European Union 2017 report

European Union 2017 report

Technical Information
Name of Party: 
European Union
Date of ratification: 
18/12/2006
Organization(s) or entity(es) responsible for the preparation of the report: 
European Commission, Directorate General Education & Culture
Officially designated Point of Contact: 
Title: 
Mr
First Name: 
Walter
Family Name: 
Zampieri
Organization: 
European Commission
Mailing Address: 
Head of Unit D1 - Culture Policy J70 2/232 1049 Brussels Belgium
Telephone: 
Fax: 
E-mail: 
walter.zampieri@ec.europa.eu
Name of stakeholders, including civil society organizations, involved in the preparation of the report: 
Describe the multi-stakeholder consultation process established for the preparation of this report: 

The European Union (EU) is itself a multi-stakeholder consultation process. The implementation of the Convention and preparation of this report have been discussed among 28 EU Member State governments in Brussels and Paris, and in the European Commission (EC) Inter Service Group on Culture, attended by up to 20 different Directorates General in policy areas including research, digital, development cooperation, enterprise and taxation.

This report is a factual description of measures taken from 2012-16. Civil society and cultural and creative organizations have been consulted on the measures themselves, including through the EC’s Structured Dialogue with the cultural sector (currently known as Voices of Culture) and the biennial European Culture Forum. For details see the questionnaire on civil society, and relevant sections in each of the measures questionnaires.

The EC actively seeks to hear and discuss the ideas of multiple stakeholders in policy-making. The primary means of doing this is public consultations, via the Your Voice in Europe website; examples include consultations on the digital single market, copyright and audio-visual media services: https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/consultations; external relations including the future of EU development policy and a new partnership between the EU and ACP: https://eeas.europa.eu/headquarters/headquarters-homepage/search/site?f%5B0%5D=bundle%3Aeeas_press&f%5B1%5D=sm_field_eeas_press_category%3Aconsultation

The EC has also organized many stakeholder meetings and events which have informed this report. Examples include

- the European Development Days, https://eudevdays.eu/past-editions, involving 42000 participants from 154 countries, with popular sessions on culture policy

- 2015 seminar on the results of the EU-UNESCO Expert Facility project.

- 2015 meeting with civil society on future development cooperation on culture under Global Public Goods and Challenges programme.

- 2015-16 study visits under the Culture for Cities and Regions project, involving civil society stakeholders in 15 European cities.

Executive Summary
Please summarize in max 3500 characters the main achievements and challenges in implementing the Convention and the outlook for the future. Please note this is not an introduction to the report or an annotated table of contents.: 
From 2012-16 the European Union (EU) has continued actively to implement the 2005 Convention across a range of policies, to promote and protect the diversity of cultural expressions. This report is a factual description of relevant EU measures during the reporting period.Main achievements include- a new EU strategy for international cultural relations. Adopted jointly by the European Commission (EC) and the EU High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy in 2016, the strategy strongly reiterates the EU’s commitment to the 2005 Convention, and aims to promote international cultural relations based on long-term engagement, mutual understanding, people-to-people contacts and co-creation.- modernising the EU copyright framework for the digital age.  In 2016 the EC presented a draft reform of EU copyright rules, to help ensure authors and artists are fairly paid for what the create, greater transparency in contractual arrangements between creators and online platforms, and broader availability of copyright-protected content in the EU and across borders.- safeguarding the diversity of cultural expressions in EU trade, economic and political agreements with 3rd countries. From 2012-2016 there were 7 new EU agreements referencing the Convention and/or with clauses on the diversity of cultural expressions: with the SADC EPA states (Botswana, Lesotho, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland); Colombia & Peru, Georgia; Moldova; Vietnam; Kazakhstan; and Mongolia. There was explicit reference to the Convention in the 2012 EU-China Declaration on Cultural Cooperation. Ratification of the 2005 Convention has also been a criterion in EU accession negotiations and for participation in Creative Europe.Current challenges in EU implementation of the Convention include the pace and scope of digitisation and declining public budgets for culture.  We must also continue to promote the diversity of cultural expressions and ensure it remains valued, economically and intrinsically - including in light of migration and security concerns. The outlook for the future is positive. Promoting diverse cultural expressions remains key, to combat prejudices, cross language barriers and bring communities together. In the next 4 years the EU will work to give effect to Agenda 2030, complete the Digital Single Market, adopt a new Work Plan for Culture, and implement the EU strategy on international cultural relations. While heritage is not directly relevant to this Convention, it is a priority for EU culture policy with the designation of 2018 as European Year of Cultural Heritage; the EU aims to use the Year also to promote the diversity of cultural expressions
Overview of cultural policy context
Parties shall describe the key objectives and priorities of their current cultural policy and the impact the Convention has had in their formulation or reformulation. They will also report on the opportunities and challenges to promote the diversity of cultural expressions in a digital environment.: 

With individual EU Member States responsible for their own culture sector policies, the EU’s role is to help address common challenges, such as the impact of the digital shift, changing models of cultural governance, and the need to support the innovation potential of the cultural and creative sectors. The EU is also committed to promoting cultural diversity, protecting cultural heritage, easing obstacles to the mobility of cultural professionals, and supporting the contribution of cultural and creative industries to boosting growth and jobs, in line with the principles of the 2007 European Agenda for Culture.  The culture sector is, increasingly, a source of job creation, contributing to growth in Europe. It is also an excellent conduit for promoting social inclusion and supporting cultural diversity.

 

The European Agenda for Culture thus contributes to both the Europe 2020 strategy for growth and jobs and to satisfying Europe's commitments to international agreements, particularly the 2005 Convention.  During the reporting period, the European Agenda for Culture has been implemented via two work plans, the 2011-2014 Work Plan for Culture, and the 2015-18 Work Plan for Culture. Details of these Work Plans are set out in this report.

Has the Convention been integrated into the policy development process in any of the following ways?: 
a) It is (or has been) the basis for changing one or more policies?: 
Yes
How: 
During the reporting period ratification of the Convention has been a criterion for countries to access EU culture funding (participation in the Culture/Media/Creative Europe programmes), part of broader accession negotiations with neighbouring countries, and a factor in political and economic agreements with other third countries.  In the EU’s own policy-making the Convention has been a key point of reference, notably in the development of the digital single market and the proposed reform of the EU copyright framework.
b) It is (or has been) a tool to promote policy discussion?: 
Yes
How: 

The implementation of the Convention has stimulated policy discussions among 28 EU Member States in Brussels and Paris, and in the European Commission’s Inter Service Group on Culture.  This Inter Service Group is attended by up to 20 different Directorates General in policy areas including research, digital, development cooperation, enterprise and taxation.

c) It is (or has been) a reference for ongoing policy development?: 
Yes
How: 

The Convention is a key reference in the 2007 European Agenda for Culture (second preamble, preceded only by the Treaty on European Union).  The European Agenda for Culture continues to define the framework for EU policy collaboration on culture.  The 2011-2014 and 2015-18 Work Plans for Culture also explicitly reference the Convention and its implementation, in relation with third countries but also relevant European and national policies (see later in this report).

Have you taken or supported initiatives involving civil society in activities: 
Promote the objectives of the convention through awareness raising and other activities: 
Yes
Please explain how: 

The EU involves civil society in activities to promote the objectives of the Convention in a number of different ways.  The main civil society activities in relation to EU culture policy and funding are the Structured Dialogue with the cultural sector (currently known as Voices of Culture), the European Culture Forum, and the Creative Europe programme.  Each is described in more detail elsewhere in this report.

Collect data and share and exchange information on measures adopted at local and international level: 
Yes
Please explain how: 

Again, the Structured Dialogue and European Culture Forum have been the main means of doing this (described separately).  There has also been significant civil society involvement in the development of EU policy on cultur ein EU external relations, the Work Plan for Culture, the Euroepan Neighbourhood Policy, and the Mobility of Artists (again, described separately).  Civil society participation is in fact described under most other policy measures in the report – in the section on NGO and private sector involvement.

Provide spaces where ideas of civil societies can be heard and discussed while developing policies: 
Yes
Please explain how: 

In addition to the European Culture Forum and Structured Dialogue, the EC actively seeks to hear and discuss the ideas of civil society in policy-making. The primary means of doing this is public consultations, via the Your Voice in Europe website; below are some examples particularly relevant to the Convention:

 

 

 

 

During the reporting period the EC has also organized many stakeholder meetings and events involving civil society.  Examples include

 

- 2015 seminar on the results of the EU-UNESCO Expert Facility project.

- 2015 –meeting with key civil society stakeholders on the scope of possible future development cooperation on culture under Global Public Goods and Challenges programme.

- 2015 and 2016 events on Culture and Urban Development in EU-Latin American and Caribbean cooperation, bringing together government  representatives, urban planners, artists, private sector exponents, local community and civil society organizations from the EU and Latin America.

- 2015-16 – 15 study visits under the Culture for Cities and Regions project, involving civil society organizations in Nantes, Wallonia, Nord-Pas de Calais, Bologna, Dundee, Birmingham, North Portugal, Helsinki & Espoo, Lodzkie, Sofia, Antwerp, Aarhus, Barcelona, Regensburg and Vilnius.

Implement Operational Guidelines: 
Yes
Please explain how: 

While no specific initiatives have been taken during the reporting period explicitly to implement the 12 sets of operational guidelines under the Convention, there have been relevant activities in a number of areas, involving civil society, and described elsewhere in this report.  These include measures to promote and protect cultural expressions (Articles 7, 8, 17), education and public awareness (Article 10), international cooperation (Article 12) and cooperation for development and preferential treatment (Articles 14, 16).

 

The EC has also liaised with civil society in relation to the new draft operational guidelines on implementation of the Convention in the digital environment – during 2015 and 2016 meetings of the governing bodies (Conference of Parties and Inter-governmental Committee) and at a specific event in Mons in October 2015 hosted by the Fédération Wallonie Bruxelles.  Civil society input to consultations on the EU digital single market strategy are also highly relevant to these draft guidelines.

Other: 
Please explain how: 
Is Civil Society contributing to this report?: 
No
Name of the Organization(s): 

Contribution from Civil Society

This section is to be completed with information provided by civil society: 
Has the civil society taken initiatives to: 
Promote the principle and the objectives of the Convention locally and internationally: 
No
Please explain how: 
Promote ratification of the Convention and its implementation by governements: 
No
Please explain how: 
Bring the concerns of citizens, associations and enterprises to public authorities, including vulnerable groups: 
No
Please explain how: 
Contribute to the achievement of greater transparency and accountability and accountability in the cultural governance: 
No
Please explain how: 
Monitor policy and programme implementation on measures to protect and promote diversity of cultural expression: 
No
Please explain how: 
Build capacities in domains linked to the Convention and carrying out data collection: 
No
Please explain how: 
Create innovative partnerships with the public and private sectors and with civil society of other regions of the worlds: 
No
Please explain how: 
Challenges encountered or foreseen to implement the Convention: 
Solutions found or envisaged: 
Activities planned for next 4 years to implement the Convention: 
Supporting attachment provided by the Civil Society: 
Describe main results achieved in implementing the Convention: 

Please see executive summary – in which Parties were invited to describe main achievements - and the results of the individual measures elsewhere in this report.

Challenges encountered or foreseen to implement the Convention : 

Please see executive summary – in which Parties were invited to describe challenges in implementing the Convention - and challenges described under the individual measures elsewhere in this report.

Solutions found or envisaged to overcome those challenges: 

Please see the descriptions of individual measures set out elsewhere in this report.

Steps planned for the next 4 years: 

Next steps are a matter for EU political decision-making. Here we refer only to measures already agreed/communicated:

·   Work Plan for Culture – following a mid-term review of the 2015-18 Work Plan, the EC will propose a new Work Plan for Culture 2019-2022.

