COOPERATION

European Union programmes and policies

Context of the measure: 
INTERNATIONAL CULTURAL COOPERATION
b. Key objectives of the measures: 

As a member of the European Union, Finland participates in all EU-funded cultural programmes and working groups.

c. What is: 
c.1. the scope of the measure: 
International
c.2. the nature of the measure: 
institutional
c.3. the main feature of the measure: 

For more information, please refer to the report of the European Union.

d. Does it specifically target individuals and/or social groups as defined in Article 7 of the Convention?: 
No
e. What are the results expected through the implementation of the measure?: 

For more information, please refer to the report of the European Union.

f.2 Financial resources allocated to implement the measure: 

For more information, please refer to the report of the European Union.

h. Was this measure introduced or revised in order to: 
h.1. Implement the provisions of the Convention?: 
Yes
h.2. Support/nurture policy discussion inspired by the Convention?: 
Yes
h.3. Other reasons unrelated to the Convention?: 
Yes
i. Has the implementation of the measure been evaluated?: 
No
❭ INTERNATIONAL CULTURAL COOPERATION

Nordic co-operation

Context of the measure: 
INTERNATIONAL CULTURAL COOPERATION
b. Key objectives of the measures: 

Nordic co-operation has a special position in Finnish international co-operation policies. Finland is represented in the cultural and educational committees, working groups and steering groups responsible to the Nordic Council of Ministers, and participates in the Nordic Cultural Fund, which is administered by the Secretariat of the Nordic Council of Ministers in Copenhagen. Finland has bilateral Cultural Funds with all the other Nordic countries: Iceland (1974), Norway (1979), Sweden (1960) and Denmark (1981). These cultural funds are administered by the Swedish-Finnish Cultural Centre at Hanasaari (Helsinki). The Ministry of Education and Culture allocates the Finnish share of funds for Nordic co-operation. In the field of cultural policy Finland has emphasized mobility of artists and cultural workers, as well as the role of creative industries in overall economic development of the region.In their cooperation, the Nordic countries highlight cultural exchanges, the visibility of Nordic countries and their cultures in Europe, and cooperation with neighbouring areas. These activities are underpinned by the Cultural Agreement signed by all the five Nordic countries.The focus in Nordic cooperation is shifting to multiannual projects. New forms of action are also being sought in the mobility and residence programmes.The Nordic Council of Ministers is a central platform for cultural co-operation in the Nordic countries. The activities of the Council of Ministers in the field of culture have ramifications in other areas of formal and informal Nordic co-operation, both in and outside the Nordic region.

c. What is: 
c.1. the scope of the measure: 
International
c.2. the nature of the measure: 
institutional
c.3. the main feature of the measure: 

The Nordic Ministers of Culture adopted a new strategy for Nordic cultural co-operation 2013-2020 on 31 October 2012. The strategy emphasises five topics: the Sustainable Nordic Region, the Creative Nordic Region, the Inter-cultural Nordic Region, the Young Nordic Region and the Digital Nordic Region. The new strategy is supplemented each year by a Presidency Programme for the Culture sector. Finland is the President of the Nordic Council of Ministers in 2016. The programme, called Water, nature and people, was prepared in 2015 and includes a separate sector programme for culture. The culture programme emphasises the digital, intercultural, sustainable and creative aspects of Nordic co-operation. Also a seminar titled Re-shaping cultural policies organized in the programme, organized in co-operation with the UNESCO as a side event to UNESCO World Press Freedom Day conference. Its objective was to increase awareness of the significance of cultural freedom of expression’s diversity in sustainable development and cultural expression in the Nordic  countries and discuss how these could be utilised in the implementation of the UN’s new action programme of sustainable development (Agenda 2030).A declaration of the Nordic Ministers of Culture on the promotion of the diversity of cultural expression:http://www.norden.org/fi/pohjoismaiden-ministerineuvosto/ministerineuvostot/kulttuuriministerineuvosto-mr-k/julkilausumat/declaration-by-the-nordic-ministers-of-culture-on-promoting-diversity-of-cultural-expressions-and-artistic-freedom-in-a-digital-age

d. Does it specifically target individuals and/or social groups as defined in Article 7 of the Convention?: 
No
e. What are the results expected through the implementation of the measure?: 

