Explore Digest

Peru

Communication

21 DIVERSITY OF FICTIONAL CONTENT ON PUBLIC TELEVISION (ALTERNATIVE INDICATOR): 25% (2013) 

 In Peru, approximately 25% of total broadcasting time of new release fiction programmes were national. This represents 733.40 hours of domestic production programs while the full remaining percentage (75%) were foreign programs and no time...
Diversity of fictional content on public television: ()

21 DIVERSITY OF FICTIONAL CONTENT ON PUBLIC TELEVISION (ALTERNATIVE INDICATOR): 25% (2013) 

 
In Peru, approximately 25% of total broadcasting time of new release fiction programmes were national. This represents 733.40 hours of domestic production programs while the full remaining percentage (75%) were foreign programs and no time was dedicated to the co-production programs.
 
This indicator points out the need to match the hours of broadcasting of national and foreign fiction hours, to the extent that this country would imply greater capacity to generate their own content, creating greater local production and increased employment opportunities in these fields.
 
A cross-analysis with indicators of the governance dimension reveals that there is public support for the film industry, through, for example, the film grants. On the other hand, the indicator of professional training in culture taught us that there are gaps in tertiary education in the area of film production, which clearly indicate that policies in this area could help train future professionals of the audio-visual sector.

Heritage

22 HERITAGE SUSTAINABILITY: 0.65/1 (2014) The result of Peru of 0.65/1 reflects a good level of priority given to the protection, preservation and promotion of heritage sustainability by public authorities. At the same time this result reflects the need for a renewed, modern vision, which goes beyond isolated actions and progresses towards a...
Heritage sustainability: ()
22 HERITAGE SUSTAINABILITY: 0.65/1 (2014)
 
The result of Peru of 0.65/1 reflects a good level of priority given to the protection, preservation and promotion of heritage sustainability by public authorities. At the same time this result reflects the need for a renewed, modern vision, which goes beyond isolated actions and progresses towards a management of heritage sustainability closely linked to national development. Many efforts are devoted to public registration and inscriptions. However, gaps in the protection, safeguarding and management of heritage especially in capacity building and community involvement still remain and also improvements are needed in the transmission and mobilization of support.
 
In Peru, the government has worked continuously for the protection and promotion of cultural heritage and especially in the last nine decades for the archaeological heritage (since the National Archaeological Trust was created in 1929, and even before). National pride generated by magnificent buildings developed by the Inca and pre-Inca ancestors, and the obvious economic link with the tourist industry, are probably two of the main reasons that have prompted the state to work with greater emphasis in this field.
 
Peru has a score of 0.90/1 for registrations and inscriptions, indicating that the efforts made by the government to date have resulted in national and international records and inscriptions of Peruvian heritage sites and tangible and intangible heritage goods. Also important is the increasing registration of archaeological sites and record collection of movable property. Currently there are 20,000 registered archaeological sites, however much remains on the agenda since it is estimated that 150 thousand archaeological sites exist in Peru. On the other hand, although Peru has an outstanding number of heritage sites registered nationwide, of which 12 sites registered on the World Heritage List of UNESCO and 6 properties on the UNESCO Representative List of Intangible Cultural Heritage, no online database of stolen cultural good is in place. This is of particularly importance as when we make a cross analysis with indicators of the governance dimension, illustrating that Peru has not yet ratified the UNIDROIT Convention on Stolen or Illegally Exported Cultural Objects (1995).
 
Peru has a score of 0.52/1, for the protection, safeguarding and management of heritage sites. The Ministry of Culture of Peru (2010) is responsible for the guidelines and the management of cultural heritage with a priority focus on its protection and conservation. The mayor part of the budget allocated to the Ministry of Culture goes to the management and protection of cultural heritage. The most important archaeological sites in the country count with specific management offices (executing units). These offices have public budgets independent from the Ministry of Culture, intended to value the archaeological site. The Ministry of Culture of Peru maintains a very active and permanent policy declaration regarding national tangible and intangible cultural heritage. The declarations are developed as investigation files and account for the safeguarding and protection of clearly stated, but it is also important to design policies and strategies to follow post-declarations. In addition, regulatory instruments related to archaeological research have been, or are currently being developed such as issuing certificates of no archaeological remains, a draft of a new law for cultural heritage and document protection for cultural landscapes.
 