·      Voices of Culture – remains the main framework for dialogue between EU civil society and the EC on culture. Key 2017-18 themes will be heritage and social inclusion.

·      Creative Europe – there will be annual programmes and calls under culture, media and cross-sectoral strands until the current programme ends in 2020.

·      Culture in external relations – the 2016 strategy will be implemented, including through a Cultural Diplomacy Platform led by EU Member States’ cultural institutes

·      2018 European Year of Cultural Heritage – the EC has called for the Year to encourage and promote understanding of the importance of the diversity of cultural expressions, in line with the 2005 Convention, and suggested this could be done through educational and public awareness programmes.

·      Sustainable Development Goals / Agenda 2030 - the EC is mapping and monitoring relevant EU policies on a regular basis, including with respect to culture.

·      European Consensus – in 2016, following public consultation, the EC adopted a proposal for a new European Consensus for Development “Our World, our Dignity, our Future”.

·      EU-UNESCO Expert Facility under the 2005 Convention – the EC is finalising an independent external evaluation.

·      2014-20 Global Public Goods and Challenges programme – the EC is defining development cooperation priorities, including on culture.

- Digital for development – in Conclusions adopted by the Foreign Affairs/Development Council in 2016, the EU recognised that digital technologies play a strategic role in the development and growth of cultural and creative industries and should be used to protect and promote cultural diversity. The EU will take steps to promote digital technologies in culture & development, building on projects like Creative Tracks (described separately)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1. Economy and Finance: 
1.1. Total Flows of Cultural Goods and Services: 
1.1.a Cultural Goods: 
Total exports in cultural goods: 
USD: 
Year: 
Source: 
Total imports in cultural goods: 
USD: 
Year: 
Source: 
1.1.b Cultural Services: 
Total exports in cultural services: 
USD: 
Year: 
Source: 
Total imports in cultural services: 
USD: 
Year: 
Source: 
1.2 Contribution of cultural activities Gross Domestic Product: 
Total GDP: 
USD: 
Year: 
Source: 
USD: 
Year: 
Source: 
Which methodology was used to calculate the share of culture in total GDP?: 
1.3. Government expenditure on culture: 
Total government expenditure: 
USD: 
Year: 
Source: 
Share of culture in government expenditure: 
USD: 
Year: 
Source: 
2. Books: 
(a) Number of published titles: 
Num: 
Year: 
Source: 
(b) Number of publishing companies: 
Total all companies: 
Num: 
Year: 
Source: 
Small Size Companies: 
Num: 
Year: 
Source: 
Medium Size: 
Num: 
Year: 
Source: 
Large Size: 
Num: 
Year: 
Source: 
(c) Bookshops and sales: 
Bookstore chains: 
Num: 
Sales, USD: 
Year: 
Source: 
Independent Book stores: 
Num: 
Sales, USD: 
Year: 
Source: 
Book stores in other retail: 
Num: 
Sales, USD: 
Year: 
Source: 
Online Retailers (labels): 
Num: 
Sales, USD: 
Year: 
Source: 
(d) Translation flows: 
Number of published translations: 
Num: 
Year: 
Source: 
3. Music: 
(a) Production / Number of albums produced: 
Physical Format: 
Num: 
Year: 
Source: 
Digital Format: 
Num: 
Year: 
Source: 
Independent Format: 
Num: 
Year: 
Source: 
Majors: 
Num: 
Year: 
Source: 
(b) Sales / Total number of recorded music sales: 
Physical Format: 
Num: 
Year: 
Source: 
Digital Format: 
Num: 
Year: 
Source: 
4. Media: 
(a) Broadcasting audience and share: 
Year: 
Source: 
Programmes: 
(b) Broadcasting media organizations: 
Year: 
Source: 
Ownership: 
Public: 
Radio channels: 
Television channels: 
Both radio & television channels: 
Total: 
Private: 
Radio channels: 
Television channels: 
Both radio & television channels: 
Total: 
Community: 
Radio channels: 
Television channels: 
Both radio & television channels: 
Total: 
Not specified: 
Radio channels: 
Television channels: 
Both radio & television channels: 
Total: 
Total: 
Radio channels: 
Television channels: 
Both radio & television channels: 
Total: 
(c) Newspapers: 
Year: 
Source: 
Publishing format - printed: 
Free Only: 
Non-daily newspapers: 
Total: 
Paid Only: 
Daily newspapers: 
Non-daily newspapers: 
Total: 
Both Free and Paid: 
Daily newspapers: 
Non-daily newspapers: 
Total: 
Publishing format - both printed and online: 
Free Only: 
Daily newspapers: 
Non-daily newspapers: 
Total: 
Paid Only: 
Daily newspapers: 
Non-daily newspapers: 
Total: 
Both Free and Paid: 
Daily newspapers: 
Non-daily newspapers: 
Total: 
Total: 
Daily newspapers: 
Non-daily newspapers: 
Total: 
5. Connectivity, infrastructure, access: 
Number of mobile phone subscribers per 1000 inhabitants: 
Num: 
Year: 
Source: 
Number of households with Internet access at home: 
Num: 
Year: 
Source: 
Number of individuals using the Internet: 
Num: 
Year: 
Source: 
Percentage of people participating in cultural activities at least one time during the last 12 months: 
6. Cultural Participation: 
Activity (in %): 
Cinema: 
Female: 
Male: 
Total: 
Theatre: 
Male: 
Total: 
Dance (including ballet): 
Female: 
Male: 
Total: 
Live concert/musical performance: 
Female: 
Male: 
Total: 
Exhibition: 
Female: 
Male: 
Total: 
TOTAL: 
Female: 
Male: 
Total: 
Is there any available data on the reasons for the non participation in cultural events?: 
Main reasons for non-participation (in %): 
Too Expensive: 
Female: 
Male: 
Total: 
Lack of Interest: 
Female: 
Male: 
Total: 
Lack of time: 
Female: 
Male: 
Total: 
Lack of information: 
Female: 
Male: 
Total: 
Too far away: 
Female: 
Male: 
Total: 
Other: 
Female: 
Male: 
Total: 
7. Additional clarifications: 

There are many statistics relating to culture available at EU level, including in relation to the diversity of cultural expressions.  However, few are available in the format required in this questionnaire.  There are issues of definition – for example the EU’s definition of cultural goods (in international trade statistics) is not the same as that of the UNESCO Institute for Statistics (eg not including toys or jewellery).  For other aspects, such as the number of published books or newspapers, data are not available (harmonised) at EU level, or they are not available for all EU Member States (so whole-EU data are missing), or the variables are expressed in a different way (eg there is no distinction in cultural participation questionnaires between going to theatre / concert / exhibition).

For this reason we have not attempted to complete this statistical annex, and are instead submitting as a separate annex the 2016 Eurostat publication on Culture Statistics.  This publication includes comprehensive data (with accompanying methodological explanations) for the EU and its Member States in relation to cultural employment, cultural enterprises, international trade in cultural goods, cultural participation, use of ICT for cultural purposes and private cultural expenditure.

Furthermore, since all 28 EU Member States are Parties to the Convention in their own right, relevant national statistics should be included in their individual periodic reports.

Additional Annexes (if any): 
Title: 
Mr
First Name: 
Walter
Family Name: 
Zampieri
Organization: 
European Commission
Position: 
Head of Unit D1; Culture Policy
Have you received the printed copy of the report?: 
Name of the designated official signing the report: 
Does the Report respond to the criteria outlined in the adopted Operational Guidelines?: 
Please attach the scanned copy of the report received: 
This report can be used as innovative example?: 
Add a cover image to publish the report: 
In which thematic area this report is innovative?: 
Date: 
2017
Introduction: 
Welcome: 
❭ CULTURAL POLICIES AND MEASURES

EU Work Plans for Culture

Context of the measure: 
CULTURAL POLICIES AND MEASURES
b. Key objectives of the measure: 

With individual EU Member States responsible for their own culture sector policies, the role of the European Commission is to help address common challenges, such as the impact of the digital shift, changing models of cultural governance, and the need to support the innovation potential of the cultural and creative sectors.

 

The Commission is also committed to promoting cultural diversity, protecting cultural heritage, easing obstacles to the mobility of cultural professionals, and supporting the contribution of cultural and creative industries to boosting growth and jobs across the EU, in line with the principles of the 2007 European Agenda for Culture.

 

The culture sector is, increasingly, a source of job creation, contributing to growth in Europe. The culture sector is also an excellent conduit for promoting social inclusion and supporting cultural diversity. The Agenda thus contributes to both the Europe 2020 strategy for growth and jobs and satisfying Europe's commitments to international agreements, particularly the 2005 Convention.

 

During the reporting period, the European Agenda for Culture has been implemented via two work plans, the 2011-2014 Work Plan for Culture, and the 2015-18 Work Plan for Culture.  The current work plan, adopted by EU Culture Ministers in December 2014, sets out four main priorities for European cooperation in cultural policy-making:

 

◾Accessible and inclusive culture

◾Cultural heritage

◾Cultural and creative sectors: creative economy and innovation

◾Promotion of cultural diversity, culture in EU external relations, and mobility

 

This list of priorities is complemented by a further 20 concrete actions, primarily the establishment of expert working groups under the Open Method of Coordination.  The 2015-18 Work Plan was amended by EU Culture Ministers in November 2015 to create a new working group on Intercultural Dialogue in the context of the migratory and refugee crisis.

c. What is: 
c.1. the scope of the measure: 
Regional
National
International
c.2. the nature of the measure: 
institutional
c.3. the main feature of the measure: 

A key role of the EU is to collect data and share and exchange information among its Member States.  Efforts under the EU Work Plans for Culture are particularly relevant to the Convention– between 2012-2016,  the Commission convened 16 working groups of Member States’ experts under the Open Method of Coordination, to share and exchange information on:

 

  • Better access to and wider participation in culture
  • Cultural diversity and intercultural dialogue
  • Cultural awareness and expression as a key competence in education
  • Strategic use of EU support programmes
  • Export and internationalisation support strategies
  • Financial engineering for SMEs
  • Mobility support for small cultural operators, young artists and culture professionals
  • Creative partnerships
  • Artists’ residencies
  • Mobility of collections
  • Access to finance
  • Access to culture via digital means
  • Promoting reading in the digital environment
  • Participatory governance of cultural heritage
  • Intercultural dialogue in the context of the migratory and refugee crisis
  • Developing entrepreneurial and innovation potential
d. Does it specifically target individuals and/or social groups as defined in Article 7 of the Convention?: 
No
e. What are the results expected through the implementation of the measure?: 

The 2015-18 Work Plan for culture is expected

a) to build on the achievements of the previous Work Plan for Culture (2011-2014) while adding to it a more strategic dimension in order to reinforce the link between the Work Plan and the work of the Council and its rotating Presidencies;

b) to concentrate on topics with a clear EU added value;

c) to take into account the intrinsic value of culture and the arts to enhance cultural diversity;

d) to ensure the excellence, innovation and competitiveness of the cultural and creative sectors by promoting the work of artists, creators and cultural professionals and recognising the sectors’ contribution to the goals of the Europe 2020 strategy for growth and jobs, paying particular attention to the digital shift challenges;

e) to mainstream culture in other policy areas, wherever relevant, in accordance with Article 167(4) TFEU;

f) to encourage cross-sectorial cooperation;

g) to ensure synergies with the Creative Europe Programme;

h) to work towards evidence-based policy.