Nordic co-operation promotes Nordic and regional interests and values in a globalised world.

f.2 Financial resources allocated to implement the measure: 

The total annual budget for the Nordic Council is about DKK 33 million and the budget for the Nordic Council of Ministers is approx. DKK 955 million.

h. Was this measure introduced or revised in order to: 
h.1. Implement the provisions of the Convention?: 
Yes
h.2. Support/nurture policy discussion inspired by the Convention?: 
Yes
h.3. Other reasons unrelated to the Convention?: 
Yes
i. Has the implementation of the measure been evaluated?: 
No
❭ INTERNATIONAL CULTURAL COOPERATION

Finnish-Russian Cultural Forum

Context of the measure: 
INTERNATIONAL CULTURAL COOPERATION
b. Key objectives of the measures: 

The Finnish-Russian Cultural Forum is a unique form of activity developed by the Finnish Ministry of Education and Culture and the Ministry of Culture of the Russian Federation to activate and promote direct cultural cooperation between civic organisations, cultural institutions and artists.The Forum is a continuing process comprising two tasks: continuous partnership activities, including an annual Forum arranged alternately in Finland and Russia, and cooperation between the Finnish and Russian cultural administration. Both forms of action were initiated in 2000.The Forum activities are geared to develop new forms of flexible and transparent cooperation between the Ministries and between regional and local administrations in Finland and Russia. At the 2005 Forum in Vologda, the Ministries signed a cooperation agreement with a view to promoting cross-border cooperation in the sphere of arts and culture as well as to promoting the implementation of cultural partnership in the northern regions. 

c. What is: 
c.1. the scope of the measure: 
International
c.2. the nature of the measure: 
institutional
c.3. the main feature of the measure: 

The main task in the Finnish-Russian Cultural Forum is direct cooperation between cultural actors. The Forum helps them in finding a partner and launching joint ventures. In the Forum, cultural and art professionals, amateurs and institutions have a channel for finding a suitable partner in the neighbouring country. These activities have not been limited to given forms of art, but comprise the whole spectrum of culture, including education. A partner may be sought by an art gallery, a theatre troupe, an orchestra, a punk band, a conservatoire, a school, a university, a circus, a tourism enterprise, or even an individual artist or researcher if they have sufficient resources for cooperation.Finnish and Russian partners may propose joint projects themselves or respond to a proposal made by a cultural actor in the neighbouring country. Between 2000 and 2015, altogether 2335 project proposals have been made within the Forum. There have been around 350 participants in each Forum since 2010.The annual Cultural Forum offers a meeting place for those working in the cultural and art field in Finland and Russia. The prospective partners participating in the Forum are given time to discuss with one another in order to explore ideas and develop cooperation through interpreters. The field-specific workshops in the Forums provide an opportunity to find out about other projected or ongoing joint ventures, make new contacts and expand cooperation. Partners can also consult experts about sources of financing and participate in seminars on topical issues in cultural cooperation.Geographically the whole of Finland takes part in the Forum activities. In Russia the Forum covers 12 regions in the northwest Russia and in 2006 Moscow and the Moscow Region also joined the Forum. Since 2007, each year several new regions in Russia join the forum.

d. Does it specifically target individuals and/or social groups as defined in Article 7 of the Convention?: 
No
e. What are the results expected through the implementation of the measure?: 

One important aspiration in the Forum from the outset has been to create conditions for cultural cooperation between the EU and Russia and to strengthen the northern cultural partnership. Alongside the seventh Finnish-Russian Forum in 2006 Kajaani, the Finnish EU Presidency arranged an EU-Russia Expert Meeting on Culture, which launched a process towards creating a cooperation action plan for EU-Russia cultural cooperation.

f.2 Financial resources allocated to implement the measure: 

Finnish Ministry of Education and Culture allocates yearly ca 150 000 euros to the Finland-Russia Society for coordination of the Forum activities and organization of the Forum event. In addition communities can apply for subsidies. The amount of subsidies for cultural cooperation with Russia is 500 000 euros per year out of which 50 000 euros are earmarked for launching new projects, which have been negotiated at the Forum. The financing of all cultural forum activities is based on the principle of reciprocity between Finland and Russia. 

