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Bosnia and Herzegovina

Communication

19FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION: 52/100 (2012) The freedom of expression, the freedom of the media and the free flow of information are protected by law and guaranteed in the Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Article 2 and Annex). Bosnia and Herzegovina’s score of 52/100 indicates that their print, broadcast, and internet-based media...
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19FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION: 52/100 (2012)
 
The freedom of expression, the freedom of the media and the free flow of information are protected by law and guaranteed in the Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Article 2 and Annex).
 
Bosnia and Herzegovina’s score of 52/100 indicates that their print, broadcast, and internet-based media is currently ‘partly free.’ This score illustrates the efforts made by the authorities to ensure an enabling environment for freed media to operate and freedom of expression to be respected and promoted. Through the free flow of ideas, knowledge, information and content, these freedoms are the building blocks for the development of open and participatory societies as well as key enablers for creativity and cultural diversity. 
 
An independent body, the Communications Regulatory Agency (CRA), oversees the work of the media and issues broadcasting licenses, as stipulated by the Law on Communication (Official Gazette of Bosnia and Herzegovina, no. 31/03). The CRA operates at the level of Bosnia and Herzegovina in accordance with general principles of legality, objectivity, transparency and non-discrimination and is entirely independent in the decision-making process. Although often exposed to political pressure, the agency is financially independent and its licensing decisions are generally seen as fair and impartial. 
 
Nevertheless, key improvements remain in the current political and legal environments. While State legislation guarantees the freedom of expression, politicians have been reported to continue to exert considerable pressure on journalists, and media outlets continue to have ties with political parties. In spite of libel being officially decriminalized in 2003, journalists can still face civil penalties over libel complaints, and the burden of proof in such cases is placed on defendants. The Free Media Helpline, a program run by the Bosnia and Herzegovina Journalists’ Association, recorded 39 violations of journalists’ rights between January 1 and September 10, 2012, and noted an increase in threats and pressure by politicians since 2011. While legislation on the freedom of information is in place, certain government bodies continue to not observe the law, hindering access and making the process to obtain official data cumbersome. 


 

DIVERSITY OF DISTRIBUTED FILMS (ALTERNATIVE INDICATOR): 3.6% (2010)  In 2010, approximately 3.6% of all State-wide distributed films were of domestic origin, including co-productions. 168 films were distributed nation-wide across Bosnia and Herzegovina, of which 162 were foreign, 1 was a co-production, and 5 were domestically...
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DIVERSITY OF DISTRIBUTED FILMS (ALTERNATIVE INDICATOR): 3.6% (2010) 
 
In 2010, approximately 3.6% of all State-wide distributed films were of domestic origin, including co-productions. 168 films were distributed nation-wide across Bosnia and Herzegovina, of which 162 were foreign, 1 was a co-production, and 5 were domestically produced. The overwhelming majority of distributed films were of foreign origin, 96.4%.
 
This result may reflect very low production capacities of the domestic film industry, or low levels of public support offered to local creators for the development and distribution of domestic content and the local cultural industries. Obstacles that may be contributing to low production include a lack of infrastructure and material support to production.  Inadequate infrastructure is a major contributing factor to limited distribution, screening, and archiving capacities. Cinemas and facilities were largely destroyed during the war in the 1990s; today 6 functioning cinemas are available in only six large cities, and only two film archives continue to pursue their work with limited financial support from authorities. According to the Strategy for Cultural Policy of Bosnia and Herzegovina, solid infrastructure and the coherent organization of the production, distribution and screening of films is necessary for the development of cinematography nation-wide. 
 
Nevertheless, the film industry is already a significant contributor to the economy of Bosnia and Herzegovina. According to the indicators of the Economy dimension, 1.8% of employed persons work in motion picture activities, and the contribution of these activities to GDP is nearly 1%. Furthermore, it is significant to note that the ratio of ticket sales for domestic films (16.7% : 83.3%) compared to foreign films is much higher than the ratio of domestic to foreign films distributed (3.6% : 96.4%), indicating a genuine public demand and potential for the growth of the domestic market.
 
Cinematography has been steadily developing in post-war Bosnia and Herzegovina thanks to a rich film tradition and investment in the education of young experts, as illustrated by the indicators of the Education Dimension. The quality of domestic productions has earned recognition in the form of multiple prestigious international prizes including Best Script at the Cannes Film Festival (2001), Best Foreign Film at the American Academy Awards (2002, 2006), and the Golden Bear the Berlin International Film Festival (2006), to name but a few. In addition to the domestic market, such international recognition also shows the export potential of the industry. 

 

20ACCESS AND INTERNET USE: 61% (2011) In 2011, 61% of the population aged 17-64 in Bosnia and Herzegovina had access to and used the Internet. The Communications Regulatory Agency estimated that there were 2,113,100 Internet users in 2011, increased from 2 million in 2010, and recent estimates suggest that the number of Internet users...
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20ACCESS AND INTERNET USE: 61% (2011)
 
In 2011, 61% of the population aged 17-64 in Bosnia and Herzegovina had access to and used the Internet. The Communications Regulatory Agency estimated that there were 2,113,100 Internet users in 2011, increased from 2 million in 2010, and recent estimates suggest that the number of Internet users has continued to grow in the years since 2011. Bosnia and Herzegovina’s result is slightly greater than the average result for all countries having implemented the CDIS, which is situated at 61.4%. 
 
Access to Internet is possible in nearly all cities, and statistics indicate xDSL subscriptions and cable Internet access were the dominant forms of access in 2011 (48.1% and 23.1% of the total number of Internet subscribers). While access is available across the country, the choice of multiple providers is available in bigger cities, while in smaller towns competition is usually limited to five service providers. 
 
The development of information technologies, and in particular the Internet, is significantly transforming the way people access, create, produce and disseminate cultural content and ideas, influencing people’s opportunities to access and participate in cultural life. The Republika Srpska has prioritized the development of information programmes to provide fast technology services and the formation of databases, and has included it in their Strategy for Development of Culture in the Republic of Srpska. Country-wide, an example of a successful database is the COBISS program that includes nearly all public, school and faculty libraries in a unique network, increasing access to content nation-wide across Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Education

4 INCLUSIVE EDUCATION: 0.99/1 (2005) The 1995 Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Article 3) and the 2003 Framework Law on Primary and Secondary Education declare all citizens’ right to an education. Within this context, the result of 0.99/1 reflects the success of authorities in guaranteeing this fundamental cultural...
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4 INCLUSIVE EDUCATION: 0.99/1 (2005)
 
The 1995 Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Article 3) and the 2003 Framework Law on Primary and Secondary Education declare all citizens’ right to an education. Within this context, the result of 0.99/1 reflects the success of authorities in guaranteeing this fundamental cultural right in a complete, fair and inclusive manner. In Bosnia and Herzegovina, primary education is obligatory and free of charge, while secondary and tertiary education is available to all with a required entry fee. This result shows that on average, the target population aged 17-22 has 11.4 years of schooling, which is superior to the targeted 10 years. In addition, only a very small minority of 1% of the target population lives in education deprivation, having less than 4 years of schooling. This result shows that despite Bosnia and Herzegovina’s recent strife, public authorities’ efforts have been overwhelmingly successful in assuring that citizens enjoy the right to an education, and participate in the construction and transmission of values, attitudes and cultural skills throughout school, as well as benefit from the personal and social empowerment of learning.