 

To date, the OMC working groups have produced a variety of good practice manuals , and in 2013 an external evaluation concluded that the OMC generally functioned well and was relevant to the policy objectives in the Work Plan for Culture. The evaluators pointed out that the OMC adds value primarily through mutual learning and the exchange of best practices, but recognised that its impact on national policy could be improved.

f.2 Financial resources allocated to implement the measure: 

Yes, primarily meeting expenses (staff time and experts’ travel costs), met by the Commission from an EC-wide budget line (not Creative Europe).  Member States also contribute (their staff time and part of the travel expenses).

h. Was this measure introduced or revised in order to: 
h.1. Implement the provisions of the Convention?: 
Yes
h.2. Support/nurture policy discussion inspired by the Convention?: 
Yes
h.3. Other reasons unrelated to the Convention?: 
Yes
i. Has the implementation of the measure been evaluated?: 
Yes
i.1 At what level the evaluation was conducted?: 
International
i.2 What were the main conclusions?: 

The Work Plans for culture and work of the OMC groups are regularly evaluated, both formally and informally.  In 2013 the Commission financed an external evaluation, published on its website.  In 2014 the Commission published a Report on the implementation and relevance of the 2011-14 Work Plan for culture.  A mid-term review of the 2015-18 Work Plan is currently ongoing. 

i.3 Which indicators were used to determine impact?: 

Please see the evaluation reports for more details.

❭ CULTURAL POLICIES AND MEASURES

EC Structured Dialogue with Civil Society on Culture

Context of the measure: 
CULTURAL POLICIES AND MEASURES
b. Key objectives of the measure: 

Voices of Culture ‒ the current Structured Dialogue between the European Commission and the cultural sector - provides a framework for discussions between EU civil society stakeholders and the European Commission with regard to culture. It aims to strengthen the advocacy capacity of the cultural sector in policy debates on culture at European level, while encouraging it to work in a more collaborative way.

c. What is: 
c.1. the scope of the measure: 
International
c.2. the nature of the measure: 
institutional
c.3. the main feature of the measure: 

In 2007, the European Agenda for Culture  introduced two new tools for further cooperation in the field of culture at EU level: an Open Method of Coordination policy process with EU Member States and a Structured Dialogue  with civil society.

 

From 2008 to 2013, the Structured Dialogue with civil society in the field of culture was developed through two complementary tools, the Civil Society Culture Platforms and the European Culture Forums.

 

After an external evaluation in 2013, the European Commission adapted the Structured Dialogue format. The organisation of the Forums was kept as such but the Platforms were replaced by a more flexible and diverse approach, called Voices of Culture, as from 2015.

 

The themes of the Voices of Culture dialogues are aligned with the priorities of the EU Council Work Plan for Culture, and therefore with policy discussions among Member States experts.

 

Five topics have been addressed by approximately 150 cultural organizations in 2015-2016:

·         The role of culture in promoting the inclusion of refugees and migrants;

·         Promoting intercultural dialogue and bringing communities together through culture in shared public spaces;

·         Developing the entrepreneurial and innovation potential of the cultural and creative sectors;

·         Participatory governance in cultural heritage;

·         Audience development via digital means.

 

d. Does it specifically target individuals and/or social groups as defined in Article 7 of the Convention?: 
No
e. What are the results expected through the implementation of the measure?: 

Stakeholders contribute to debates at European level. Thanks to the discussions with the European Commission, a direct link between EU policies and civil society is established, helping the flow of messages and information from both sides. The voice of stakeholders is heard. Moreover, with this process the links between stakeholders is strengthened, as well as their advocacy capacities.

With the new format, a closer synergy with work done by Member States in their Open Method of Coordination (OMC) working groups, is also insured. These bridges and new cooperation means enrich both processes, with the coordination of the EC. 

f.2 Financial resources allocated to implement the measure: 

392.000 euros for two years 2015-16.

This covers Calls for interest, Selection, Brainstorming meetings of stakeholders, Dialogue meetings with the EC, etc.

h. Was this measure introduced or revised in order to: 
h.1. Implement the provisions of the Convention?: 
Yes
h.2. Support/nurture policy discussion inspired by the Convention?: 
Yes
h.3. Other reasons unrelated to the Convention?: 
Yes
i. Has the implementation of the measure been evaluated?: 
Yes
i.1 At what level the evaluation was conducted?: 
International
i.2 What were the main conclusions?: 

An evaluation was held in 2013.  Implementation was then adapted in light of the recommendations.

❭ CULTURAL POLICIES AND MEASURES

Creative Europe, Culture & MEDIA programmes

Context of the measure: 
CULTURAL POLICIES AND MEASURES
b. Key objectives of the measure: 

(The EU’s Culture, MEDIA and MEDIAMundus programmes operated separately between 2007 and 2013, before being integrated under the Creative Europe programme for the 2014-2020 period).

 

Creative Europe aims to respond to challenges the cultural and creative sectors face in terms of fragmentation, globalisation and the digital shift, a lack of data and shortage of private investment.

The general objectives of the programme are to safeguard and promote European cultural and linguistic diversity (as prescribed by the EU Treaty) and to strengthen the competitiveness of the sector.

Creative Europe thereby contributes to EU implementation of the 2005 Convention (which is mentioned explicitly in its establishing Regulation), as well as contributing the EU 2020 strategy and its flagship initiatives.

Specific objectives are as follows:

1. To support the capacity of the European cultural and creative sectors to operate transnationally including by strengthening the relations and networks between operators;

2. To promote the transnational circulation of cultural and creative works and operators and reach new audiences in Europe and beyond;

3. To strengthen the financial capacity of the cultural and creative sectors;

4. To support transnational policy cooperation.

Creative Europe seeks to support cultural and audiovisual professionals and organisations in the performing arts, fine arts, publishing, film, TV, music, interdisciplinary arts, heritage, and the video games industry, allowing them to operate across Europe, to reach new audiences (which will, in turn, benefit from getting access to more non-national cultural works) and to develop the skills that are needed in the digital age.

c. What is: 
c.1. the scope of the measure: 
International
c.2. the nature of the measure: 
financial
c.3. the main feature of the measure: 

Creative Europe is organised by means of a series of 18 schemes (for both sub-programmes) whose budget and frequency of calls vary. Virtually all supported activities have a cross-border dimension.

 

The Culture schemes aim to support four kinds of project:

- transnational cultural cooperation projects

- European networks

- European platforms

- literary translation projects

 

The sub-programme also supports special actions such as the European Capitals of Culture, the European Heritage Label, the European Heritage Days as well as 4 prizes in the field of culture.

 

The MEDIA schemes aim to support:

- training measures promoting the acquisition and improvement of skills and competences by audiovisual professionals ;

- European audiovisual works, in particular films and television works such as fiction, documentaries and children's and animated films;

- narrative video games ;

- activities helping European and international co-production partners to come together and/or providing indirect support for audiovisual works co-produced by international co-production funds based in a country participating in the Programme;

- access to professional audiovisual trade events and markets and the use of online business tools

inside and outside the Union;

- the distribution of non-national European films through theatrical distribution and online platforms, as well as international sales activities, in particular the subtitling, dubbing and audio description of audiovisual works ;

- European cinema operators' network screening a significant proportion of non-national European films;

- festivals promoting a diversity of European audiovisual works, including short films ;

- activities to promote film literacy and increase knowledge of, and interest in, European audiovisual works and heritage, in particular among young audiences.

In addition to grants, a newly-established Guarantee facility provides a market-based mode of financing (debt financing) for initiatives in the sectors.

The programme also supports policy development and communication activities.

d. Does it specifically target individuals and/or social groups as defined in Article 7 of the Convention?: 
No
e. What are the results expected through the implementation of the measure?: 

It can be estimated that, in 2014-2020, at least 6,400 cultural organisations and 240,000 artists, cultural professionals and their works would receive support from the Culture sub-programme to cross borders, reach new audiences and acquire the experience which will help them to develop international careers. The programme will also support the translation of an estimated 4,500 books and other literary works.

The MEDIA Sub-programme will support the worldwide distribution of more than 800 European films, via traditional and digital platforms; it will also provide funding for the training of audiovisual professionals, to help them access and successfully work in international markets, and for the development of films and other audiovisual works with a potential for cross-border circulation.

It is expected that the European Investment Fund (EIF) will manage the €121 million Guarantee Facility on behalf of the European Commission, and that it will have a leverage effect of roughly 5 times this amount.

 

While the implementation of the programmes have not yet been formally evaluated, in 2017 a mid-term review of the Creative Europe programme will include an evaluation of the Culture, MEDIA and MEDIA Mundus programmes (2011-2013) as well as the first years of Creative Europe.

f.2 Financial resources allocated to implement the measure: 

The overall Creative Europe budget for 2014-2020 is EUR 1.46 billion, which represents a budget increase of 9% compared to the previous programmes from 2007-13.

This budget is broken down as follows: 56% for the MEDIA sub-programme, 31% for Culture and 13% for the cross-sectoral strand, which supports a number of activities of transversal nature including the Guarantee facility.

h. Was this measure introduced or revised in order to: 
h.1. Implement the provisions of the Convention?: 
Yes
h.2. Support/nurture policy discussion inspired by the Convention?: 
Yes
h.3. Other reasons unrelated to the Convention?: 
Yes
i. Has the implementation of the measure been evaluated?: 
No
❭ CULTURAL POLICIES AND MEASURES

European Culture Forum

Context of the measure: 
CULTURAL POLICIES AND MEASURES
b. Key objectives of the measure: 

The European Culture Forum is a biennial flagship event organised by the European Commission, aimed at raising the profile of European cultural cooperation, uniting the sector's key players, taking stock of the implementation of the European Agenda for Culture, and sparking debate on EU culture policy and initiatives.

 

The event, also a major networking opportunity, highlights culture's role in breeding talent and creativity. The Forum reflects on culture's contribution to the new Commission's priorities such as innovation, jobs and growth; the digital single market; social cohesion and intercultural dialogue; and Europe's position on the global stage.

 

During the reporting period, two editions of the Forum were held, in 2013 and 2016 (the second of these was postponed from 2015 as a result of security concerns in Brussels).

c. What is: 
c.1. the scope of the measure: 
International
c.2. the nature of the measure: 
institutional
c.3. the main feature of the measure: 

The 2013 European Culture Forum focussed on:

- Measuring the true value of culture and the functioning of the cultural eco-system,

- Culture funding and funding models in the digital era,

- Audience development and cultural participation.

The 2013 event also included a special information session on Creative Europe, the EU's flagship culture and audiovisual sector programme for 2014-2020, and the award ceremony of the @diversity pilot project

For more details of the 2013 Forum see http://ec.europa.eu/culture/events/2013/0411-culture-forum_en.htm

 

The 2016 European Culture Forum plenary debates asked:

- Can culture help to overcome the fragmentation of society?

- Can culture help relaunch economic growth?

- Can culture improve Europe’s standing in the world?

 

Fifteen flash sessions were also held including on the following themes relevant to the Convention:

·            Cultural diversity in the Digital Single Market and a modernised copyright framework

·            Culture in EU external relations

·            Culture and development 

·            Research and innovation opportunities in the field of culture 

·            Investing in the cultural and creative sectors

·            Interactive theatre as a tool to address conflict situations

 

For more details of the 2016 Forum see http://ec.europa.eu/culture/forum/

d. Does it specifically target individuals and/or social groups as defined in Article 7 of the Convention?: 
No
e. What are the results expected through the implementation of the measure?: 

Over 1200 participants attended the 2013 Forum, and over 800 attended the 2016 Forum (which took place in a smaller venue).