g. Name of NGOs and/or private companies engaged in the implementation of the measure, if any: 
Name: 
Finland-Russia Society
Type of Entity: 
NGO
Type of Involvement: 

In Finland, the Finland-Russia Society has taken care of the partner activities, the practical preparation and organisation of the Forums and relevant information since 2004.

h. Was this measure introduced or revised in order to: 
h.1. Implement the provisions of the Convention?: 
Yes
h.2. Support/nurture policy discussion inspired by the Convention?: 
Yes
h.3. Other reasons unrelated to the Convention?: 
Yes
i. Has the implementation of the measure been evaluated?: 
Yes
i.1 At what level the evaluation was conducted?: 
International
i.2 What were the main conclusions?: 

Finnish-Russian Cultural Forum has been evaluated in 2005. Evaluation was commissioned by the Finnish Ministry of Education and Culture and it comprised self-evaluation report and report made by the group of independent experts. Each year organizers report in the Annual report on the substance issues discussed at the Forum, publish statistics and report on the results of the project negotiations on the basis of feedback received from the participants.

i.3 Which indicators were used to determine impact?: 

Experts examined quantitative indicators by analyzing weather Forum activities were organized in cost-effective way. Experts paid also attention to the fact that Forum activities have contributed to the grass-root level cooperation e.g. by creating a new meeting place for actors in the field of arts and culture as well as decreased the prejudices, which is not solely in the interest of Finland, but also in the wider European scope.

Have you taken or supported initiatives involving civil society in activities: 
Promote the objectives of the convention through awareness raising and other activities: 
Yes
Please explain how: 

Open seminars has been organised.

Collect data and share and exchange information on measures adopted at local and international level: 
No
Please explain how: 
Provide spaces where ideas of civil societies can be heard and discussed while developing policies: 
Yes
Please explain how: 

Civil society is heard by the MInistry when new measures are developed.

Implement Operational Guidelines: 
No
Please explain how: 
Other: 
Please explain how: 
Is Civil Society contributing to this report?: 
Yes
Name of the Organization(s): 
Cupore Foundation for Cultural Policy Reasearch

Contribution from Civil Society

This section is to be completed with information provided by civil society: 
Has the civil society taken initiatives to: 
Promote the principle and the objectives of the Convention locally and internationally: 
No
Please explain how: 
Promote ratification of the Convention and its implementation by governements: 
No
Please explain how: 
Bring the concerns of citizens, associations and enterprises to public authorities, including vulnerable groups: 
No
Please explain how: 
Contribute to the achievement of greater transparency and accountability and accountability in the cultural governance: 
No
Please explain how: 
Monitor policy and programme implementation on measures to protect and promote diversity of cultural expression: 
No
Please explain how: 
Build capacities in domains linked to the Convention and carrying out data collection: 
No
Please explain how: 
Create innovative partnerships with the public and private sectors and with civil society of other regions of the worlds: 
No
Please explain how: 
Challenges encountered or foreseen to implement the Convention: 
Solutions found or envisaged: 
Activities planned for next 4 years to implement the Convention: 
Supporting attachment provided by the Civil Society: 
Describe main results achieved in implementing the Convention: 

Finland implements cultural policy measures that contribute in various ways to the objectives of the Convention and it is not possible to point out some main results that would have been achieved in the implementing of the Convention during the last four years.

Challenges encountered or foreseen to implement the Convention : 

The question of gender equality has not been particularly strongly present in the Finnish arts or cultural policy discourse in the last four years. This is so even though current research (Roiha et al. 2015, Rensujeff 2014) strongly demonstrates gender segregation of especially art professions. The latest comprehensive data concerning gender equality in the arts in Finland dates from 2010.Labour Market situation of the artists; Artists’position in the labour market is unstable. Their income level has not developed equally with the income level of population in general. This applies to most art fields. Eg. in the field of visual arts, only 20% of artists can make their living by art. The share of women has increased in the field of arts in Finland since the 1980s. Even so, women still earn, regardless of their field of arts, less than men. The labour market situation is an especially important factor affecting income. The income gap is especially marked in the field of the so-called free arts, among artists not working as employees. Especially segregated fields of art in Finland, as they are also internationally, are dance, applied arts and visual arts. ( Roiha & al2015).By promoting sustainable development worldwide, Finland bears global responsibility. In accordance with the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, Finland takes part in resolving the great global challenges facing humankind – such as mitigating climate change, reducing poverty, food security, and access to clean water and sustainable energy. Culture is not particularly emphasised.Awareness raising and concrete cooperation with Civil Society actors in the implementation of the Convention will remain a central future action.