 

6 ARTS EDUCATION: 6.45% (2009) In Bosnia and Herzegovina, an average of 6.45% of all instructional hours in the first two years of secondary school are to be dedicated to arts education, reflecting a medium level of priority given to the arts and culture. The Action Plan of the Strategy for Cultural Policy of Bosnia and...
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6 ARTS EDUCATION: 6.45% (2009)
 
In Bosnia and Herzegovina, an average of 6.45% of all instructional hours in the first two years of secondary school are to be dedicated to arts education, reflecting a medium level of priority given to the arts and culture. The Action Plan of the Strategy for Cultural Policy of Bosnia and Herzegovina prescribes “stimulating arts and creative content in the educational system;” one of the goals is to integrate cultural programmes in all levels of education by 2014 and to require liberal artists to work with pupils and students (Indicator 4.3.1). Bosnia and Herzegovina’s final result reflects the successful integration of culture in secondary education. The sub-disciplines of the arts that are incorporated in the official school curricula are music and painting. Other sub-disciplines are offered as elective subjects, such as photography, drama, and dance. 
 
Nevertheless, while this result for secondary education is above the average across all test phase countries of the CDIS, which is situated at 4.84%, a gap in the priority given to arts education can be noted for secondary schooling at the level of Bosnia and Herzegovina. On average, 10.90% of all educational hours are to be dedicated to arts education during primary schooling. This is nearly twice what is required during secondary education. Moreover, when looking at the following indicator on tertiary and training programmes that are offered in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the coverage is nearly complete. Such a gap may inhibit realizing the culture sector’s full potential as an employer by preventing students from developing an interest in a professional career in the sector during key formative years.

 

7 PROFESSIONAL TRAINING IN THE CULTURE SECTOR: 0.8/1 (2010) Bosnia and Herzegovina’s result of 0.8/1 indicates that the Bosnian-Herzegovinian authorities have manifested a clear interest and willingness to invest in the training of cultural professionals. Indeed, the coverage of public and government-dependent private...
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7 PROFESSIONAL TRAINING IN THE CULTURE SECTOR: 0.8/1 (2010)
 
Bosnia and Herzegovina’s result of 0.8/1 indicates that the Bosnian-Herzegovinian authorities have manifested a clear interest and willingness to invest in the training of cultural professionals. Indeed, the coverage of public and government-dependent private technical and tertiary education is rather comprehensive in Bosnia and Herzegovina, offering various types of courses and permitting cultural professionals to receive the necessary training to pursue a career in the culture sector.
 
Six of the eight public government-funded universities in the country offer programmes in the field of culture, and one of the goals of the Action Plan of the Strategy for Cultural Policy of Bosnia and Herzegovina is to increase the number of students in cultural fields (Indicator 4.3.1). Approximately 320 students are enrolled in higher education cultural programmes each year, while only 170 graduate. Although the coverage of professional training is rather satisfactory, enrolment in these programmes represents only 0.3% of the 107,609 students enrolled at the 40 public and private higher education institutions in the year 2010/2011.
 
The fields most represented are music, the fine arts and film, the former two of which have various programmes on offer at five universities, and the latter at four. Though employment in the field of architecture is rather high as demonstrated by the Economy dimension indicators, architecture is only offered by two universities: the University of Banja Luka and the University of Sarajevo. Relative to heritage, archaeology is only available at the University of Mostar. 
 
One notable gap exists in both the coverage of technical and vocational education and training (TVET) and tertiary education in culture; the field of Cultural Management is not represented in Bosnia and Herzegovina’s educational system. Transforming artistic and creative capacities into economically viable activities, goods and services and the effective management of cultural businesses requires considering culture-specific aspects of the sector. A lack of training in cultural management may hinder the emergence of a dynamic cultural class and the development of competitive cultural enterprises.

 

5 MULTILINGUAL EDUCATION: 85% (2009) The Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1995) states that the enjoyment of rights and freedoms shall be secured to all persons without discrimination on any grounds, including language (Article 2). According to the Constitutions of the Republika Srpska and the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina...
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5 MULTILINGUAL EDUCATION: 85% (2009)
 
The Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1995) states that the enjoyment of rights and freedoms shall be secured to all persons without discrimination on any grounds, including language (Article 2). According to the Constitutions of the Republika Srpska and the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, there are three official languages: Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian (Article 7 and Amendment XXIX). In addition, there are two official scripts: Cyrillic and Latin. 
 
According to the 2009 official curriculums of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Republika Srpska, and the Brčko District, an average of 44% of the required time dedicated to languages in the first two years of secondary school (grades 10-11) is to be dedicated to the teaching of one of the three official languages. The remaining 56% of the time is to be dedicated to the teaching of international languages; 32% is to be dedicated to teaching a first international language, and 24% to a second. These results indicate that an average of 85% of the total time dedicated to teaching languages State-wide is spent promoting multilingualism in the first two years of secondary school and that linguistic diversity is particularly encouraged regarding the three official languages and openness to international languages.
 
Primary and secondary school curricula require one of the three official languages to be taught in each grade. The first international language is introduced in the third grade of primary school and the second in the sixth. English, French, and German are favored options, while Spanish, Italian and Turkish have recently been introduced. The average ratio of time dedicated to official languages versus international languages in primary schooling is 62:38.
 
These figures show efforts to encourage the learning of official languages, strengthening identity, while at the same time enhancing the valorization of cultural diversity through the teaching of international languages.  However, in spite of these promising results, none of the 17 minority languages are part of the required curriculums.Although the Constitutions of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republika Srpska state that other languages and alphabets may be used to teach in regions inhabited by groups speaking minority languages (Amendment XXIX and Article 7), the representation of such local and regional languages in the formal education system remains 0%. Introducing these languages into official school curriculums would improve minorities’ education and working opportunities, and would enhance cross-cultural understanding amongst the people of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Gender-Equality

17 GENDER EQUALITY OBJECTIVE OUTPUTS (ALTERNATIVE INDICATORS)

 The Law on Gender Equality in Bosnia and Herzegovina (2003) conforms to the provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of all forms of discrimination and is the most important instrument for the development of awareness of gender issues and the...
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17 GENDER EQUALITY OBJECTIVE OUTPUTS (ALTERNATIVE INDICATORS)

 
The Law on Gender Equality in Bosnia and Herzegovina (2003) conforms to the provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of all forms of discrimination and is the most important instrument for the development of awareness of gender issues and the consideration of gender in the development of public policies and regulations. However, while gender legislation exists, a series of alternative indicators reveal persisting gaps where additional investment is needed to improve gender equality outputs.
 
While little significant divergence can be noted in the areas of gender equity legislation and education, more prominent gaps can be seen regarding labour force and political participation. Although 56.7% of men are either employed or actively searching for work, only 33.2% of women participate in the labour force. Additionally, the most significant gap is observed regarding the outcomes of political participation where a major imbalance persists, in spite of a quota system in favor of women’s participation being in place. In 2012, women only represented 21% of parliamentarians. In 2010, the Gender Equality Agency of Bosnia and Herzegovina, in cooperation with Ministry for Human Rights and Refugees of Bosnia and Herzegovina, conducted a study on the depiction of women candidates in the media. The results of the study indicated substantial marginalization of female politicians during election periods and that women in Bosnia and Herzegovina are still not given equal opportunities to exercise their rights to participate in political and public life. Furthermore, once part of the public sector, women continue to confront obstacles in climbing the ladder of hierarchy. A priority of the Strategy for Cultural Policy of Bosnia and Herzegovina (2008) is to “promote gender equality and eliminate sex discrimination phenomena and inequality in the field of culture and, on that basis, improving the quality of education, as well as proper representation of both genders at all levels of society and governance.”  Nevertheless, according to the Administrative Database in the Field of Cultural Policy, even amongst individuals actively employed by public cultural institutions, women are underrepresented in positions of leadership. Although employment of the public cultural sector as a whole favors females (55%), in contrast to the ratio of average labour force participation rates for men and women, men continue to hold 65% of all positions of authority.
 