 

For details of the 2013 Forum see http://ec.europa.eu/culture/events/2013/0411-culture-forum_en.htm

 

For details of the 2016 Forum see http://ec.europa.eu/culture/forum/

 

See also Twitter posts from participants https://twitter.com/search?q=europeancultureforum&src=typd

f.2 Financial resources allocated to implement the measure: 

Yes.

g. Name of NGOs and/or private companies engaged in the implementation of the measure, if any: 
Type of Involvement: 

Over 2000 representatives from the cultural sector, including non—governmental and private sector organizations - participated in the 2013 and 2016 Forums.  The list of participants at the 2016 Forum is available here: http://ec.europa.eu/culture/forum/docs/participant-list_en.pdf

h. Was this measure introduced or revised in order to: 
h.1. Implement the provisions of the Convention?: 
Yes
h.2. Support/nurture policy discussion inspired by the Convention?: 
Yes
h.3. Other reasons unrelated to the Convention?: 
Yes
i. Has the implementation of the measure been evaluated?: 
Yes
i.1 At what level the evaluation was conducted?: 
Local
i.2 What were the main conclusions?: 

Internal evaluations on the contracts (primarily financial aspects).

i.3 Which indicators were used to determine impact?: 

Various.

❭ CULTURAL POLICIES AND MEASURES

Europeana

Context of the measure: 
CULTURAL POLICIES AND MEASURES
b. Key objectives of the measure: 

The main aim of Europeana (www.europeana.eu) is to enable wide multilingual access to and dissemination of digital cultural heritage material held in the collections of Europe's libraries, museums, archives, audio-visual archives and galleries, and its re-use in other sectors (e.g. education, research, tourism or the creative industries). 

The Europeana mission statement is “We want to transform the world with culture! We want to build on Europe’s rich heritage and make it easier for people to use, whether for work, for learning or just for fun”.

c. What is: 
c.1. the scope of the measure: 
International
c.2. the nature of the measure: 
financial
institutional
c.3. the main feature of the measure: 

As a multi-sided platform, Europeana aims to create value for end-users, cultural heritage institutions and creative re-use. By connecting digital heritage collections across Europe, Europeana:

·         helps cultural heritage institutions share their collections across sectors and national borders (currently more than 53 million items - artworks, artefacts, books, videos and sounds  - from around 3 700 organizations)

·         gives a wide range of audiences access to the richness and diversity of European cultures and facilitates research in and knowledge of the multi-faceted culture and history of Europe and

·         facilitates re-use in new and innovative cross-border online services, thereby contributing to the digital single market.

 

During the period under review, the further development of Europeana has been supported by

Legislative measures:

Commission Recommendation of 27 October 2011 on the digitisation and online accessibility of cultural material and digital preservation (2011/711/EU) calls on Member States to contribute to the further development of Europeana, i.a. by setting up or reinforcing national aggregators, encouraging cultural institutions as well as publishers and other rightholders to make their digitised material accessible through Europeana and by raise awareness of Europeana.

Financial measures:

The CIP ICT Policy Support Programme from 2009-2013.

The Connecting Europe Facility from 2014-2020.

d. Does it specifically target individuals and/or social groups as defined in Article 7 of the Convention?: 
No
e. What are the results expected through the implementation of the measure?: 

·         Wide availability and dissemination of high-quality digital cultural heritage material

·         Re-use of that material in new and innovative cross-border online services (in sectors such as education, research, tourism or the creative industries)

·         Capacity-building, digital innovation and the development, uptake and consistent use of models, standards and frameworks for sharing content and metadata in the cultural heritage sector

f.2 Financial resources allocated to implement the measure: 

44.9 million euros over the reporting period, broken down as follows:

 

2013 – 16m for Europeana and creativity (CIP ICT Policy Support Programme)

2014 – 8.9m for Europeana core service (Connecting Europe Facility, CEF)

2015 - 10m for Europeana core service (CEF)

2016 – 10m for Europeana core service (8m) and generic services (2m) (CEF)

g. Name of NGOs and/or private companies engaged in the implementation of the measure, if any: 
Type of Involvement: 

Over 3700 organizations have contributed to Europeana, including non-governmental and private organizations, via 150 aggregating institutions.

For a full list see http://www.europeana.eu/portal/en/explore/sources.html

h. Was this measure introduced or revised in order to: 
h.1. Implement the provisions of the Convention?: 
Yes
h.2. Support/nurture policy discussion inspired by the Convention?: 
Yes
h.3. Other reasons unrelated to the Convention?: 
Yes
i. Has the implementation of the measure been evaluated?: 
Yes
i.1 At what level the evaluation was conducted?: 
International
i.2 What were the main conclusions?: 

Various evaluations have been conducted over the reporting period, including on technical aspects and user experience.  An overarching political / policy assessment, from a culture policy perspective, is provided in the Council Conclusions of 31 May 2016 on “The role of Europeana for the digital access, visibility and use of European cultural heritage”.

i.3 Which indicators were used to determine impact?: 

Various.

❭ CULTURAL POLICIES AND MEASURES

Copyright - EU regulatory framework

Context of the measure: 
CULTURAL POLICIES AND MEASURES
b. Key objectives of the measure: 

In his 2016 State of the Union speech European Commission President Juncker said that "As the world goes digital, we have to empower our artist and creators and protect their works.  Artists and creators are our crown jewels. The creation of content is not a hobby. It is a profession. And it is part of our European culture ".  The same day the Commission presented a draft reform of EU copyright rules for the digital age.  An important objective of the proposed EU copyright reform is that authors and artists should be fairly paid for what they create, and benefit from greater transparency from the contractual partners they rely on for exploitation of their work.

 

The main aim of the initiatives taken by the EU on the copyright framework in the reporting period is to contribute to the creation of a Digital Single Market within the EU by modernising the EU copyright framework so that it is better adapted to the digital environment, while preserving a high level of protection for right holders.

 

The review of the EU copyright framework is relevant to the Convention and its principles, since its objective is to ensure that the regulatory environment continues to be conducive to creativity, its sustainable financing and cultural diversity in the European Union.

 

The EU copyright proposal also aims to tackle the gulf between the market share of digital content, and revenues generated by digital sales.  It introduces a mechanism for creators to rebalance contracts where the agreed remuneration turns out to be disproportionately low compared to the revenues generated by their work or performance.

c. What is: 
c.1. the scope of the measure: 
International
c.2. the nature of the measure: 
legislative
regulatory
institutional
c.3. the main feature of the measure: 
  • Licences for Europe stakeholder dialogue in 2013, aimed to foster practical industry-led solutions to bring more content online in the EU's single market.
  • Adoption of a EU Directive on collective management of rights and multi-territorial licensing of rights in musical works for online use of 26 February 2014 (Directive 2014/26/EU) to increase transparency and accountability in the collective management of rights within the EU and to ease multi-territorial licensing by collective management organisations of authors’ rights in musical works for online use.
  • Launch of the EU Database of Orphan Works (28 October 2014 – the database is now up and running). The database ensues from the EU Directive on Orphan Works of 25 October 2012 (Directive 2012/28/EU), and provides information related to orphan works held by cultural heritage institutions and public-service broadcasting, facilitating their use in accordance with the Directive.
  • Communication on "Towards a modern, more European copyright framework" of 9 December 2015, setting out a plan for the modernisation of EU copyright legislation.
  • Proposal by the Commission of a EU Regulation on cross-border portability of online content services within the EU's internal market (proposal presented on 9 December 2015), introducing a common approach to ensure that subscribers to portable online content services in the EU can receive these services when temporarily travelling to another EU Member State.
  • Communication of 14 September 2016 "Promoting a fair, efficient and competitive European copyright-based economy in the Digital Single Market"
  • Proposal by the Commission for a EU Directive on copyright in the Digital Single Market (presented on 14 September 2016)
  • Proposal by the Commission for a EU Regulation laying down rules on the exercise of copyright and related rights applicable to certain online transmissions of broadcasting organisations and retransmission of television and radio programmes (Proposal presented on 14 September 2016)
d. Does it specifically target individuals and/or social groups as defined in Article 7 of the Convention?: 
No
e. What are the results expected through the implementation of the measure?: 
  • Broader availability of copyright-protected content in the European Union and across borders, particularly online, while maintaining a high level of protection for right holders;
  • More transparency and accountability in collective management of copyright and related rights
  • A more modern EU copyright framework, including as regards specific uses as in educational, research and cultural heritage contexts, and a more balanced copyright marketplace.
f.2 Financial resources allocated to implement the measure: 

N/A.

h. Was this measure introduced or revised in order to: 
h.1. Implement the provisions of the Convention?: 
Yes
h.2. Support/nurture policy discussion inspired by the Convention?: 
Yes
h.3. Other reasons unrelated to the Convention?: 
Yes
i. Has the implementation of the measure been evaluated?: 
Yes
i.1 At what level the evaluation was conducted?: 
International
i.2 What were the main conclusions?: 

Impact assessments accompany each legislative proposal and there is a specific ex-post evaluation of the Satellite & Cable Directive.

i.3 Which indicators were used to determine impact?: 

Please see individual impact assessments.

❭ CULTURAL POLICIES AND MEASURES

Audiovisual and media services - EU regulatory framework

Context of the measure: 
CULTURAL POLICIES AND MEASURES
b. Key objectives of the measure: 

The aim of initiatives taken by the EU on the audiovisual regulatory framework in the reporting period is to contribute to the creation of a Digital Single Market within the EU. 

 

This includes updating the framework to find a better balance of the rules applying to traditional broadcasters, video-on-demand providers and video-sharing platforms in light of new developments in the area of convergence between the internet and traditional media.

 

The EU Audiovisual Media Services Directive governs EU-wide coordination of national legislation on all audiovisual media, both traditional TV broadcasts and on-demand services.  The Directive upholds the principles of the Convention and its proposed update seeks notably to strengthen the promotion of European works and thereby European cultural diversity.

c. What is: 
c.1. the scope of the measure: 
International
c.2. the nature of the measure: 
legislative
c.3. the main feature of the measure: 

Proposal by the Commission for a EU Directive amending Directive 2010/13/EU on the coordination of certain provisions laid down by law, regulation or administrative action in Member States concerning the provision of audiovisual media services (Audiovisual Media Services Directive) in view of changing market realities (proposal presented on 25 May 2016).

d. Does it specifically target individuals and/or social groups as defined in Article 7 of the Convention?: 
No
e. What are the results expected through the implementation of the measure?: 

More shared rules at EU level to provide clarity and legal certainty to consumers and businesses across borders. This includes strengthening the promotion of European works for on-demand services with an expected broader and more diverse offer for Europeans and as a result a positive impact on cultural diversity and more opportunities for European creators.

f.2 Financial resources allocated to implement the measure: 

N/A

h. Was this measure introduced or revised in order to: 
h.1. Implement the provisions of the Convention?: 
Yes
h.2. Support/nurture policy discussion inspired by the Convention?: 
Yes
h.3. Other reasons unrelated to the Convention?: 
Yes
i. Has the implementation of the measure been evaluated?: 
Yes
i.1 At what level the evaluation was conducted?: 
International
i.2 What were the main conclusions?: 

The measure is not yet in force, since it is draft legislation, but as with all EU legislative proposals an impact assessment took place which evaluates its likely impact.  Details are available here:

https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/news/avmsd-inception-impact-assessment

i.3 Which indicators were used to determine impact?: 

Please see impact assessment link.

❭ INTERNATIONAL CULTURAL COOPERATION

EU strategy for international cultural relations

Context of the measure: 
INTERNATIONAL CULTURAL COOPERATION
b. Key objectives of the measure: 

The Joint Communication “Towards an EU Strategy for international cultural relations” (JOIN(2016) 29 final, of 8 June 2016) is a milestone in EU policy development, and highly relevant to EU implementation of the 2005 Convention.  It was produced by the European Commission and the EU High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, who is responsible for the European External Action Service.

 

Its aims are to encourage cultural cooperation between the EU and partner countries, and promote a global order based on peace, the rule of law, freedom of expression, mutual understanding and respect for fundamental values.  The underlying rationale is to promote international cultural relations based on long-term engagement, mutual interest and understanding, people-to-people contacts and co-creation.