With regard to illicit trafficking in cultural property, the Peruvian government issued an average of 1,500 certificates and verified objects in control modules that exist across the country. However, although specialized conferences have been given to police officers, Peru doesn’t count with specialized police or customs personnel dedicated to the protection of the great national cultural heritage. A major development is the newly created GIS Archaeology - SIGDA, a geoportal that meets the demand of information regarding Prehispanic Archaeological Monuments and for issuing certificates regarding the Absence of Archaeological Remains.
 
Regarding knowledge and capacity building, it should be noted that there is the need to develop a coordinated strategy between the State, considering its role in managing the cultural heritage, and universities who design training programs. There is no national training centre specialized that meets the urgent needs and characteristics of the protection, safeguarding and management of heritage site on a professional level. Such national centre would enable officials and professionals to update their knowledge, have the opportunity to participate in forums and debates regarding new tools and rules of governance.
 
Regarding the participation of communities in the management of cultural heritage it should be noted that this participation is much more dynamic in regards to intangible heritage, considering that it’s the communities themselves which request the declaration as their national intangible heritage cultural events. Moreover, a gap remains between the intentions of an active participation of the community in heritage management and the mechanisms in place to enable such actions to take place. Management Committees exist at the most emblematic sites, which are also, those listed on the World Heritage List. In these committees, the communities take part in the decisions that are taken to improve the site. Finally workshops with communities have been created to preserve their traditional practices, but this is not yet an institutionalized policy. 
 
Finally, Peru has a score of 0.57/1 for transmission and mobilization of support. This result can be explained by the fact that the public policy related to cultural heritage has had its emphasis on heritage conservation and more scientific aspects (research), more than communicating, interpreting and disseminating heritage to the Peruvian society in general. While this has been changing in the past 10 years, there is still a long way ahead. One of the priority tasks is to inform the general public of the listed World Heritage sites in Peru, information that most people are unaware of. While there is adequate signage in each of the listed sites, this is not enough to ensure that most of Peruvian citizens know what sites and goods are national and world heritage and the importance of these awards. Program design and activities should be created to disseminate cultural heritage among professionals, students, teachers and other public. In relation to the support given to the management of cultural heritage it should be mentioned that the participation of private companies, non-profit organizations, foundations and organized civil society, is possible thanks to the great interest of the aforementioned actors. These agreements signed with local governments, regional or private entities, establish responsibilities towards conservation, study, enhancement and management in general of heritage sites. However, tour operators are still working to a lesser extent.

Swaziland

Communication

21 DIVERSITY OF FICTIONAL CONTENT ON PUBLIC TELEVISION: 32.4% (2013)  In Swaziland, approximately 32.4% of the broadcasting time for television fiction programmes on public free-to-air television is dedicated to domestic fiction programmes.  The 2009 Swaziland National Council of Arts and Culture (SNCAC) Policy recognized...
Diversity of fictional content on public television: ()
21 DIVERSITY OF FICTIONAL CONTENT ON PUBLIC TELEVISION: 32.4% (2013) 
 
In Swaziland, approximately 32.4% of the broadcasting time for television fiction programmes on public free-to-air television is dedicated to domestic fiction programmes. 
 
The 2009 Swaziland National Council of Arts and Culture (SNCAC) Policy recognized “the role of the media as channels for promoting understanding of our arts and cultural values,” and encouraged “the public broadcaster to allocate significant air time to local productions especially those with cultural content.” Not only does the SNCAC Policy see public television as an outlet for the growth of the cultural industries and encourage local television stations to “support independent local producers by accepting low budget films with local content,” but the policy also recognizes the less tangible benefits of sharing diverse cultural content through new media and utilizing the medium to retain and transmit practices like folktales, traditional music and dance to all parts of the country. Indeed, programming domestic productions, and particularly fictions with a high share of cultural content, may increase the population’s level of information on national events and issues, while also helping to build or strengthen identities and promoting cultural diversity. Moreover, public broadcasting has major implications for the development of the domestic audio-visual industry, as well as for the flourishing of local cultural expressions and creative products. 
 