In Conclusion, while Bosnia and Herzegovina has made progress in select areas of gender equality, progress remains to be achieved in others. Policies require people, and a further look at the subjective indicator below suggests that deep-set cultural values and perceptions may be behind the most persistent gaps in outputs. Resistance due to embedded cultural values can undermine the feasibility of objectives and the sustainability of performance outcomes.

 

18 PERCEPTION OF GENDER EQUALITY: 65.8% (2001) In 2001, 65.8% of the people of Bosnia and Herzegovina positively perceived gender as a factor for development, according to their responses to questions regarding three key domains that parallel the objective indicators for this dimension- employment, political participation and...
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18 PERCEPTION OF GENDER EQUALITY: 65.8% (2001)
 
In 2001, 65.8% of the people of Bosnia and Herzegovina positively perceived gender as a factor for development, according to their responses to questions regarding three key domains that parallel the objective indicators for this dimension- employment, political participation and education. The final result is a composite indicator, which suggests that nearly two-thirds of the population view gender as a positive factor for development. Bosnia and Herzegovina’s result is slightly greater than the average result for all countries having implemented the CDIS, which is situated at 61.4%. Individuals’ perceptions on gender equality are strongly influenced by cultural practices and norms, thus this result suggests social and cultural norms that largely support gender equality. 
 
However, the perception of gender equality varied according to the domain of the question asked. When asked if “University is more important for a boy than for a girl,” 82.4% of the population responded no, suggesting that education is a domain in which gender equality is more likely to be perceived as positive for development. When asked if “Men make better political leaders than woman,” 67.2% of respondents did not agree. In response to the question “When jobs are scarce, men should have more right to a job than women,” only 47.7% of respondents did not agree. The higher esteem for women’s education and the lower appreciation for gender equality in labour force participation are consistent with the gaps in objective outputs observed. However, the perceptions of two-thirds of the population who favorably perceive women in politics are not reflected by the low percentage of women in parliament.
 
>> This cross-analysis of the subjective and objective indicators reveals that while some attitudes and values are reflected in persisting gaps in objective outputs, the majority’s positive perception of women in politics is not translated into tangible outcomes. These results suggest a need for greater advocacy efforts targeting attitudes in regards to key domains like employment, while more appropriate measures, programmes and investments are needed to realize objective gender equality in politics and the public sector, as well as to effectively implement the recommendations of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms Discrimination against Women (CEDAW)

Governance

8 STANDARD-SETTING FRAMEWORK FOR CULTURE: 0.94/1 (2012) Bosnia and Herzegovina’s result of 0.94/1 indicates that there is already a significant standard-setting framework for culture when looking at the country as a whole and that many efforts have been made to ratify key international legal instruments affecting cultural...
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8 STANDARD-SETTING FRAMEWORK FOR CULTURE: 0.94/1 (2012)
 
Bosnia and Herzegovina’s result of 0.94/1 indicates that there is already a significant standard-setting framework for culture when looking at the country as a whole and that many efforts have been made to ratify key international legal instruments affecting cultural development, cultural rights and cultural diversity, as well as to establish a framework to recognize and implement these obligations. 
 
Few complete absences can be noted in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The legal framework that governs cultural legislation in Bosnia and Herzegovina is quite complex and when analyzed further, select inconsistencies and gaps can be noted across the different levels of government. Bosnia and Herzegovina is a sovereign State with a highly decentralized political and administrative structure. All functions and powers not explicitly stated as those of the State in the Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina, are those of the entities- the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republika Srpska. In such cases, including all matters concerning culture, the State has only a coordinating role. In addition, further decentralization of powers occurs within the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, at the level of cantons. Finally, the Brčko District is a separate condominium administrative and territorial unit, jointly owned by both entities, which falls under State level jurisdiction.
 
Bosnia and Herzegovina scored 0.97/1 at the international level. International affairs are in the realm of the powers of the State, and a result of 0.97/1 shows the country’s high level of commitment to cultural development, cultural rights and cultural diversity.Bosnia and Herzegovina has ratified all recommended conventions, declarations and recommendations, with the exception of the 2003 UNESCO Recommendation concerning the Promotion and Use of Multilingualism and Universal Access to Cyberspace.
 
Given the complex legislative structure, a few more inconsistencies and gaps can be noted at the level of Bosnia and Herzegovina, but a total score of 0.93/1 indicates that a great deal of effort has been made at all levels of government to implement many of the international obligations that Bosnia and Herzegovina has committed to. Select areas for improvement remain. No legislation in favor of creating a propitious and diversified environment for the development of local cultural industries exists at any government level, and a ‘framework law’ for culture only exists in 4 of the 10 cantons of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Nevertheless, the Republika Srpska is currently in the process of drafting a Law on Culture, which will harmonize all applicable laws and procedures in the field of culture, as well as establish mechanisms for the financing of culture and enhanced regulation in such areas as the status of artists. Another key omission is the current lack of State-level legislation to implement international commitments regarding the protection of cultural heritage, though a State-level draft of the Law on Cultural Goods is currently being prepared. Measure 2.1.1 of the Action Plan of the Strategy for Cultural Policy of Bosnia and Herzegovina (2008) prescribes “harmonisation of domestic policies on heritage with international standards.” To date, analysis of heritage legislation was conducted in 2011 and submitted to State, entity and canton-level ministries responsible for culture in order to prepare new regulations.

 

9 POLICY AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR CULTURE: 1/1 (2012) The final result of 1/1 reflects that Bosnian-Herzegovinian authorities have taken great efforts to create a comprehensive policy and institutional framework to promote the culture sector as part of development, by establishing targeted policies and mechanisms and by...
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9 POLICY AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR CULTURE: 1/1 (2012)
 
The final result of 1/1 reflects that Bosnian-Herzegovinian authorities have taken great efforts to create a comprehensive policy and institutional framework to promote the culture sector as part of development, by establishing targeted policies and mechanisms and by having an adequate political and administrative system to implement the legal instruments seen above.  
 
In line with the European principles of de-etatization, decentralization, and democratization as stated in the Strategy for Cultural Policy of Bosnia and Herzegovina (2008), several Ministries responsible for culture exist at all levels of the government and have allocated budgets. At the State level, the Ministry of Civil Affairs, Sector for Science and Culture has a mandate to perform activities and tasks that are in jurisdiction of Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as tasks related to the coordination and harmonization of activities and plans of entity authorities. Most competences over culture fall under entity jurisdiction, each entity having two separate Ministries responsible for select cultural issues as well as 10 canton-level Ministries in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Entities and cantons are responsible for the initiation and development of legislation and strategies in the area of culture; regulation and organization of cultural services provision via their cultural institutions; distribution of public funds for programmes and projects; the support of cultural cooperation programmes; and the maintenance of citizen associations. To this aim they perform administrative and professional tasks in the areas of heritage protection, museums, archives, libraries, publishing, theatre, music, fine arts, film, etc. In addition to these key State and entity-level actors, a Department of the Brčko District also has competences in the area of culture.
 
Multiple plans and strategies demonstrate the level of commitment to promoting the culture sector across government levels.  The State-level Council of Minister has adopted the Strategy for Cultural Policy in Bosnia and Herzegovina (2008), as well as its Action Plan (2011). The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina has a Development Strategy and Action Plan for the period 2010—2020, which specifies several goals and activities specific to culture; and for the first time, the Ministry in charge of culture has been included in drafting the new Development Strategy for the Republic Srpska for the period 2010—2015. 
 
However, in spite of Bosnia and Herzegovina’s perfect score and extensive cultural policy and institutional framework, enhancement of the framework for improved efficiency and effectiveness can still be achieved. Due to the complex structure of jurisdiction, a high degree of cooperation is required and the mechanisms to realize such cooperation country-wide can still evolve. In addition, to facilitate nation-wide effectiveness and ensure adequate distribution of funding and targeted cultural programmes, improvements can be made in data collection, data sharing and harmonization of information systems across government levels. 