 

It restates the EU’s commitment to the 2005 Convention: “As a party to the...Convention… the EU is committed to promoting the diversity of cultural expression as part of its international cultural relations. This reflects and promotes the EU's fundamental values, such as human rights, gender equality, democracy, freedom of expression and the rule of law, as well as cultural and linguistic diversity”. 

 

In the section on supporting culture as an engine for social and economic development, the Communication cites the Convention, on the “the need to incorporate culture as a strategic element in national and international development policies, as well as in international development cooperation.” It states further that “The respect for cultural diversity and freedom of expression that is fostered by culture provides important support for democratisation processes and socio-economic development. Accordingly, the EU should help partner countries incorporate culture in national policies. The EU works to advance the ratification and implementation of the 2005 UNESCO Convention by deepening policy dialogues with partner countries and strengthening systems of governance”.

c. What is: 
c.1. the scope of the measure: 
International
c.2. the nature of the measure: 
institutional
c.3. the main feature of the measure: 

The Joint Communication proposes an EU Strategy for International Cultural Relations that focuses on advancing cultural cooperation with partner countries across three main strands: supporting culture as an engine for sustainable social and economic development; promoting culture and intercultural dialogue for peaceful inter-community relations; reinforcing cooperation on cultural heritage.

 

It identifies guiding principles for EU action in international cultural relations: promote cultural diversity and respect for human rights, foster mutual respect and intercultural dialogue, respect for complementarity and subsidiarity, encourage a cross-cutting approach to culture, promote culture through existing frameworks for cooperation.

 

It underlines the importance for the relevant stakeholders to join forces to ensure complementarity and synergies in order to advance successful cooperation with partner countries in the three work streams proposed. This includes government at all levels, local cultural organisations and civil society, the Commission and the High Representative (through EU Delegations in third countries), Member States and their cultural institutes

 

A key aspect is the more active role to be taken by EU delegations acting in close partnership with the cultural institutes of the Member States, in order to develop a truly European dimension in international cultural relations.

d. Does it specifically target individuals and/or social groups as defined in Article 7 of the Convention?: 
No
e. What are the results expected through the implementation of the measure?: 

Contribution to the Commission's priority to make the EU a stronger global actor.

Better integration of culture in the EU's external relations agenda.

Deeper and more effective international cultural relations based on long-term engagement, mutual interest and understanding, peer-learning, and co-creation.

Develop new models for cooperation with and among Member States, in particular their national cultural institutes.

f.2 Financial resources allocated to implement the measure: 

The implementation of the Joint Communication relies on a number of different existing EU instruments and frameworks for cooperation. It does not entail extra financial resources. The Communication refers to funding from a range of EU programmes, described in more detail in the Communication, and elsewhere in this report.

h. Was this measure introduced or revised in order to: 
h.1. Implement the provisions of the Convention?: 
Yes
h.2. Support/nurture policy discussion inspired by the Convention?: 
Yes
h.3. Other reasons unrelated to the Convention?: 
Yes
i. Has the implementation of the measure been evaluated?: 
No
❭ INTERNATIONAL CULTURAL COOPERATION

European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP)

Context of the measure: 
INTERNATIONAL CULTURAL COOPERATION
b. Key objectives of the measure: 

Through its European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP), the EU works with its Southern and Eastern Neighbours to achieve the closest possible political association and the greatest possible degree of economic integration.

16 countries are covered by the ENP. These are: in the South - Algeria, Morocco, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Palestine [this designation shall not be construed as recognition of a State of Palestine and is without prejudice to the individual positions of the Member States on this issue], Syria and Tunisia; and in the East -Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine in the East.

The ENP is a key part of the European Union's foreign policy, and builds on common interests and on values — democracy, the rule of law, respect for human rights, and social cohesion. Building bridges between people, facilitating mobility and fostering intercultural understanding are among the most relevant aims for the culture sector.

Recent events have required a new approach and a re-prioritisation. Therefore in November 2015 the High Representative and the Commission presented a Joint Communication "Review of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP): stronger partnerships for a stronger neighbourhood".

The ENP Review recognized that ''in many neighbourhood countries ethnic, religious and cultural identities and traditions play a crucial role as regards the way society functions'' and that ''cross-cultural dialogue, such as that promoted by the Anna Lindh foundation, will be key''. It also highlighted that ''the EU will continue to foster a realistic and fair narrative on migration and to combat vigorously all forms and manifestations of racism and discrimination promoting intercultural dialogue, cultural diversity and mutual understanding''.

There are EU-funded cultural programmes under the ENP in both the Eastern and Southern Neighbourhood, described in more detail below.

c. What is: 
c.1. the scope of the measure: 
International
c.2. the nature of the measure: 
financial
institutional
c.3. the main feature of the measure: 

The ENP is chiefly a bilateral policy between the EU and each partner country. Bilateral Action Plans or Association Agendas are negotiated between the EU and each ENP partner. These set out an agenda of political and economic reforms with short and medium-term priorities of 3 to 5 years. Cultural provisions, including the promotion of the implementation of the Convention, are also part of these agendas.

 

The ENP is complemented by regional and multilateral cooperation initiatives, notably the Eastern Partnership and the Union for the Mediterranean Partnership.

 

In the context of the Eastern Partnership,  “Platform 4 – contacts between people'' fosters cooperation in the fields of education, youth, culture and audio-visual, through policy dialogue and dedicated programmes (in the field of culture, mainly Creative Europe and the Eastern Partnership Culture and Creativity programme). The Eastern Partnership Civil Society Forum serves as a civil society and people-to-people dimension of the Eastern Partnership. Its Working Group “Contacts between People” deals with the main issues on the agenda of EaP Thematic Platform 4 of the same name.

 

In the Southern Neighbourhood , the EU has supported the work done by The Union for the Mediterranean (UfM), an intergovernmental organisation enhancing regional cooperation and dialogue in the Euro-Mediterranean region. The major actor in the field of intercultural and interreligious dialogue in the Mediterranean is the Anna Lindh Foundation, active since 2005. It is an inter-governmental institution, co-financed by 42 countries of the UfM and the EC, aiming at bringing together civil society and citizens across the Mediterranean to build trust and improve mutual understanding.

 

A number of regional and bilateral programmes in the Southern Neighbourhood are specifically dedicated to the development of culture as a vector of economic, social and human development.  For more details see below.

d. Does it specifically target individuals and/or social groups as defined in Article 7 of the Convention?: 
No
e. What are the results expected through the implementation of the measure?: 

The Eastern Partnership Culture and Creativity programme is expected to contribute to:

  • developing and further strengthening cultural and creative industries;
  • creating synergies between public and private actors;
  • enhancing the contribution of civil society to cultural policy development and reform in the region;
  • strengthening the capabilities of EaP countries to facilitate their participation in international culture cooperation initiatives, including the EU Creative Europe programme;
  • enhancing cultural heritage protection at local level.

     

    The Media and culture programme for development in the Southern Mediterranean region (2014-17) supports activities expected to foster cultural policy reform and reinforce the capacity of cultural policy makers, as well as promote investment and the development of cultural operators' business capabilities.

     

    The MedFilm programme (2015-17) is expected to promote freedom of expression, notably among female filmmakers, by allowing them to tackle sensitive issues on a regional level.

     

    In addition, two important bilateral cooperation programmes dedicated to Culture worth mentioning are:

             In Tunisia, where the EU is supporting the redefinition of cultural policy and cultural sector in order to assert its strategic role as driver for economic and social reforms. This programme is expected to promote freedom of expression and diversity, and to support Tunisian cultural production as an element of social cohesion, economic development and tolerance.

             In Syria, where the EU supports the UNESCO-run Action Plan "Emergency Safeguarding of the Syrian Cultural Heritage". The expected result is to contribute to restoring social cohesion, stability and sustainable development through the protection and safeguarding of cultural heritage.

f.2 Financial resources allocated to implement the measure: 

Eastern Partnership Culture Programme I (2011-2015): 12M €

Eastern Partnership Culture Programme II (2015-2018): 4.9 M €.

Media and culture for development in the Southern Mediterranean region (2014-17): 9 M€ for Culture.

"Development of Clusters in Cultural and Creative Industries in the Southern Mediterranean" (2013-2018): 5M€

MedFilm programme (2015-17): 4.5 M €.

Tunisia:  EU support on culture: 6M €.

Syria: EU financial support to UNESCO-run Action Plan "Emergency Safeguarding of the Syrian Cultural Heritage": 2.5M €

EU support to the Anna Lindh Foundation: phase III (2012-2014): 10 MEUR (7Mio EUR for the functioning of the Foundation, 3 MEUR for the programme “Citizens for Dialogue”; phase IV (2015-2017): 7 M EUR.

h. Was this measure introduced or revised in order to: 
h.1. Implement the provisions of the Convention?: 
Yes
h.2. Support/nurture policy discussion inspired by the Convention?: 
Yes
h.3. Other reasons unrelated to the Convention?: 
Yes
i. Has the implementation of the measure been evaluated?: 
No
❭ PREFERENTIAL TREATMENT

EU trade and political agreements with third countries

Context of the measure: 
PREFERENTIAL TREATMENT
b. Key objectives of the measure: 

The ratification by the European Union of the 2005 UNESCO convention has given impetus to culture in EU external relations, leading the EU to look for the best way to implement the Convention with its partners, including in political dialogues and trade negotiations.

 

An excellent paper recently prepared for UNESCO by Véronique Guèvremont and Ivana Otasevic comprehensively describes the main aims and scope of recent EU trade agreements in relation to culture (DCE/16/10.IGC/INF.3, available here: http://en.unesco.org/creativity/sites/creativity/files/sessions/10igc_inf3_etude_articles_16_et_21_en.pdf).

 

Three EU trade agreements – with CARIFORUM (the 15 Caribbean Community states and the Dominican Republic), with Central America, and with the Republic of Korea – include a Protocol on Cultural Cooperation, with explicit reference to the Convention. The Protocols on Cultural Cooperation have broadly similar aims, and each allows the granting of preferential treatment to all Parties – including on the mobility of artists, the negotiation of co-production agreements and - in the case of Korea and CARIFORUM - preferential trade access for audiovisual works.

 

Several more free trade, economic partnership and political agreements concluded by the EU include references to the Convention and/or clauses which aim to safeguard the diversity of cultural expressions, including in the audio-visual field. The UNESCO paper describes 10 such EU agreements, of which four were signed or entered into force during the period covered by this report: with the SADC EPA states (Botswana, Lesotho, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa and Swaziland), with Colombia and Peru, with Georgia and with Moldova. 

 

There are also explicit references to the Convention in the EU-China Declaration on Cultural Cooperation, Vietnam Framework Agreement, the Kazakhstan Enhanced Partnership and Cooperation Agreement, and the Mongolia Partnership and Cooperation Agreement, all adopted between 2012 and 2016.

c. What is: 
c.1. the scope of the measure: 
International
c.2. the nature of the measure: 
financial
institutional
c.3. the main feature of the measure: 

The EU-Korea Protocol on Cultural Cooperation: sets a framework within which the two Parties shall cooperate to facilitate exchange in cultural activities, goods and services, including in the audio-visual sector, and to improve the conditions governing such exchanges. There have been regular meetings of the Cultural Cooperation Committee with Korea: in 2013 in Brussels, in 2014 in Seoul and in 2016 in Brussels.

 

EU-CARIFORUM Cultural Cooperation Protocol: There has been limited promotion and use of the Protocol during the reporting period.

 

EU-Central America Cultural Cooperation Protocol: The Protocol will enter into force after all ratifications of the EU-Central America Association Agreement are completed on both sides.