Solutions found or envisaged to overcome those challenges: 

There are plans to enhance the labour market situation of the artists.The Finnish Ministry of Education and Culture has a functional gender equality plan (2013-2017) to guide strategic, legislative and financial and project planning in the field of cultural policy.Finland supports fragile states, which are in the most difficult position, as well as countries with which cooperation can gradually develop to be more broad-based, for instance in the direction of commercial and economic cooperation.The priorities of Finland’s development cooperation also include peacebuilding, democracy and development of the rule of law as well as building the country’s own economy, including developing countries’ own responsible business activity and strengthening of the tax base. In all its international cooperation, Finland emphasises human rights and the position of women and girls. The long-term goal is to raise financing for development, in accordance with UN objectives, to 0.7 per cent of the gross national income.Civil society involvement will be srengthenged in the future implemenation of the Convention.

Steps planned for the next 4 years: 

See above.

1. Economy and Finance: 
1.1. Total Flows of Cultural Goods and Services: 
1.1.a Cultural Goods: 
Total exports in cultural goods: 
USD: 
390000000.00
Year: 
2012
Source: 
Statistics Finland, Cultural Statistics 2013 (report)
Total imports in cultural goods: 
USD: 
1025900000.00
Year: 
2012
Source: 
Statistics Finland, Cultural Statistics 2013 (report)
1.1.b Cultural Services: 
Total exports in cultural services: 
USD: 
0.00
Year: 
Source: 
Total imports in cultural services: 
USD: 
Year: 
Source: 
1.2 Contribution of cultural activities Gross Domestic Product: 
Total GDP: 
USD: 
192334022273.00
Year: 
2012
Source: 
Statistics Finland's PX-Web databases, Culture Satellite Accounts, http://pxnet2.stat.fi/PXWeb/pxweb/en/StatFin/StatFin__kan__klts/?tablelist=true&rxid=c7d0523f-f09d-4fde-8158-844734ace805
USD: 
6 123 937 458.00
Year: 
2012
Source: 
Statistics Finland's PX-Web databases, Culture Satellite Accounts, http://pxnet2.stat.fi/PXWeb/pxweb/en/StatFin/StatFin__kan__klts/?tablelist=true&rxid=c7d0523f-f09d-4fde-8158-844734ace805
Which methodology was used to calculate the share of culture in total GDP?: 

Culture Satellite Accounts are a statistical system which aims at describing the economic contribution of culture. So far, there is no internationally agreed on method for producing culture satellite, but the culture satellite compiled in Finland largely follows the same methods that are used in Travel and Tourism Satellite Accounts, which have been developed in international co-operation.The basic classifications of National Accounts are used in the culture satellite, i.e. the Classification of Sectors, Standard Industrial Classification (TOL) and COICOP (Classification of Individual Consumption According to Purpose). Certain 5-digit level industries have been selected for the culture satellite and industry groups are formed from these industries. The industry groups correspond with the classification used in cultural statistics as far as possible. A few changes have been made compared with the industry groups used in cultural statistics.The data of the culture satellite are based on the source data used in the calculation of national accounts. The input data of the culture satellite are calculated by sector for separately agreed industries at the 5-digit level and are then summed to the level of the whole economy (different sectors in total) by industry group.The GDP has been calculated as the sum of gross value added of the various institutional sectors or the various industries plus taxes and less subsidies on products.Source: http://tilastokeskus.fi/meta/til/klts_en.html 