 

GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURES ON CULTURE (ADDITIONAL INDICATOR): 1.31% (2009) In 2009, the total share of government expenditures on culture State-wide was 1.31%. This accounts for an allocation of 29.14 BAM (14.90 EUR) per capita for culture and highlights the degree of the government’s financial commitment to meet culture sector objectives...
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GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURES ON CULTURE (ADDITIONAL INDICATOR): 1.31% (2009)
 
In 2009, the total share of government expenditures on culture State-wide was 1.31%. This accounts for an allocation of 29.14 BAM (14.90 EUR) per capita for culture and highlights the degree of the government’s financial commitment to meet culture sector objectives iterated in laws and policies at all levels of decentralization.
 
Like jurisdiction over cultural matters, the financing of culture in Bosnia and Herzegovina depends on several government levels. As culture - and thus the public financing thereof - is first and foremost the responsibility of the entities, the bulk of public funding for culture is provided by the Republika Srpska, the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the cantons of the Federation, as well as by the Brčko District. The State provides only a small share of the total support for culture, an equivalent of 2.27 BAM per capita in 2009, which assists in co-financing programmes and projects significant for the State and international cooperation. The percentage of public expenditures for culture in the Brčko District was 0.93%.  At the entity level, the Republika Srpska and the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina allocated 1.43% and 1.38% of their budgets respectively. These figures indicate that both entities and the Brčko District allocated a consistent 27 BAM per capita for culture. Variations at the canton-level are more extreme from 0.18% of total public expenditures in the Canton Bosnian Podrinie to 3.71% in the Canton Sarajevo. 
 
In comparison to other neighbouring European countries, according to the Compendium of Cultural Policies and Trends of the Council of Europe, Bosnia and Herzegovina falls in the lower-middle of the spectrum as the total expenditures on culture per capita are significantly lower than some neighbouring countries such as Slovenia (134.60 EUR), yet higher than others such as Albania (5.87 EUR).

 

10 DISTRIBUTION OF CULTURAL INFRASTRUCTURES: 0.66/1 (2012)  Bosnia and Herzegovina’s final result is 0.66/1, 1 representing the situation in which selected infrastructure is equally distributed amongst regions according to the relative size of the population. All levels of the government provide cultural services through...
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10 DISTRIBUTION OF CULTURAL INFRASTRUCTURES: 0.66/1 (2012) 
 
Bosnia and Herzegovina’s final result is 0.66/1, 1 representing the situation in which selected infrastructure is equally distributed amongst regions according to the relative size of the population. All levels of the government provide cultural services through publicly funded cultural institutions. There are 264 public cultural institutions with more than 2800 employees. The score of 0.66/1 thus reflects that there are many cultural facilities available across all administrative divisions directly below State level in Bosnia and Herzegovina, but that some inequality persists regarding access to Museums, Exhibition Venues Dedicated to the Performing Arts, Libraries and Media Resource Centers.
 
When looking at the figures for the three different categories of infrastructures, Bosnia and Herzegovina scores 0.56/1 for Museums, 0.75/1 for Exhibition Venues and 0.66/1 for Libraries. This suggests that the most equal distribution of access exists for Exhibition Venues, and that the most unequal distribution exists for Museums, the Brčko District not having any such facilities. Exhibition Venues take the form of cultural centres in Bosnia and Herzegovina and serve many functions promoting community culture, language and heritage by exhibiting elements of art and culture and organizing festivals, film projections and theatrical performances. Increasing equality of access to cultural infrastructure could enhance wellbeing in Bosnia and Herzegovina by both providing more opportunities to take part in cultural and creative activities which benefit the country economically through the production and consumption of cultural goods and services, and by nurturing an appreciation for the diverse cultures of the country through participation. This is a crucial and common challenge among all the countries that have implemented the CDIS until now as the average score for this indicator is only 0.43/1.

 

11CIVIL SOCIETY PARTICIPATION IN CULTURAL GOVERNANCE: 0.85/1 (2012) The final result of 0.85/1 indicates that many opportunities exist for dialogue and representation of both cultural professionals and minorities in regards to the formulation and implementation of cultural policies, measures and programmes that concern them. Such...
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11CIVIL SOCIETY PARTICIPATION IN CULTURAL GOVERNANCE: 0.85/1 (2012)
 
The final result of 0.85/1 indicates that many opportunities exist for dialogue and representation of both cultural professionals and minorities in regards to the formulation and implementation of cultural policies, measures and programmes that concern them. Such opportunities for participation in cultural governance exist at the State as well as decentralized levels.
 
To facilitate the participation of cultural professionals in governance, there are several institutional mechanisms and organic structures that operate at the State, entity, canton, and municipal levels. As part of the legislative structures, all levels of government in Bosnia and Herzegovina have commissions for culture that are formed within parliaments and assemblies, consisting of 5 to 10 members, one-third of which are cultural professionals acting as experts. 
As part of the respective executive authorities of each level of government, all have councils for culture that act as advisory bodies to the Ministry responsible for culture or to municipale assemblies. These councils are formed by the government/municipal mayor following a proposal of the relevant Ministry/municipality. The councils likewise have 5 to 10 members and one-third are cultural professionals.
 
Though less formalized and ad hoc in nature, means to facilitate the punctual participation of minorities in cultural governance also exist. For example, during the development of the Action Plan of the Strategy for Cultural Policy of Bosnia and Herzegovina, representatives of minorities were consulted and participated in sessions held in 2011, and their proposals were incorporated into the document. Efforts to regularize such sessions at all levels of government would further ensure the continued participation of minorities in the formulation and implementation of cultural policies, measures and programmes that concern them.

Heritage

22HERITAGE SUSTAINABILITY: 0.56/1 (2013) Bosnia and Herzegovina’s result of 0.56/1 is an intermediate result regarding the establishment of multidimensional framework for the protection, safeguarding and promotion of heritage sustainability. The degree of commitment and action taken by the authorities of Bosnia and Herzegovina...
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22HERITAGE SUSTAINABILITY: 0.56/1 (2013)
 
Bosnia and Herzegovina’s result of 0.56/1 is an intermediate result regarding the establishment of multidimensional framework for the protection, safeguarding and promotion of heritage sustainability. The degree of commitment and action taken by the authorities of Bosnia and Herzegovina varies according to the component of the framework. While many public efforts are dedicated to registrations and inscriptions, conservation, valorization and management, and stimulating support; persisting gaps remain regarding knowledge and capacity-building, community involvement, raising awareness and education.  
 
Responsibility for heritage is greatly decentralized in Bosnia and Herzegovina and coverage of public authorities is fragmented. Decision-making processes, as well as the registration of heritage sites is in the jurisdiction of the two entities of Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as the Brčko District, while the Ministry of Civil Affairs at the State level has only a coordinative role. The Commission to Preserve National Monuments (CPNM) at the State level receives and decides on requests to designate property as national monuments, due to cultural, historical, religious, or ethical value. The CPNM has a register of cultural heritage of Bosnia and Herzegovina, as do the entity institutes for the protection of heritage/monuments. In all, there are 11 institutes for the protection of cultural heritage, with 151 employees. The entity and cantonal institutes perform some of the most significant professional, technical and administrative tasks in the field of heritage protection. Three additional institutes are exclusively responsible for natural heritage in the Republika Srpska, the Sarajevo Canton, and the Tuzla Canton; and an institute in the Central Bosnia Canton deals with heritage in regards to spatial planning. Cooperation between the various bodies poses many challenges.
 