 

For more details on the features of these three Protocols and the provisions of many of the other EU agreements with third countries in relation to culture and the Convention, please see the UNESCO paper referred to previously.

d. Does it specifically target individuals and/or social groups as defined in Article 7 of the Convention?: 
No
e. What are the results expected through the implementation of the measure?: 

Through the Protocols on Cultural Cooperation the EU implements the 2005 Convention and is able to build specific cooperation frameworks for the audiovisual sector and other cultural services with third countries.

f.2 Financial resources allocated to implement the measure: 

No direct financing or specific funding programmes in period 2013-16 but indirect costs incurred (staff time, travel).

h. Was this measure introduced or revised in order to: 
h.1. Implement the provisions of the Convention?: 
Yes
h.2. Support/nurture policy discussion inspired by the Convention?: 
Yes
h.3. Other reasons unrelated to the Convention?: 
Yes
i. Has the implementation of the measure been evaluated?: 
No
❭ PREFERENTIAL TREATMENT

EU support for mobility of artists and cultural professionals

Context of the measure: 
PREFERENTIAL TREATMENT
b. Key objectives of the measure: 

The role of the European Union is to support and complement the actions of EU Member States in order to reduce barriers to mobility, provide the right environment for it, and ensure that information and advice on mobility-related issues is easy to obtain, accurate, and comprehensive.

 

The EU-funded Creative Europe programme (2014-2020) is supporting the mobility of artists and culture professionals with the objective of promoting the transnational circulation of cultural and creative works and operators, as well as capacity-building.

c. What is: 
c.1. the scope of the measure: 
International
c.2. the nature of the measure: 
regulatory
financial
institutional
c.3. the main feature of the measure: 

The mobility of artists and cultural professionals is a transversal issue in the EU policies. Within the European Commission, it concerns several services: DG Education and Culture, but also DG Taxation and Customs Union (TAXUD), DG Employment, Social Affairs & Inclusion (DG EMPL) and DG Migration and Home Affairs (HOME).

 

EU Member States have been working together on the topic of artists' mobility since 2008 with the Open Method of Coordination (OMC), a light but structured framework of cooperation in the field of culture, facilitating the exchange of good practices and peer-learning. It involves organizing seminars for experts and stakeholders, preparing studies, drafting expert recommendations and reports, facilitating exchange of good practices among MSs and organisations, etc.

 

Creative Europe – 2014-2020 EU support programme for the cultural and creative sectors is fulfilling the general objectives of: safeguarding, developing and promoting European cultural and linguistic diversity and promoting Europe's cultural heritage; strengthening the competitiveness of the European cultural and creative sectors, in particular of the audiovisual sector, with a view of promoting smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. However, the specific objectives of the programme are also to promote transnational mobility of cultural and creative players, in particular artists.

 

In 2014, the European Commission proposed changes to visa rules, including the establishment of a Touring Visa. If adopted this would allow non-EU nationals entering the Schengen area - which comprises 26 countries - to travel within this zone for up to one year (without staying in one country for more than 90 days in any 180-day period).  This could benefit performing artists who want to spend more time in Europe.  The proposals are being examined by the Council of the European Union and the European Parliament.  They can only enter into force once approved by them both.

d. Does it specifically target individuals and/or social groups as defined in Article 7 of the Convention?: 
No
e. What are the results expected through the implementation of the measure?: 

The expected results closely correspond to aims: reduced obstacles to mobility (both for European artists and cultural professionals within the EU as well as those coming to the EU from third countries) in terms of social security coordination, taxation, visa procedures and information provision. Nevertheless, it needs to be pointed out that the role of the EU is supporting and complementing the role of EU Member States in this regard.

 

The goal of the Creative Europe programme shall be the enhancement of a shared cultural area – therefore, an increase in transnational mobility of cultural professionals and artists and boost in transnational circulation of cultural and creative works can be both considered as expected results of the programme.

f.2 Financial resources allocated to implement the measure: 

It is hard to specify the exact budget for policy work carried out within the framework of EU policies linked with the mobility of cultural professionals and artists, as this topic is treated as a cross-cutting issue.

The budget of Creative Europe for years 2014-2020 is 1.46 billion euros.

h. Was this measure introduced or revised in order to: 
h.1. Implement the provisions of the Convention?: 
Yes
h.2. Support/nurture policy discussion inspired by the Convention?: 
Yes
h.3. Other reasons unrelated to the Convention?: 
Yes
i. Has the implementation of the measure been evaluated?: 
Yes
i.1 At what level the evaluation was conducted?: 
International
i.2 What were the main conclusions?: 

A stock-taking meeting was devoted to the mobility of artists and cultural professionals within the EU and beyond was organised by the European Commission, Directorate-General for Education and Culture (DG EAC), under the Work Plan for Culture 2015-2018, Priority Area D: Promotion of cultural diversity, culture in EU external relations and mobility.

 

The main idea behind the stock-taking meeting was to assess follow-up initiatives and progress made since 2014, when the last thematic seminar on artists' mobility was held by DG EAC in June 2014.

 

The thematic seminar focused mainly on obstacles to the mobility of artists arising from taxation, social security and visas, while also reflecting, in a broader sense, on the importance of cultural mobility for the creative process. A separate session of stock-taking was also devoted to the question of information provision for mobile artists and cultural professionals.

 

i.3 Which indicators were used to determine impact?: 

Various.

❭ INTEGRATION OF CULTURE IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT - AT NATIONAL LEVEL

EU support to cultural and creative sectors

Context of the measure: 
INTEGRATION OF CULTURE IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT - AT NATIONAL LEVEL
b. Key objectives of the measure: 

Creativity is a strategic and still underexploited resource for Europe. The main objective of EU action is to support cultural and creative sectors, which are knowledge and labour intensive, at the forefront of innovation and at the origin of spill-overs to other industries. They have shown that they can achieve above-average growth and create quality jobs - including for young people - while contributing to strengthening cultural diversity, social links and active citizenship. Facing worldwide competition, they are confronted with challenges that must be addressed at European level such as the lack of skills, finance, innovation and coordination.

 

EU policy support for cultural and creative sectors highlights the role of "Culture as a catalyst for innovation";

c. What is: 
c.1. the scope of the measure: 
International
c.2. the nature of the measure: 
financial
institutional
c.3. the main feature of the measure: 

 

2012 Communication “Promoting cultural and creative sectors for growth and jobs in the EU” - setting the framework for a strategic approach towards the cultural and creative sectors (CCS)

 

Work Plan for Culture 2015-2018 (working groups of Member States’ experts on CCS’ access to finance, CCS entrepreneurship and innovation). OMC report on CCS access to finance.

 

2012-15 European Creative Industries Alliance – a policy initiative of the EC’s Enterprise Directorate General, financed under the Competitiveness and Innovation Programme. An open platform for policy-makers and business support practitioners from 28 partner organisations and 12 countries, 2013-14 @diversity, pilot project on the economy of cultural diversity, and new approaches to content for innovation, digital sharing and distribution. http://ec.europa.eu/culture/tools/economy-diversity_en.htm

 

2016-18 European Network of Creative Hubs – a project to reinforce networks of creative hubs at European level.  http://creativeconomy.britishcouncil.org/blog/16/02/24/european-creative-hubs-network-innovative-models-s/

 

2016- Creative Tracks project to connect existing networks of young entrepreneurs active in CCS in Europe and the wider world. www.creativetracks.eu.

 

Culture for cities and regions (2015-2017),  http://www.cultureforcitiesandregions.eu/ funded by Creative Europe is a peer-learning project aiming to examine existing cultural initiatives and their impact on local and regional development, including in relation to CCS.

 

The Creative Europe Loan Guarantee Facility was launched in June 2016to help European cultural and creative entrepreneurs to get easier access to bank loans. It is the first instrument of this kind for all CCS.

 

crowdfunding for the CCS (2016-2017) www.crowdfunding4culture.euis a pilot project aiming at collecting data on the crowdfunding market for CCS and reinforcing connections among crowdfunding communities.

 

The STARTS platform encourages synergies between the Arts and innovation for technolog

d. Does it specifically target individuals and/or social groups as defined in Article 7 of the Convention?: 
No
e. What are the results expected through the implementation of the measure?: 
  • recognition of the CCS as one of the most dynamic sectors of Europe's economy and a source of growth and employment
  • better policy support for the CCS: enhancing skills, improving access to finance, promoting cross-fertilisation among sectors
  • more efficient governance structures for culture and the CCS: reinforcing  cooperation among policy makers and the industry but also across the CCIs to help developing creative ecosystems.
  • better cross-sectoral collaboration leading to new innovative  cultural product and services – better chances for artists and creators to unleash their potential
  • active support for creative industries as a driver for competitiveness, job creation and structural change by developing and testing policies and tools.  For more details see http://eciaplatform.eu/ and particular the final report of the European Creative Industries Alliance
f.2 Financial resources allocated to implement the measure: 

Various.

h. Was this measure introduced or revised in order to: 
h.1. Implement the provisions of the Convention?: 
Yes
h.2. Support/nurture policy discussion inspired by the Convention?: 
Yes
h.3. Other reasons unrelated to the Convention?: 
Yes
i. Has the implementation of the measure been evaluated?: 
No
❭ INTEGRATION OF CULTURE IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT - AT NATIONAL LEVEL

EU cohesion policy (regional policy)

Context of the measure: 
INTEGRATION OF CULTURE IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT - AT NATIONAL LEVEL
b. Key objectives of the measure: 

The regional policy of the European Union (also known as cohesion policy) has the stated aim of improving the economic well-being of regions in the EU and avoiding regional disparities.

 

Regional policy targets all regions and cities in the European Union in order to support job creation, business competitiveness, economic growth, sustainable development, and improve citizens’ quality of life.

c. What is: 
c.1. the scope of the measure: 
Regional
National
International
c.2. the nature of the measure: 
financial
c.3. the main feature of the measure: 

European Structural and Investment Funds consist of:

- European Regional and Development Fund (ERDF)

- European Social Fund (ESF)

- Cohesion Fund (CF)

- European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD)

- European Maritime and Fisheries Fund (EMFF)

 

The cohesion policy framework is established for a period of 7 years. The current period covers the years 2014-2020. The financial period of 2007-2013 has been described in the previous report.

 

Implementation of the policy follows these stages:

- The budget and rules are jointly decided by the European Council and the European Parliament on the basis of a proposal from the Commission.

- The principles and priorities of cohesion policy are distilled through a process of consultation between the Commission and EU countries. Each Member State produces a draft Partnership Agreement, which outlines the country's strategy and proposes a list of programmes. Member States also present draft operational programmes (OP) which cover entire Member States and/or regions. There are also cooperation programmes involving more than one country.

- The Commission negotiates with national authorities on the final content of Partnership Agreements, as well as each programme. The programmes present the priorities of the area concerned. Workers, employers and civil society bodies can all participate in the programming and management of the OPs.

- The programmes are implemented by the Member States and their regions. This means selecting, monitoring and evaluating hundreds of thousands of projects. This work is organised by 'managing authorities' in each country and/or region.

- The Commission commits the funds (to allow the countries to start spending on their programmes).

- The Commission pays the certified expenditure to each country.

- The Commission monitors each programme, alongside the country concerned.

- Both the Commission and the member countries submit reports throughout the programming period.

d. Does it specifically target individuals and/or social groups as defined in Article 7 of the Convention?: 
No
e. What are the results expected through the implementation of the measure?: 

Regional policy has strong impacts in many fields. Its investments help to deliver many EU policy objectives and complement EU policies such as those dealing with employment, energy, the environment, the single market, research and innovation, education and culture.  For details on culture spending see the section on financial resources allocated.