1.3. Government expenditure on culture: 
Total government expenditure: 
USD: 
121715601493.00
Year: 
2012
Source: 
www.stat.fi
Share of culture in government expenditure: 
USD: 
482851669.00
Year: 
2012
Source: 
Statistics Finland, Cultural Statistics 2013 (report)
2. Books: 
(a) Number of published titles: 
Num: 
0
Year: 
Source: 
(b) Number of publishing companies: 
Total all companies: 
Num: 
Year: 
Source: 
Small Size Companies: 
Num: 
Year: 
Source: 
Medium Size: 
Num: 
Year: 
Source: 
Large Size: 
Num: 
Year: 
Source: 
(c) Bookshops and sales: 
Bookstore chains: 
Num: 
Sales, USD: 
Year: 
Source: 
Independent Book stores: 
Num: 
Sales, USD: 
Year: 
Source: 
Book stores in other retail: 
Num: 
Sales, USD: 
Year: 
Source: 
Online Retailers (labels): 
Num: 
Sales, USD: 
Year: 
Source: 
(d) Translation flows: 
Number of published translations: 
Num: 
Year: 
Source: 
3. Music: 
(a) Production / Number of albums produced: 
Physical Format: 
Num: 
Year: 
Source: 
Digital Format: 
Num: 
Year: 
Source: 
Independent Format: 
Num: 
Year: 
Source: 
Majors: 
Num: 
Year: 
Source: 
(b) Sales / Total number of recorded music sales: 
Physical Format: 
Num: 
Year: 
Source: 
Digital Format: 
Num: 
Year: 
Source: 
4. Media: 
(a) Broadcasting audience and share: 
Year: 
Source: 
Programmes: 
(b) Broadcasting media organizations: 
Year: 
Source: 
Ownership: 
Public: 
Radio channels: 
Television channels: 
Both radio & television channels: 
Total: 
0
Private: 
Radio channels: 
Television channels: 
Both radio & television channels: 
Total: 
0
Community: 
Radio channels: 
Television channels: 
Both radio & television channels: 
Total: 
0
Not specified: 
Radio channels: 
Television channels: 
Both radio & television channels: 
Total: 
0
Total: 
Radio channels: 
0
Television channels: 
0
Both radio & television channels: 
0
Total: 
0
(c) Newspapers: 
Year: 
Source: 
Publishing format - printed: 
Free Only: 
Non-daily newspapers: 
Total: 
0
Paid Only: 
Daily newspapers: 
Non-daily newspapers: 
Total: 
0
Both Free and Paid: 
Daily newspapers: 
Non-daily newspapers: 
Total: 
0
Publishing format - both printed and online: 
Free Only: 
Daily newspapers: 
Non-daily newspapers: 
Total: 
0
Paid Only: 
Daily newspapers: 
Non-daily newspapers: 
Total: 
0
Both Free and Paid: 
Daily newspapers: 
Non-daily newspapers: 
Total: 
0
Total: 
Daily newspapers: 
0
Non-daily newspapers: 
0
Total: 
0
5. Connectivity, infrastructure, access: 
Number of mobile phone subscribers per 1000 inhabitants: 
Num: 
Year: 
Source: 
Number of households with Internet access at home: 
Num: 
Year: 
Source: 
Number of individuals using the Internet: 
Num: 
Year: 
Source: 
Percentage of people participating in cultural activities at least one time during the last 12 months: 
6. Cultural Participation: 
Activity (in %): 
Cinema: 
Female: 
Male: 
Total: 
0.00
Theatre: 
Male: 
Total: 
0.00
Dance (including ballet): 
Female: 
Male: 
Total: 
0.00
Live concert/musical performance: 
Female: 
Male: 
Total: 
0.00
Exhibition: 
Female: 
Male: 
Total: 
0.00
TOTAL: 
Female: 
0.00
Male: 
0.00
Total: 
0.00
Is there any available data on the reasons for the non participation in cultural events?: 
Main reasons for non-participation (in %): 
Too Expensive: 
Female: 
Male: 
Total: 
0.00
Lack of Interest: 
Female: 
Male: 
Total: 
0.00
Lack of time: 
Female: 
Male: 
Total: 
0.00
Lack of information: 
Female: 
Male: 
Total: 
0.00
Too far away: 
Female: 
Male: 
Total: 
0.00
Other: 
Female: 
Male: 
Total: 
0.00
7. Additional clarifications: 
Title: 
Ms
First Name: 
Zabrina
Family Name: 
Holmström
Organization: 
Ministry of Education and Culture
Position: 
Councellor for Cultural Affairs, Secretary-General of the Finnish National Commission for Unesco