Bosnia and Herzegovina scored 0.7/1 for registration and inscriptions, indicating that many efforts have resulted in sub-national, national and international registrations and inscriptions of sites and elements of tangible and intangible heritage. The 714 sites and objects of moveable property that have been registered by the CPNM illustrate these efforts at the State level. In addition, 2 national monuments have received the recognition of being World Heritage, and 20 national monuments have been included on the Council of Europe’s Prioritized Intervention List. In addition, recent efforts have resulted in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina inscribing elements of intangible heritage, demonstrating Bosnia and Herzegovina’s commitment to the 2003 Convention on the Safeguarding on Intangible Heritage as illustrated by the Governance dimension. As a result, the preliminary inventory of Bosnia and Herzegovina is now composed of 19 elements from both entities- the Republika Srpska and the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. One element of intangible heritage has been nominated for the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. However, no databases for stolen cultural property yet exist for either entity or the Brčko District, despite the ratification of the 1970 Convention.
 
Bosnia and Herzegovina scored 0.51/1 for the protection, safeguarding and management of heritage, indicating that while well-defined policies and measures are in place for the conservation, protection and management of heritage, additional efforts are needed to build capacity and involve communities. Although the Education dimension indicates that higher education courses exist in the field of heritage, in the last 3 years training programmes have only been conducted regarding illicit trafficking and have not addressed increasing the expertise of heritage sites’ management staff, the role of the armed forces in protecting heritage in the case of armed conflict, or the capacities of local communities to be involved in the protection and transmission of heritage. Likewise, in the past 2 years no concrete measures have been taken to involve minorities or indigenous peoples in the protection, conservation, safeguarding or transmission of heritage, or involve them in the fight against illicit trafficking.
 
Bosnia and Herzegovina scored 0.49/1 for the transmission and mobilization of support, which reflects the partial efforts taken to raise awareness of heritage’s value and its threats, as well as efforts to involve all stakeholders. While signage at heritage sites and an awareness-raising programmes are tools in use to alert the population of heritage’s value and the threats it faces, additional measures could be taken, including the development of education programmes in schools, differential pricing at sites, media campaigns, and the establishment of visitor centres at the most visited sites. Similarly, while efforts have already resulted in agreements with tour operators and the involvement of private foundations in heritage advocacy and funding, no concrete measures have been taken in the last 2 years to actively involve the civil society and/or private sector in the protection, conservation and transmission of heritage.

 

GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURES ON CULTURAL HERITAGE (ADDITIONAL INDICATOR): 0.40% (2009) In 2009, 0.40% of total annual government expenditures across all levels of the government were dedicated to the identification, protection, safeguarding, conservation and management of natural, tangible and intangible cultural heritage(30,496,390...
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GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURES ON CULTURAL HERITAGE (ADDITIONAL INDICATOR): 0.40% (2009)
 
In 2009, 0.40% of total annual government expenditures across all levels of the government were dedicated to the identification, protection, safeguarding, conservation and management of natural, tangible and intangible cultural heritage(30,496,390.62 BAM or 15,602,723 EUR). Thus, nation-wide 8.85 BAM (4.53 EUR) per capita were spent on heritage, and 30.35% of total expenditures on culture were dedicated to heritage.
 
Nevertheless, the priority given to cultural heritage, as reflected by the percentage of expenditures, varies greatly according to the level of the government. While the State spent 6,112,802 BAM  (78% of total State level expenditures on culture); the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina spent 13,884,191.28 BAM (22.6% of total expenditures on culture), the Republika Srpska spent 10,959,306 BAM (34.8%) and the Brčko District spent 36,825.2 BAM (2%). These variations in expenditures are of particular significance given the context of the country and the distribution of responsibilities regarding heritage. A cultural site may be declared as a national monument at the State level but be found within the jurisdiction of an entity ministry for the protection of heritage, which though does not participate in the proclamation process is legally obligated to protect and safeguard the declared heritage sites within their jurisdiction. The Strategy for Cultural Policy of Bosnia and Herzegovina proposes the creation of a law on cultural heritage that would provide a coherent system for heritage protection, affirming it as a factor for sustainable social and economic development, and introduce harmonized legal and financial measures for cultural property to encourage their effective maintenance, restoration, reconstruction and rehabilitation State-wide.
 

Social-Participation

16 FREEDOM OF SELF-DETERMINATION: 5.38/10 (2001) Bosnia and Herzegovina’s final result is 5.38/10, 10 representing the situation in which individuals believe that there is ‘a great deal of freedom of choice and control’ and 1 being ‘no freedom of choice and control.’ The score of 5.38/10 indicates that...
Freedom of self-determination: ()
16 FREEDOM OF SELF-DETERMINATION: 5.38/10 (2001)
 
Bosnia and Herzegovina’s final result is 5.38/10, 10 representing the situation in which individuals believe that there is ‘a great deal of freedom of choice and control’ and 1 being ‘no freedom of choice and control.’ The score of 5.38/10 indicates that the population feels that they have a medium degree of control over their lives and are free to live the life they choose, according to their own values and beliefs. By assessing this freedom, this indicator evaluates the sense of empowerment and enablement of individuals for deciding and orienting their development.
 
While the median response for the population is 5.38 and nearly no variation can be seen across sexes, variations do occur according to age. The median for respondents ages 50 and over showed a lower level of self-determination with a median result of 5.02, while the younger population ages 15-49 showed that they were more confident in their capacity to express their identity and orientate their development, with a median result of 5.91.
 
These results suggest that level of individual agency in Bosnia and Herzegovina is below the average results for all countries having implemented the CDIS, which is situated at 6.7/10. This indicates that the necessary components are only in part provided for an enabling political, economic, social and cultural context that fosters individual well-being and life satisfaction and builds common values, norms and beliefs, which succeed in empowering them to live the life they wish.

 

15 INTERPERSONAL TRUST: 21.9% (2001)  In 2001, 21.9% of the people of Bosnia and Herzegovina agreed that most people can be trusted.This indicator assesses the level of trust and sense of solidarity and cooperation in Bosnia and Herzegovia, providing insight into its social capital. A result of 21.9%indicates a relatively low level...
Interpersonal trust: ()
15 INTERPERSONAL TRUST: 21.9% (2001) 
 
In 2001, 21.9% of the people of Bosnia and Herzegovina agreed that most people can be trusted.This indicator assesses the level of trust and sense of solidarity and cooperation in Bosnia and Herzegovia, providing insight into its social capital. A result of 21.9%indicates a relatively low level of trust and solidarity. Variations in the results can be seen across age groups. While 24.9% of people ages 50 and over agree that most people can be trusted, only 22% of those ages 30-49 and 18.8% of those 15-29 agree, which indicates an increasing trend with age. Nurturing interpersonal trust is a common obstacle for countries having implemented the CDIS, as the average for all countries is situated at 19.3%. 
 
Cross-analysis with the other indicators of this dimension suggests that there remains an obstruction to transforming widespread feelings of tolerance and openness into sentiments of trust and solidarity. Through improved access and rates of engagement, enhancing the potential of cultural participation to reinforce feelings of mutual understanding, solidarity and cooperation, merits consideration.