 

Regional Policy provides the necessary investment framework to meet the goals of the Europe 2020 Strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth in the European Union.

 

The five targets for the EU in 2020 are:

- Employment: 75%of the 20-64 year-olds to be employed

- R&D: 3% of the EU's GDP to be invested in R&D

- Climate change and energy sustainability:

     - Greenhouse gas emissions 20%

      - 20% of energy from renewables

      - 20 % increase of energy efficiency

- Education:

     - Reducing the rates of early school leavers below 10%

     - At least 20 million fewer people in or at risk of poverty and social exclusion

 - Fighting poverty and social exclusion: At least 20 million fewer people in or at risk of poverty and social exclusion

f.2 Financial resources allocated to implement the measure: 

The Cohesion Policy for 2014-2020 represents 351.8 billion euros of the EU budget.  The way this is spent is based on a system of shared responsibility between the European Commission and national authorities. The main service responsible for Structural Funds within the Commission is the Directorate-General for Regional and Urban Policy (DG REGIO).

 

Funding for culture in the Operational Programmes under EU Cohesion Policy for 2014-2020 can be estimated at over 9 billion euros.  These funds aim to promote more balanced and sustainable territorial development of EU regions via hundreds of thousands of projects all across Europe.

 

Within ERDF, €5.269 billion is earmarked to go directly to culture, out of which €4.770 billion to cultural heritage.  €1.006 billion of ERDF funds are devoted to "access to public sector information (including open data e-culture, digital libraries, e-content and e-tourism") which will also be used by cultural operators and organisations.

 

It is estimated that a further 3 billion euros (approximately) will finance culture-related projects from other funds within the structural funds (ESF, EAFRD, EMFF).

 

These amounts are indicative and could be modified during the course of the present programming period, should re-allocations be necessary. In the 2007-2013 programming period, re-allocations resulted in an increase in favour of the cultural and creative sectors.

h. Was this measure introduced or revised in order to: 
h.1. Implement the provisions of the Convention?: 
No
h.2. Support/nurture policy discussion inspired by the Convention?: 
No
h.3. Other reasons unrelated to the Convention?: 
Yes
i. Has the implementation of the measure been evaluated?: 
Yes
i.1 At what level the evaluation was conducted?: 
International
i.2 What were the main conclusions?: 
i.3 Which indicators were used to determine impact?: 
❭ INTEGRATION OF CULTURE IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT - AT NATIONAL LEVEL

EU Research Framework Programmes

Context of the measure: 
INTEGRATION OF CULTURE IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT - AT NATIONAL LEVEL
b. Key objectives of the measure: 

The Seventh Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development (FP7) was the EU's main instrument for funding research in Europe from 2007-2013. FP7 was designed to respond to Europe's employment needs, competitiveness and quality of life, which incorporated research pertaining to culture.

 

Horizon 2020 is the current EU research and innovation programme, successor to FP7, running from 2014 to 2020. Over seven years, the programme will make available €77 billion in funding for research and innovation, an almost 40% increase on FP7 in current prices.

 

Horizon 2020 is the biggest EU Research and Innovation programme ever with nearly €80 billion of funding available over the period – in addition to the private investment that this money will attract. It promises more breakthroughs, discoveries and world-firsts by taking great ideas from the lab to the market.

 

Horizon 2020 is structured around the objectives defined for its three priorities: "Excellent science", "Industrial leadership" and "Societal challenges". Culture comes under the umbrella of 'Societal Challenges'. Research infrastructures are leveraged for broader usage in society in a number of areas including culture.

c. What is: 
c.1. the scope of the measure: 
International
c.2. the nature of the measure: 
financial
institutional
c.3. the main feature of the measure: 

FP7, 2007-13

A key tool to respond to Europe's needs in terms of jobs and competitiveness, and to maintain leadership in the global knowledge economy.

 

Research pertaining to Culture was conducted mainly under two of the ten different thematic research areas

Information and Communication technologies (€9.1 bn) 

Socio-economic sciences and the humanities (€0.6 bn)

 

Horizon 2020, 2014-20

A means to drive economic growth and create jobs, Research is seen as investment in the future and at the heart of the EU’s blueprint for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth and jobs.

The Horizon 2020 work programmes and calls 2016-2017 have been published and contain many opportunities for the cultural sector. Relevant funding opportunities can be found under:

d. Does it specifically target individuals and/or social groups as defined in Article 7 of the Convention?: 
No
e. What are the results expected through the implementation of the measure?: 

The ex-post evaluation showed that the €55 billion invested over 7 years into EU's research and innovation proved highly attractive to private sector participants, including a record number of SMEs, which helped strengthen competitiveness of European industries. Expected results:

  • New and or improved conservation and ICT technologies for culture
  • Improved energy efficiency in historic buildings
  • Developments in research on underwater culture
  • Strengthen art, culture and humanities  -the emergence of a European common identity, transnational dialogue and understanding

Horizon 2020, 2014-20

By coupling research and innovation, Horizon 2020 is expected to achieve an emphasis on excellent science, industrial leadership and tackling societal challenges.

Expected results:

  • Enhance social cohesion, inclusion and well-being, transforming lives though cultural and technological innovations, also in their interaction.
  • Drive economic growth and  job creation in the field of cultural and creative (including digital) industries, (transform lives though cultural and technological innovations) .
  • Improve the evidence (including statistical) base on the societal value and impact of culture.
  • Strengthen shared European values, concepts of identity and cultural symbols to decrease polarisations, including from radical ideologies, through enhancing social inclusion and cultural dialogue
f.2 Financial resources allocated to implement the measure: 

Described above.

h. Was this measure introduced or revised in order to: 
h.1. Implement the provisions of the Convention?: 
No
h.2. Support/nurture policy discussion inspired by the Convention?: 
No
h.3. Other reasons unrelated to the Convention?: 
Yes
i. Has the implementation of the measure been evaluated?: 
Yes
i.1 At what level the evaluation was conducted?: 
International
i.2 What were the main conclusions?: 

On 19 January 2016 the European Commission adopted the ex-post evaluation of FP7. This consists of a Communication responding to the recommendations of an external High Level Expert Group and a Staff Working Document.

 

 On 16 September 2016, the European Commission services published a roadmap on the evaluation and fitness check of Horizon 2020 outlining the background and planning of the process. This mid-term evaluation is foreseen by the Regulation establishing Horizon 2020 and will be carried out by 31 December 2017. It will cover the implementation of Horizon 2020 from 2014-2016 inclusive and will aim to also report on the wider impacts of EU Framework Programmes on a longer-term perspective.

i.3 Which indicators were used to determine impact?: 

The European Commission evaluated FP7 on the basis of the five evaluation criteria of the Better Regulation package: efficiency, effectiveness, coherence, relevance and EU added value.

❭ INTEGRATION OF CULTURE IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT - AT INTERNATIONAL LEVEL

EU Development Cooperation - Thematic Programmes

Context of the measure: 
INTEGRATION OF CULTURE IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT - AT INTERNATIONAL LEVEL
b. Key objectives of the measure: 

Under the EU Development Cooperation Instrument, there have been two thematic programmes relevant to the Convention during the reporting period. These are

- Investing in People programme: 2007-2013

- Non-State Actors and Local Authorities programme 2014-20

These thematic programmes are intended to complement geographic programmes (specific to individual countries/regions).

The Investing In People programme included a general objective to promote access to local culture and the protection and promotion of cultural diversity. Specific objectives on culture were Supporting culture as a vector of democracy and economic growth (2012); Governance of Culture (2010); Strengthening capacities in the cultural sector (2010). The programme was implemented through 4 calls for proposals (during the reporting period) and two contracts with UNESCO (to support the EU-UNESCO Expert Facility in the context of the Convention and for heritage recovery in Cuba).  Other aims included

- increased awareness of the role of culture in promoting democratisation, reconciliation and conflict resolution

- capacities built to develop relevant strategies and actions; increased cooperation among stakeholders

- cultural content developed and disseminated

- channels for cultural exchanges established or developed including minorities and disadvantaged

- outreach of cultural expressions; diversity

- level of participation of civil society in cultural governance processes enhanced

- entrepreneurship in cultural sector encouraged

- public/private investment increased

- capacity and representativeness of professional associations and networks reinforced

- artists and cultural workers’ situation improved eg. through increase in income and jobs

- skills and competences in creating, producing, marketing and managing cultural goods and services enhanced

- circulation and access to market facilitated

- contribution of cultural sector to growth increased and better evidenced.

Non-State Actors and Local Authorities programme main aims: to strengthen civil society organisations and local authorities in pa

c. What is: 
c.1. the scope of the measure: 
International
c.2. the nature of the measure: 
financial
institutional
c.3. the main feature of the measure: 

i) In 2012 the Investing In People programme supported culture as a vector of democratisation and economic growth. A call for proposals was launched to

- promote diversity, intercultural dialogue and human rights, in the context of democratisation, reconciliation and conflict resolution; or

- to strengthen capacity for the development of  dynamic cultural sector contributing to economic growth and sustainable development (33 projects signed).

ii) In 2010, the EU financed the EU-UNESCO expert facility on Governance and Culture, in the framework of the 2005 UNESCO Convention (€1,5 M) to support the governance of the cultural sector, through effective cultural policies and an enabling institutional regulatory, economic and professional environment (end of project implementation 2015).

A call for proposals was launched in 2010 to strengthen capacities in the cultural sector (including private and public organisations) to enhance their own governance and role in national governance of sector. 20 contracts were signed, implementation period until 14/15.

d. Does it specifically target individuals and/or social groups as defined in Article 7 of the Convention?: 
Yes
e. What are the results expected through the implementation of the measure?: 

Under the Investing in People programme relevant projects funded included a project encouraging cultural expressions which promote diversity and intercultural dialogue in Sri Lanka, aiming at building channels between the North and the South while facilitating artistic collaborations between cultural actors across borders, generating new content (like Film, Theatre and Creative Writing) that explore themes celebrating diversity and transcending narrow definitions of ethno-religious and gender identities, and supporting artists and cultural activists to develop their own capacities.

Another example is "La Casa Tomada: culture among all to build New Worlds", a space for cultural exchange and promotion of youth initiatives of the Metropolitan Area of San Salvador to encourage the development of creative and artistic abilities. The project has enabled awareness and training and strengthened the community of young entrepreneurs and the development of a Laboratory of Innovation and New Technologies. 

The EU-UNESCO Expert Facility already mentioned, was expected to create an enabling environment in targeted countries through the set-up of a pool of high level specialists on public policy domains relevant to strengthening improved culture governance in developing countries. The Facility was open to countries which were beneficiaries of the thematic EU Human and Social Development programme and which had ratified the 2005 Convention. Technical assistance missions were implemented on request from thirteen countries: Vietnam, Seychelles, Burkina Faso, Congo DR, Barbados, Argentina, Cambodia, Honduras, Kenya, Malawi, Mauritius, Haiti, and Niger. At national level, multi-disciplinary teams were capacitated and operational policies were designed, elaborated and implemented (eg. Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Niger and Vietnam).

The Non-State Actors and Local Authorities programme may finance projects proposed by cultural operators or on cultu

f.2 Financial resources allocated to implement the measure: 

Investing in People  2007-2013: €50 million.

Non-State Actors / Local Authorities: €723 M for the whole programme, of which culture projects forms a part

g. Name of NGOs and/or private companies engaged in the implementation of the measure, if any: 
Type of Involvement: 

In addition to the implementing partners mentioned above, a large variety of stakeholders are involved in implementing projects funded under these programmes, including non-governmental and private sector organizations in the beneficiary countries.  Examples would include: civil society organisations, universities, foundations, schools and research centres.

h. Was this measure introduced or revised in order to: 
h.1. Implement the provisions of the Convention?: 
Yes
h.2. Support/nurture policy discussion inspired by the Convention?: 
Yes
h.3. Other reasons unrelated to the Convention?: 
Yes
i. Has the implementation of the measure been evaluated?: 
Yes
i.1 At what level the evaluation was conducted?: 
Local
International
i.2 What were the main conclusions?: 

Investing in People - Evaluations done at project level but not for the full programme. 