The result of 32.4% indicates that approximately one-third of fiction programmes within public broadcasting are of domestic origin. This result is above the average result for all countries that implemented the CDIS, which is situated at 25.82%, suggesting a healthy local production economy. Additional figures on the diversity of origin of the foreign fiction programmes that aired during the observed period, which in total represent 67.6% of broadcasting time for fictional content, indicate that diverse foreign programmes are promoted on Swazi television. Programmes from no less than 4 continents were aired and no one country produced more than one-third of the foreign content. These results indicate that pluralism and a range of choices are provided for audiences, elements that help in the promotion of cultural diversity.
 
However, improvement in the support of high quality production and the dissemination of domestic content and local cultural industries may still be achieved through enhanced regional promotion and education. While sectoral laws and policies for film and television exist as illustrated by the Governance dimension, the indicators of the Education dimension underline the limited training opportunities in the fields of film and image. No publicly supported technical training programmes are offered. Furthermore, 0% of the domestic fiction programmes are co-productions, which may highlight underexplored regional opportunities in line with the objective of the National Development Strategy (1997-2022) to utilize regional relations to work to the benefit of the Swazi economy. Encouraging co-productions with regional neighbours could help boost domestic production by intensifying creative cooperation and expanding the market for domestic fictional content.

 

20 ACCESS AND INTERNET USE: 20.8% (2012) In 2012, only 20.8% of the national population used the Internet in Swaziland. When compared to the regional average for all of Sub-Saharan Africa (48 countries), 12.56%, Swaziland’s results are above this regional average, though below the average for all countries that have implemented the CDIS...
Access and Internet use: ()
20 ACCESS AND INTERNET USE: 20.8% (2012)
 
In 2012, only 20.8% of the national population used the Internet in Swaziland. When compared to the regional average for all of Sub-Saharan Africa (48 countries), 12.56%, Swaziland’s results are above this regional average, though below the average for all countries that have implemented the CDIS, which is situated at 28.19%.
 
The National Development Strategy (1997-2022) recognizes the role of the government to improve the necessary infrastructure, services and telecommunications in order to stimulate development. Digital technologies, in particular the Internet, play a key role in boosting the economy and encouraging new forms of access, creation, production, and the dissemination of ideas, information and cultural content. 
 
Many Swazis access the Internet via mobile phones; 12 out of 100 inhabitants have mobile broad-band subscriptions. Increased use of such new technologies has resulted in the rapid growth of the use of the Internet from 0.93% of the population in 2000, to 11.04% in 2010, and finally 20.8% in 2012. However, Swaziland’s result is still rather low and half of that of their South African neighbours (41%), which may reflect the need to further increase public investments in the development of infrastructures, policies and measures that facilitate the use of new technologies. The country may need to address issues such as pricing, bandwidth, skills, public facilities, content and applications targeting low-end users in order to bring more people online.

Economy

Employment Swaziland
2 CULTURAL EMPLOYMENT: 1.85% (2010) In 2010, 1.85% of the employed population in Swaziland had occupations in cultural establishments (3588 people: 67.9% male and 32.1% female). 46% of these individuals held occupations in central cultural activities, while 54% held occupations in equipment/supporting related activities.  While...
Employment Swaziland
Cultural Employment: ()
2 CULTURAL EMPLOYMENT: 1.85% (2010)
 
In 2010, 1.85% of the employed population in Swaziland had occupations in cultural establishments (3588 people: 67.9% male and 32.1% female). 46% of these individuals held occupations in central cultural activities, while 54% held occupations in equipment/supporting related activities. 
 
While already significant, the global contribution of the culture sector to employment is underestimated in this indicator due to the difficulty of obtaining and correlating all the relevant data. This figure is only the tip of the iceberg since it does not cover cultural occupations performed in non-cultural establishments or induced occupations with a strong link to culture, such as employees of hospitality services located in or close to heritage sites. In addition, this does not account for informal employment. Furthermore, because the raw data in Swaziland is categorized by establishments and not occupations, and is only available to the two-digit level of international standard classifications, several categories of cultural occupations are not taken into account. For example, select creative industries of significance in Swaziland, such as glass blowing, are not taken into consideration. This indicator thus only provides a basic snapshot of culture’s contribution to national employment, which can serve to guide further research.
 