 

12PARTICIPATION IN GOING-OUT CULTURAL ACTIVITIES: 41.14% (2010) In 2010, 41.14% of the people polled in Bosnia and Herzegovina reported having participated at least once in a going-out cultural activity in the last 12 months. Going-out cultural activities include visits to cultural venues, such as cinemas, theatres, concerts, music...
Participation in going-out cultural activities: ()
12PARTICIPATION IN GOING-OUT CULTURAL ACTIVITIES: 41.14% (2010)
 
In 2010, 41.14% of the people polled in Bosnia and Herzegovina reported having participated at least once in a going-out cultural activity in the last 12 months. Going-out cultural activities include visits to cultural venues, such as cinemas, theatres, concerts, music festivals, galleries, museums, libraries, historical and archaeological monuments and museums abroad. Such activities require people actively choosing to attend a particular cultural activity, thus providing insight into the degree of cultural vitality and appreciation of culture. They also imply physical places for encounters to occur between audiences and artists, as well as among audiences, and thus insight into the degree of social interaction and connectivity. A result of 41.14% suggests a medium degree of cultural participation and a steady base for a domestic cultural audience.
 
The results vary from 5.02% of the population polled having attended a gallery or museum abroad to 32.25% of the population having attended a concert or music festival. The second lowest category of participation is attending museums in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 10.15%. Cross-analysis with the Governance dimension reveals that of the three select categories of cultural infrastructures, museums are the least equally distributed which may in part explain limited participation. Increasing equitable access to infrastructures may have a positive impact on cultural participation and thus the consumption of cultural goods and services as well as social connectivity.

 

14 TOLERANCE OF OTHER CULTURES: 77.03% (2001) In 2001, 77.03% of the people of Bosnia and Herzegovina agreed that they do not find people of a different culture as undesirable neighbours. This indicator provides an assessment of the degree of tolerance and openness to diversity, thus providing insight into the levels of...
Tolerance of other cultures: ()
14 TOLERANCE OF OTHER CULTURES: 77.03% (2001)
 
In 2001, 77.03% of the people of Bosnia and Herzegovina agreed that they do not find people of a different culture as undesirable neighbours. This indicator provides an assessment of the degree of tolerance and openness to diversity, thus providing insight into the levels of interconnectedness within a given society. It is a composite result of respondents’ replies regarding neighbours falling under 3 categories: people of a different race, immigrants/foreign workers, and people of a different religion.
 
One of the distinctive features of Bosnia ad Hervegovina is its cultural diversity. In addition to the three constituent peoples – Croats, Serbs, and Bosnians, 17 national minorities are recognized. Issues of ethnic, religious and cultural heritage often are of critical importance to the political, social and economic development of the country. The result of 77.03% indicates a fairly high level of tolerance towards diversity and that the values, attitudes and convictions of the majority of the population favor the acceptance of other cultures. Slight variations in Bosnia and Herzegovina’s results appear across age groups, with the highest results being recorded for the youngest group aged 15-29 years— 81.23%. These figures fall just below the average final result of the countries having implemented the CDIS, which is situated at 81.97%. 
 
Cross-analysis with the Governance dimension reveals an example of how Bosnia and Herzegovina has demonstrated an appreciation for cultural diversity in policy-making at the State level through the participation of minorities in the development of the Action Plan for the Strategy for Cultural Policy of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Viet Nam

Communication

21 DIVERSITY OF FICTIONAL CONTENT ON PUBLIC TELEVISION: 46.8% (2013)

In Viet Nam, approximately 46.8% of the broadcasting time of television fiction programmes on 6 public free-to-air national television channels is dedicated to domestic fiction programmes. This ratio indicates a high proportion of domestically...

Diversity of fictional content on public television: ()

21 DIVERSITY OF FICTIONAL CONTENT ON PUBLIC TELEVISION: 46.8% (2013)

In Viet Nam, approximately 46.8% of the broadcasting time of television fiction programmes on 6 public free-to-air national television channels is dedicated to domestic fiction programmes. This ratio indicates a high proportion of domestically produced fiction programmes, well above the average result for all countries having implemented the CDIS, which is situated at 25.8%.

When only looking at public free-to-air television channels that are designated for consumption by a domestic audience in Viet Nam, though still relatively high, the result drops to 37.4%. When exclusively looking at the content destined for best-packaging and to be aired on VTV4 for an audience of overseas Vietnamese, 32.1% of all fiction programmes are domestically produced. These figuressuggest a healthy local production economy, reflecting the Vietnamese Government’s objective to grow domestic production industries in broadcasting and film.

However, such relatively high levels of domestic content may also be attributed to a large and linguistically consistent domestic audience, and could also be the outcome of a structured approach to controlled domestic content. Data that indicates that the sector may not be reaching its full potential include the absence of co-productions in television fiction programmes. This is similarly reflected in the film sector, with little evidence of co-production or co-investment with international partners. Co-productions can provide opportunities for the audiovisual sector to expand its audience. Increasing international collaboration through supply chains and co-investments are currently under-explored.

Heritage

22 HERITAGE SUSTAINABILITY: 0.75/1 (2013)

Viet Nam’s result of 0.75/1 is reflective of the high level of priority given to the protection, safeguarding and promotion of heritage sustainability by Vietnamese authorities. While many public efforts are dedicated to registrations and inscriptions, raising-awareness,...

Heritage sustainability: ()

22 HERITAGE SUSTAINABILITY: 0.75/1 (2013)

Viet Nam’s result of 0.75/1 is reflective of the high level of priority given to the protection, safeguarding and promotion of heritage sustainability by Vietnamese authorities. While many public efforts are dedicated to registrations and inscriptions, raising-awareness, capacity-building, conservation and management; persisting gaps in community involvement as well as mechanisms for stimulating support amongst civil society and the private sector, call for additional actions to improve this multi-dimensional framework.

Viet Nam scored 0.84/1 for registration and inscriptions, indicating that efforts to date have resulted in many sub-national, national and international registrations and inscriptions of Vietnamese sites and elements of tangible and intangible heritage. However, while Viet Nam has an outstanding 3,168 heritage sites registered at the national level, 7,484 heritage sites registered at the provincial level, 48 elements of intangible heritage inventoried and more than 2 million items registered as cultural property at the national level, no database of stolen cultural objects yet exists. The latter gap is of particular significance when cross-analyzing with the indicators of the Governance dimension, which illustrate that Viet Nam has not yet ratified the UNIDROIT Convention on Stolen or Illegally Exported Cultural Objects (1995) or the Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict (1954). Viet Nam has also yet to ratify the Convention on the Protection of Underwater Cultural Heritage (2001). Nevertheless, Viet Nam’s extraordinary inventories and registries, as well as the success of national efforts to have 7 World Heritage sites and 7 elements in the Representative List of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity, demonstrate the level of importance and value that heritage is attributed.

Viet Nam scored 0.79/1 for the protection, safeguarding and management of heritage, indicating that there are several well-defined policies and measures, as well as efforts to build capacity, but certain key gaps persist regarding community involvement. As indicated by the Governance dimension, updated sectoral laws and policies for heritage exist at the national level, including the Law on Cultural Heritage that was amended in 2009. In addition, many capacity building and training programmes have been carried out by various national stakeholders to increase heritage site management staff’s expertise, communities’ knowledge of intangible heritage, and to increase expertise concerning illicit trafficking. Cross-analysis with the Education dimension also indicates that a variety of opportunities exist for both tertiary as well as technical and vocational training in the area of heritage. Yet, in the last 2 years, no measures or practices have been adopted to actively involve communities in the fight against illicit trafficking, or to respect customary practices governing access to specific aspects of intangible cultural.

Viet Nam scored 0.60/1 for the transmission and mobilization of support, which reflects that while raising awareness of heritage’s value is on track, much more has yet to be done to gain the support of the civil society and private sector. In addition to signage at heritage sites and differential pricing, to raise awareness, the Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism and the Ministry of Education have agreed to promote heritage in schools through the the ‘Friendly Schools, Active Students’ programme in which heritage is a component. In addition, an inter-ministerial communiqué has been signed in 2012 to promote heritage education in schools, and a series of trainings have been organized to train teachers on how to integrate heritage in teaching curricula. However, apart from the involvement of private companies as contractors in restoration projects, no specific measures to involve civil society and/or the private sector in heritage protection, conservation, or transmission have been implemented. Encouraging the formation of private foundations to assist in the protection of heritage and explicit agreements with tour operators are two means to be explored further.