Evaluation of the EU-UNESCO Expert Facility is ongoing.

Non-State Actors – Local Authorities programme - not specifically for projects supporting culture

i.3 Which indicators were used to determine impact?: 

Please see specific evaluations for more details.

❭ INTEGRATION OF CULTURE IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT - AT INTERNATIONAL LEVEL

ACP Cultures+

Context of the measure: 
INTEGRATION OF CULTURE IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT - AT INTERNATIONAL LEVEL
b. Key objectives of the measure: 

Culture is one of the 5 areas of priority of cooperation between the EU and the 79 African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries to support sustainable development, under the Cotonou Agreement.

 

55 of the 79 ACP countries are parties to the 2005 Convention:

Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Comoros, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Democratic Republic of Congo, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Republic of Guinea, Equatorial Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Senegal, Seychelles, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Uganda and Zimbabwe

 

The intra-ACP dimension allows the strengthening of ties and exchanges between operators from different countries, pooling means and resources, expanding audiences and enhancing cultural diversity

 

The overall objective of the ACP Cultures + programme (2012-17) is to increase the contribution of cultural activity sectors in the fight against poverty and the socio-economic and sustainable development of the partner countries, through targeted structuring of sectors and a better circulation of works and dissemination of culture in ACP countries, also preserving cultural diversity.

 

Specific objectives are to: strengthen the creation and production of cultural goods and services of the ACP States in an integrated approach with distribution circuits; support better strengthened access to local, regional, intra-ACP, European and international markets for cultural goods and services of the ACP States; strengthen the capacity of stakeholders, operators and cultural entrepreneurs in ACP countries; contribute to the improvement of the regulatory environment for cultural sectors within ACP countries.

 

c. What is: 
c.1. the scope of the measure: 
International
c.2. the nature of the measure: 
financial
institutional
c.3. the main feature of the measure: 

The ACP Cultures + programme is implemented by the ACP Secretariat, mainly through a support fund to provide grants to the cultural sector, which finance: :

- support for the production and the creation of cultural works from all sectors and their distribution in local markets and the international market;

- support for the marketing and promotion of ACP cultural goods and services in any sector and at regional, intra-ACP and international levels;

- technical and entrepreneurial level training activities to enhance the expertise and capacity of the ACP agents therefore increasing their share in the value chain of cultural products.

 

The Programme budget allocates 61% of the amount of subsidies to film and broadcasting sectors and 39% to other sectors. The sectors covered by the programme were specified in the guidelines, which indicate that the eligible areas are "all areas of cultural and artistic expression such as: theatre, music, dance, oral and written literature, books and publishing, visual arts, photography, applied arts, plastic arts and the performing arts, the development of tangible and intangible heritage, architecture, design, fashion, crafts, and cultural tourism".

d. Does it specifically target individuals and/or social groups as defined in Article 7 of the Convention?: 
No
e. What are the results expected through the implementation of the measure?: 

The mid-term evaluation (2016) showed that the Intra-ACP programme is fully relevant for the development cooperation strategies and support to culture from ACP countries and EU. The amount spent e.g. on cinematographic and audio-visual sectors are significant and supported more than 50 projects, following 2 calls for proposals, involving more than 200 operators.

 

Established partnerships have resulted in lasting collaborations and exchanges between operators from different countries, strengthening impact, and taking advantage of synergies in production, technical skills, circulation and market access.

 

For the cinema and audio-visual sector, the results show the programme had a positive impact, namely in the production capacity, technical skills and quality of the works.

 

The programme also had good results in terms of production quality, eg. in arts including music. Dance and theatre showed positive results as regards national and international circulation, with a large number of representations both in ACP countries and in Europe. Circulation and visibility of ACP works has also increased.

f.2 Financial resources allocated to implement the measure: 

EUR 30 million, 10th European Development Fund (EDF), 2011-19

The budget allocated to the support fund is € 23.5 million.

g. Name of NGOs and/or private companies engaged in the implementation of the measure, if any: 
Type of Involvement: 

Beneficiaries of the programme include both NGOs and private sector organizations, who apply for grants through calls for proposals.  Non-state actors include artists, artisans, designers, technicians and cultural operators through calls for proposals. The programme is also aimed (explicitly) at those responsible for business and cultural associations.

h. Was this measure introduced or revised in order to: 
h.1. Implement the provisions of the Convention?: 
No
h.2. Support/nurture policy discussion inspired by the Convention?: 
No
h.3. Other reasons unrelated to the Convention?: 
Yes
i. Has the implementation of the measure been evaluated?: 
Yes
i.1 At what level the evaluation was conducted?: 
International
i.2 What were the main conclusions?: 

See the section on "Expected Results".

i.3 Which indicators were used to determine impact?: 

Various.

❭ INTEGRATION OF CULTURE IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT - AT INTERNATIONAL LEVEL

Culture and arts for social cohesion in Latin American cities

Context of the measure: 
INTEGRATION OF CULTURE IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT - AT INTERNATIONAL LEVEL
b. Key objectives of the measure: 

The overall objective of this project is to promote and strengthen the role of arts and culture as drivers for inclusive and sustainable urban development in Latin America. The specific objective is to facilitate exchanges and joint actions between the EU and LA to better integrate cultural policies and initiatives in urban development strategies, building on successful projects supporting social cohesion in LA cities.

c. What is: 
c.1. the scope of the measure: 
Local
Regional
International
c.2. the nature of the measure: 
financial
institutional
c.3. the main feature of the measure: 

This is the first action in the framework of the EU regional cooperation with Latin America that supports culture and arts for social cohesion.

 

The project fosters cooperation and exchanges between the EU and Latin America and  among Latin American cities.  In particular the project supports the development of small artistic initiatives in 5 selected cities of the region, each of which is located in a country Party to the 2005 Convention: (Puebla (Mexico), San Salvador (El Salvador), Medellin (Colombia), Lima (Peru) and Curitiba (Brazil).

The project also aims to raise awareness of the role of culture in development cooperation, in particular with a small exhibition of projects that takes place at the end of the action, in Brussels.

d. Does it specifically target individuals and/or social groups as defined in Article 7 of the Convention?: 
Yes
e. What are the results expected through the implementation of the measure?: 
  1. Awareness-raising about the role of cultural policies and programmes and art practices in addressing the needs of people who are socially excluded in urban contexts.
  2. Enhanced interchanges between actors of the cultural and social sectors of Latin America and the EU and create opportunities for Latin American artists and creators, especially from the poorest urban neighbourhoods, to work on cultural initiatives with the EU partners. 
  3. Organization of arts and culture events to showcase successful artworks and artistic initiatives supporting social cohesion and fostering participation of the population, especially young people, from disadvantaged urban areas in Latin America.
f.2 Financial resources allocated to implement the measure: 

300 000€

g. Name of NGOs and/or private companies engaged in the implementation of the measure, if any: 
Type of Involvement: 

The project involves many public and private stakeholders of the cultural and artistic sectors (architects, urban planners, academics, cultural professionals, artists, representatives from art collectives and platforms) both from European and Latin American cities.  The full list of countries involved is: Belgium, Croatia, Germany, Italy, Slovenia, Spain, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Chile, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Mexico and Peru (all Parties to the 2005 Convention). 

h. Was this measure introduced or revised in order to: 
h.1. Implement the provisions of the Convention?: 
No
h.2. Support/nurture policy discussion inspired by the Convention?: 
Yes
h.3. Other reasons unrelated to the Convention?: 
Yes
i. Has the implementation of the measure been evaluated?: 
No
❭ EMERGING TRANSVERSAL ISSUES: Resolution 5.CP 9b

EU Council Conclusions on mainstreaming digital solutions and technologies in EU development policy

Context of the measure: 
EMERGING TRANSVERSAL ISSUES: Resolution 5.CP 9b
b. Key objectives of the measure: 

The Conclusions, adopted in late 2016 by EU Ministers for Development Cooperation, emphasise that digital technologies play a strategic role in the development and growth of the cultural and creative industries and, as such, should be used to protect and promote cultural diversity

c. What is: 
c.1. the scope of the measure: 
International
c.2. the nature of the measure: 
institutional
c.3. the main feature of the measure: 

The Council Conclusions also

-underline the digital contribution to promoting democracy, good governance, gender equality, inclusion and participation

- stress the importance of the EU's 2014 guidelines on freedom of expression online and offline

- propose a "digital by default" approach to development projects, but with sensitivity to existing digital divides

- welcome the proposal to revise the European Consensus on Development stressing the role of digital technologies in future EU development cooperation

d. Does it specifically target individuals and/or social groups as defined in Article 7 of the Convention?: 
No
e. What are the results expected through the implementation of the measure?: 

Greater mainstreaming of digital solutions and technologies in EU developent policy.

f.2 Financial resources allocated to implement the measure: 

N/A

h. Was this measure introduced or revised in order to: 
h.1. Implement the provisions of the Convention?: 
No
h.2. Support/nurture policy discussion inspired by the Convention?: 
Yes
h.3. Other reasons unrelated to the Convention?: 
Yes
i. Has the implementation of the measure been evaluated?: 
No
❭ YOUTH

EU education and youth policy - culture aspects

Context of the measure: 
YOUTH
b. Key objectives of the measure: 

In the framework of the new European Skills Agenda, the Commission is now reviewing the initial definition of the Key Competence n°8, Cultural Awareness and Expression: "the appreciation of the importance of the creative expression of ideas, experiences and emotions in a range of media, including music, performing arts, literature, and the visual arts."

 

The Commission is also exploring the description of the competence and the related knowledge, skills and attitudes, bearing in mind that culture is multifaceted and that there are multiple ways to train cultural awareness and expression.

c. What is: 
c.1. the scope of the measure: 
International
c.2. the nature of the measure: 
institutional
c.3. the main feature of the measure: 

In 2014-2015 a group of around 25 Member States worked on the 8th Key Competence  "cultural awareness and expression", following a transversal approach, with representatives of both the education and culture sectors.

 

They produced a Handbook for policy-makers, disseminated in 2016 in European and National events and websites (European Culture Forum in Brussels, Structured Dialogue/Voices of culture meetings in Brussels, Creativity Week in Latvia…).

 

Member States expressed that although culture and education are the main means to tackle cultural awareness and expression, it is indeed a very wide-ranging topic, which concerns many policy sectors. This competence encompasses three major features:

  • art history and artistic skills
  • creativity and innovation
  • contribution to social cohesion and identity

    The latter being all the more crucial in a period in which openness, optimism and tolerance are placed under such strain in Europe.

     

    In 2016, following the adoption of the new European Skills Agenda, the Commission has launched a review of the Key Competences, including cultural awareness and expression.

d. Does it specifically target individuals and/or social groups as defined in Article 7 of the Convention?: 
No
e. What are the results expected through the implementation of the measure?: 

Implementation of the measure is hoped to result in positive impacts on society, in terms of social cohesion, citizenship, growth and cultural diversity

f.2 Financial resources allocated to implement the measure: 

Hard to specify budget for policy work in this framework, but costs covered include staff time and experts' expenses for meetings.

h. Was this measure introduced or revised in order to: 
h.1. Implement the provisions of the Convention?: 
No
h.2. Support/nurture policy discussion inspired by the Convention?: 
Yes
h.3. Other reasons unrelated to the Convention?: 
Yes
i. Has the implementation of the measure been evaluated?: 
No