Nevertheless, this indicator already exposes culture’s non-negligible role as an employer and provides a great deal of new data, which can be utilized to make progress in light of Swaziland’s national development priorities and cultural policies. While Swaziland’s National Development Strategy (1997-2022) calls for sustainable economic development and employment creation in order to increase Swazis’ quality of life, the Swaziland National Council of Arts and Culture Policy (2009) has specifically recognized the potential of the culture sector as an employer. “The Arts and Cultural Industries have over the past few years emerged…The promotion and development of the Arts and Cultural Industries can only enhance the capacity to create new jobs, generate income and increase inflows of foreign currency if it is based on a clear policy.” 
 
Though non-negligible, Swaziland’s results indicate that formal employment in cultural establishments remains below average compared to all test phase countries of the CDIS. This suggests potential for growth in employment in the culture sector, which in part may be addressed by improving the limited opportunities in arts education.

 

Household expenditures Swaziland
3 HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURES ON CULTURE: 0.44% (2009) In Swaziland, 0.44% of household consumption expenditures were devoted to cultural activities, goods and services in the year of 2009.  69.5% was spent on central cultural goods and services, and 30.5% on equipment/supporting goods and services. In the category of central cultural goods...
Household expenditures Swaziland
Household expenditures on culture: ()
3 HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURES ON CULTURE: 0.44% (2009)
 
In Swaziland, 0.44% of household consumption expenditures were devoted to cultural activities, goods and services in the year of 2009.  69.5% was spent on central cultural goods and services, and 30.5% on equipment/supporting goods and services. In the category of central cultural goods and services, the consumption of newspapers (31.1%) was the largest singular contributor, followed by cable TV (16.7%), magazines (4.6%), books (4.0%) and cassettes/CDs/DVDs (3.7%). In the category of support and equipment, significant shares of expenditures were spent on radio/cassette/CD players (16.8%) and televisions (8.9%).
 
Swazis from urban areas spent 61% of all household expenditures on cultural goods, services and activities, while 39% was contributed by Swazis from rural areas. Cross-analyzing these results with the indicators of the Governance dimension suggests that the lower levels of consumption by rural inhabitants may in part be attributed to a lower proportion of cultural infrastructures in the Shiselweni and Lubombo regions.
 
While valuable information, this indicator underestimates the household consumption of cultural goods and services due to methodological constraints and gaps in data available at the national level. It does not account for the value of cultural goods and services acquired by households and provided by non-profit institutions at prices that are not economically significant (e.g. in-kind transfers). Similarly, spending on cultural products that are not directly financed by households, such as design services and advertisements, are not taken into consideration; and it excludes certain expenditures that cannot be isolated due to the aggregation of the national coding system or its omission of select categories of cultural goods, services and activities. This is the case for national park fees, cinema, select musical instruments, video recorders and cameras, photographic equipment, and the repair of audio-visual and photographic equipment. Despite these limitations, this indicator offers unprecedented insight into how Swazi households value cultural goods and services and consumption practices of rural and urban communities.
 
>> While the Economy indicators suggest that the culture sector is already making non-negligible contributions to the production economy as illustrated by significant levels of employment; they also indicate that the demand, or consumption, side of the domestic market of cultural goods and services is significantly lower. Combined, this may in part reflect consumption at insignificant prices, or alternatively it may suggest domestic production does not target domestic consumption of cultural goods and services, instead targeting a predominately foreign audience. More research regarding cultural participation practices is necessary to understand more about the growth potential of the domestic market, facilitating the realization of the objectives of the Swaziland National Council of Arts and Culture Policy (2009) to “maximise the capacity of the culture sector to develop and promote the economic aspects of culture,” while realizing its potential “to assert the people’s national identity.”

Education

Inclusive Education Swaziland

4 INCLUSIVE EDUCATION: 0.73/1 (2007)

The Government Programme of Action (2008-2013) recognizes education as a basic right and the Education Sector Policy (2011) declares “every Swazi citizen has the right to education” and calls for “the provision of an equitable and inclusive education system that affords all learners...