Uruguay

Communication

Freedom of expression Uruguay

19 FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION: 74/100 (2012)

The Constitution of the Republic of Uruguay, adopted in 1989, guarantees that within the limits set forth by the Constitution and by law, the expression and communication of thoughts and opinions and the dissemination of information by word, writing or image, is entirely free via any form...

Freedom of expression Uruguay Freedom of expression Uruguay
Freedom of expression: ()

19 FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION: 74/100 (2012)

The Constitution of the Republic of Uruguay, adopted in 1989, guarantees that within the limits set forth by the Constitution and by law, the expression and communication of thoughts and opinions and the dissemination of information by word, writing or image, is entirely free via any form of media.

Uruguay’s score of 74/100 indicates that their print, broadcast, and internet-based media is currently ‘free’, falling just above the benchmark of ‘free’ media. This score illustrates the efforts made to support an enabling environment in Uruguay for free media to operate and in which freedom of expression is respected and promoted. Such an environment is a condition for fostering the free flow of ideas, knowledge, information and content, for building knowledge societies, and enhancing creativity, innovation and cultural diversity.

However, an additional subjective indicator reveals that in 2009, only 55.5% of Uruguayans agreed that freedom of speech was fully guaranteed and applied, contradicting the assessment that press is free. The remaining 44.5% of the population did not feel that this freedom is fully exercised, though 31.4% did feel that it was ‘fairly guaranteed.’ This additional subjective indicator provides complimentary information on the assessment of the freedom of expression by evaluating to what degree individuals feel that they have the right to exercise this freedom at all times. The significant percentage of the population that continues to feel that this freedom is not fully secure merits further research and analysis to explain this contradiction and suggests that improvements can still be made. For example, in Uruguay the ownership of media continues to be highly concentrated amongst few actors, and a regulatory change is currently being debated which would enlarge access to ownership of media outlets to various sectors, facilitating the effective exercise of the freedom of expression. Moreover, additional achievements undertaken by public authorities in the same year, 2009, suggest that improvements are indeed underway. These achievements include modifications of the Penal Code and Press Law 18515 to improve conformity with international Human Rights treaties, and the creation of the Law 18381 on the Right to Access Public Information.

 

20 ACCESS AND INTERNET USE: 51.4% (2011)

In 2011, 51.4% of the population aged 5 and above in Uruguay had access to and used the Internet.When compared to the national average in 2006, 29.4%, this result indicates rapid development of the sector and a substantial increase in access of over 20% of the population in just 5 years...

Access and Internet use: ()

20 ACCESS AND INTERNET USE: 51.4% (2011)

In 2011, 51.4% of the population aged 5 and above in Uruguay had access to and used the Internet.When compared to the national average in 2006, 29.4%, this result indicates rapid development of the sector and a substantial increase in access of over 20% of the population in just 5 years time.

The development of information technologies, and in particular the Internet, is significantly transforming the way people access, create, produce and disseminate cultural content and ideas, influencing people’s opportunities to access and participate in cultural life. The recent increase in access and use of the Internet can be attributed to government efforts and initiatives that demonstrate the priority given to new technologies. In 2007, the Agency for e-Government and the Information Society (AGESIC) was founded, and a new Digital Agenda Uruguay (2008-2010) was adopted. Through the AGESIC, initiatives like the Plan Ceibal have been carried out, which recognize the potential of new technologies as a means to access diverse content from around the world. Based on the American project ‘One laptop per child,’ in 2011, the Plan Ceibal sought to expand infrastructure and access by delivering 455,970 computers to public schools. The plan has high levels of popular acceptance, in part due to public opinion that the increased access to technology allows children to be be in touch with the world. Public support is so high that voluntary civil society initiatives like the CEIBAL Support Network (RapCEIBAL) have also been established to further support the achievement of objectives.

 

DIVERSITY OF FICTION FILMS ON PUBLIC TELEVISION (ALTERNATIVE INDICATOR): 18% (2012)

In Uruguay, approximately 18% of the total broadcasting time of fiction films on the public free-to-air television channel is dedicated to domestic fiction films. Uruguay National Television (TNU) is the only public free-to-air channel available...

Diversity of fictional content on public television: ()

DIVERSITY OF FICTION FILMS ON PUBLIC TELEVISION (ALTERNATIVE INDICATOR): 18% (2012)

In Uruguay, approximately 18% of the total broadcasting time of fiction films on the public free-to-air television channel is dedicated to domestic fiction films. Uruguay National Television (TNU) is the only public free-to-air channel available nation-wide and has been operating since 1963. Of the 122 fiction films broadcasted throughout the year of 2012, 4 (3.3%) were solely national productions, 18 were co-productions (14.8%) and 100 (81.7%) were of foreign origin. These results indirectly reflect the levels of public support of the audiovisual sector and the dissemination of domestic content produced by local creators and cultural industries.

Cross-analysis with the Governance and Social Participation dimension indicators suggest that public support of the domestic film industry is on the rise and having a positive impact. The first Cinema and Audiovisual Law was enacted in 2008, better structuring and providing assistance for the sector, as well as establishing the Cinema and Audiovisual Institute of Uruguay (ICAU). Prior to this reinforced public support, the ability of the Uruguayan film industry to survive was greatly questioned in the 1990s, given the limited size of the domestic market. In addition to enhanced government efforts, additional factors at the turn of the century favored the blossoming of national film production and consumption: technological advances and digitilization, professionalization of the sector, and increased recognition of the quality of national films thanks to their circulation and awards granted at verious international film festivals. Cross-analysis with the raw data used to construct the CDIS indicator on the participation in going-out cultural activities, indicates that already in 2009, 55% of the population of Montevideo had watched national films on television, while 27.7% had visited theaters to enjoy national cinema productions. In other areas of the country slightly lower results of 44% and 13.7% were recorded respectively.  Such figures emphasize a real public demand for the consumption of domestic films and reinforce the argument for continued public efforts to support the production and distribution of domestic audiovisual products. It is to be noted that a new survey on the sector will provide updated data near the end of 2014.

 These figures also merit being taken into account when analyzing other indicators concerning cultural production and consumption, such as those of the Economy dimension.

Gender-Equality

Gender Equality Uruguay

17 GENDER EQUALITY OBJECTIVE OUTPUTS: 0.65 /1 (2013)

Gender equality has been positioned as a recent objective of the Uruguayan government, as illustrated by the 2005 establishment of the National Institute for Women, within the Ministry of Social Development. The new institute is responsible for designing the First National...

Gender Equality Uruguay
Gender equality objectives outputs: ()

17 GENDER EQUALITY OBJECTIVE OUTPUTS: 0.65 /1 (2013)

Gender equality has been positioned as a recent objective of the Uruguayan government, as illustrated by the 2005 establishment of the National Institute for Women, within the Ministry of Social Development. The new institute is responsible for designing the First National Plan for Equal Opportunities and Rights from the Law 18.104 of 2007 on Equal Rights and Opportunities between men and women in the country. The objective is to ensure the guarantee and exercise of full social, political, economic and cultural rights for all; women and men’s equal participation in development processes; and the promotion of necessary cultural change to allow for such equal opportunities. Such an institutional achievement illustrates the ongoing progress since women were first guaranteed their full civil rights in 1946.

Within this context, the result of 0.65/1 reflects a medium degree of gender equality objective outputs and public efforts made to effectively elaborate and implement laws, policies and measures intended to support the ability of women and men to enjoy equal opportunities and rights. Uruguay’s result suggests that the governments’ actions are similar to those of other countries as the average result for test phase countries of the CDIS is situated at 0.64/1. Though indicative of genuine progress, a detailed analysis of the four areas covered by the indicator reveals persisting gaps where additional investment is needed to further improve gender equality outputs.

Little significant divergence can be noted in the areas of gender equity legislation or education (women aged 25 years have a slightly higher average of 9.26 years of education compared to men with 8.8 years). However, more prominent gaps can be seen regarding labour force and political participation. Progress still needs to be made regarding employment. 65% of men are either employed or actively searching for work, versus 56% of women. Women also reportedly continue to face lower wages, occupy lower positions and find it difficult to ascend within the hierarchy of their employers. Finally, the most significant gap is observed regarding the outcomes of political participation where a major imbalance persists. In 2012, women only represented 12% of parliamentarians. Despite the first women having been elected to Parliament in 1942, they continue to face great difficulty in achieving equality. While a slight increase from 15 to 18 female Parliamentarians was recorded in the latest election, this remains significantly low out of the total of 130 seats. Nevertheless, recent efforts are underway to facilitate greater change. In 2000, following the 1992 initiative called Women's Policy Network (Red de Mujeres Politicas), the Women's Caucus (Bancada Femenina) was created to cross partisan lines and build a multiparty legislative agenda on gender. One of the projects presented by the Caucus was the introduction of a quota system for national elections, demanding one-third representation. Several proposals have been presented since and the first quota law will be applied in 2014-2015.

In Conclusion, while Uruguay has made progress in select areas of gender equality, progress remains to be achieved in others. Policies require people, and a further look at the subjective indicator below suggests that Uruguayans are supportive of gender equality, as reflected by their cultural values and perceptions.

 

Gender Perception Uruguay

18 PERCEPTION OF GENDER EQUALITY: 80.7% (2006)

 In 2006, 80.7% of Uruguayans positively perceived gender as a factor for development, according to their responses to questions regarding three key domains that parallel the objective indicator for this dimension- employment, political participation and education. The...

Gender Perception Uruguay
Perception of gender equality: ()

18 PERCEPTION OF GENDER EQUALITY: 80.7% (2006)

 In 2006, 80.7% of Uruguayans positively perceived gender as a factor for development, according to their responses to questions regarding three key domains that parallel the objective indicator for this dimension- employment, political participation and education. The final result is a composite indicator, which suggests that more than two-thirds of the population of Uruguay view gender as a significant factor for development. Individuals’ perceptions on gender equality are strongly influenced by cultural practices and norms, and Uruguay’s high results reveal a social commitment to gender equality.
 
However, the perception of gender equality varied according to the domain of the question asked. Unsurprisingly, the most favourable perceptions were recorded in regards to education, correlating with the objective outputs observed. When asked if “University is more important for a boy than for a girl,” an overwhelming majority of 96.2% of the population responded no, suggesting that education is a domain in which gender equality is already strongly perceived as positive for development. When asked if “Men make better political leaders than woman,” a slightly lower majority of 79.5% of respondents did not agree, and when asked if “When jobs are scarce, men should have more right to a job than women,” 69.3% of respondents did not agree. This means that roughly 30% of the population continues to believe that men have priority in regards to employment. While all figures are relatively high and do not correspond to the ongoing gaps in employment and political objective outputs, the most surprising figure regards the highly positive perception of womens’ role in political participation which is in stark contrast with the low representation of women in Parliament.

>> This cross-analysis of the subjective and objective indicators reveals inconsistencies in regards to the population’s positive attitudes and values regarding gender equality and their translation into tangible outcomes, particularly in the areas of labour force and political participation. Thus, these results suggest a need for enhanced measures and public investment to assure the translation of values into performance outcomes and effective opportunities for men and women in such areas as politics and employment. More initiatives like the new quota law to be implemented in 2014-2015 will put Uruguay on the right path to closing the gap.

Heritage

22 HERITAGE SUSTAINABILITY: 0.75/1

Uruguay’s result of 0.75/1 is reflective of the high level of priority given to the protection, safeguarding and promotion of heritage sustainability by public authorities. Many public efforts are dedicated to registrations and inscriptions, community involvement, stimulating...

Heritage sustainability: ()

22 HERITAGE SUSTAINABILITY: 0.75/1

Uruguay’s result of 0.75/1 is reflective of the high level of priority given to the protection, safeguarding and promotion of heritage sustainability by public authorities. Many public efforts are dedicated to registrations and inscriptions, community involvement, stimulating support amongst civil society and the private sector. However, persisting gaps in raising-awareness, capacity-building, and conservation and management, call for select additional actions to further enhance this multi-dimensional framework.

The national governing body for the protection, dissemination and preservation of heritage is the Commission of Cultural Heritage of the Nation (CPCN), within the Ministry of Education and Culture (MEC). The CPCN was established by Law 14.040 in October, 1971. In addition to the work of the CPCN, the General National Archives and the National Library maintain collections, and the Ministry of Housing, Urban Planning and Environment is involved in heritage protection through the Protected Areas System.

Uruguay scored 0.77/1 for registrations and insciptions, indicating that efforts to date have resulted in many national and international registrations and inscriptions of Uruguayan sites and elements of tangible and intangible heritage. However, while Uruguay has an outstanding 1,396 heritage sites registered at the national level, 6 elements of intangible heritage inventoried and 1410 items registered as cultural property at the national level, no database of stolen cultural objects yet exists. The latter gap is of particular significance when cross-analyzing with the indicators of the Governance dimension, which illustrate that Uruguay has not yet ratified the UNIDROIT Convention on Stolen or Illegally Exported Cultural Objects (1995).

For public commitment, reflected by registrations and inscriptions, to effectively turn into heritage management, commitment must be translated into specific concrete policies and measures. Uruguay scored 0.73/1 for the protection, safeguarding and management of heritage, indicating that there are many efforts to involve communities, but that select gaps persist regarding capacity-building and conservation, valorization and management. For example, participation of local communities has been increasingly included in decision-making processes to identify and record items of tangible and intangible heritage, communities are represented in the management committees of heritage sites, and specific measures are taken to respect customary practices governing access to certain aspects of intangible heritage.  As indicated by the Governance dimension, many clear actions, measures, policies and laws are in place regarding heritage at the national level. However, the role of heritage is not yet explicitly integrated in development plans. Since 2009, authorities have been working on the development of a new Heritage Law that will assist in emphasizing the importance of heritage for development and advocate for better inclusion in development plans.  Other key gaps to be noted concern the lack of specialized police or customs units to assist in the fight against illicit trafficking, and the lack of capacity-building and training in this same field. Finally, while the Governance dimension has indicated that many actions, measures, policies and laws exist at the national level regarding heritage, the role of heritage is not yet explicitly integrated into development plans. Since 2009, authorities have been working on developing a new Heritage Law to assist in highlighting the importance of heritage for development and to advocate for its better inclusion in development plans.

Finally, Uruguay scored 0.78/1 for transmission and mobilization of support, reflecting efforts to raise awareness of heritage’s value and meaning amongst citizens, as well as efforts to promote investment in heritage and involve the civil society and private sector. For the protection of heritage to deepen, not only is the urgent attention of authorities necessary, but gaining the attention of Uruguayans is key in order to give heritage the degree of importance that it should occupy in the country. The multidimensional framework could be further enhanced by making heritage more accessible to all via differential pricing for national visitors at protected heritage sites, and by increasing opportunities to build heritage expertise amongst teachers as there are currently no programs to build teacher’s capacities on heritage issues. Finally, it would be useful to implement an awareness campaign targeting youth populations in primary schools.

CDIS Methodology was developed thanks to the financial support of
Government of Spain

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