Inclusive Education Swaziland
Inclusive education: ()

4 INCLUSIVE EDUCATION: 0.73/1 (2007)

The Government Programme of Action (2008-2013) recognizes education as a basic right and the Education Sector Policy (2011) declares “every Swazi citizen has the right to education” and calls for “the provision of an equitable and inclusive education system that affords all learners access to free and compulsory basic education…enhancing their personal development and contributing to Swaziland’s cultural development, socio-economic growth and global competitiveness.” Within this context, the result of 0.73/1 reflects the efforts made by Swazi authorities to guarantee this fundamental cultural right and pursue measures to assure that this right is secured in a complete, fair and inclusive manner. This result shows that the average years of schooling of the target population aged 17 to 22 is 8 years. Therefore, though below the targeted average of 10 years of schooling, the majority of Swazi citizens can enjoy the right to an education and participate in the construction and transmission of values, attitudes and cultural skills, as well as personal and social empowerment throughout primary and secondary school. However, 9% of the target population in Swaziland is still living in education deprivation, meaning that they have fewer than 4 years of schooling. This 9% highlights the persistence of inequality in the enjoyment of this fundamental cultural right. These results indicate that for fair and inclusive education, more efforts are needed to identify and target socio-economic groups facing the brunt of deprivation and improve access to and continuity of education for marginalized youth.

 

 

Multilingual Education Swaziland
5 MULTILINGUAL EDUCATION: 50% (1976) Though a small State and unified people, the Constitution of the Kingdom of Swaziland (2005) officially declares that there are two national languages (Art. 3) – English and siSwati, a localized language spoken by the Swazi people. The Swaziland National Council of Arts and Culture Policy (2009)...
Multilingual Education Swaziland
Multilingual Education: ()
5 MULTILINGUAL EDUCATION: 50% (1976)
 
Though a small State and unified people, the Constitution of the Kingdom of Swaziland (2005) officially declares that there are two national languages (Art. 3) – English and siSwati, a localized language spoken by the Swazi people. The Swaziland National Council of Arts and Culture Policy (2009) calls attention to the fact that in a globalized world, of the two official languages, “there is an increasing risk that siSwati will eventually lag behind” and declares as an objective of the policy to “ensure the protection of the siSwati language.” Furthermore, the Education Sector Policy (2011) acknowledges the role of education in teaching a shared understanding of cultural heritage and promoting an appreciation for cultural diversity.
 
According to the 1976 Current Trends in Educational Policy, still in application in 2013, 50% of the hours to be dedicated to languages in the first two years of secondary school is to be dedicated to the teaching of one of the official languages– English, while the remaining 50% of the time is to be dedicated to the teaching of the other official language– siSwati. Although, 0% of the required national curriculum is dedicated to the teaching of international languages or additional local or regional languages, these results still indicate that the national curriculum is designed to promote linguistic diversity in Swaziland and the safeguarding of Swazi intangible cultural heritage in the form of the localized siSwati language. It should be noted that some learners have the option of taking an additional international language –French– in the schools with the means to offer such an elective course. Expanding opportunities to learn additional regional and international languages –such as German, Afrikaans, and Portuguese– would further enhance the promotion of international cultural diversity and cross-cultural understanding in the region. Such considerations should be taken into account when cross-analyzing with the results of other dimensions, particularly Social Participation.

 

Arts Education Swaziland
6 ARTS EDUCATION: 0% (1976) Swaziland’s National Development Strategy (1997-2022) calls for the incorporation of the teaching of cultural values in the national curriculum. Going further, the Education Sector Policy (2011) recognizes the role of education to foster an appreciation for culture and the arts, as well as to nurture creative...
Arts Education Swaziland
Arts Education: ()
6 ARTS EDUCATION: 0% (1976)
 
Swaziland’s National Development Strategy (1997-2022) calls for the incorporation of the teaching of cultural values in the national curriculum. Going further, the Education Sector Policy (2011) recognizes the role of education to foster an appreciation for culture and the arts, as well as to nurture creative minds in order to develop their talents and guide them to make good choices on their paths to further education and employment, meaningfully enhancing the country’s skills base. Finally, the Swaziland National Council of Arts and Culture (SNCAC) Policy (2009) recognizes that “schools are significant promoters of art and culture” and acknowledges not only their role in forming future cultural professionals but in passing down traditional arts and Swazi culture from generation to generation. To reap the benefits of culture through education, the SNCAC Policy claims “art and culture should be recognised as a subject and its curriculum should be … included in the timetables in schools.” Particular importance is given to arts education at the primary and secondary levels. 
 
Contrasting with policy statements, the results for this indicator illustrate that arts and culture are not currently compulsory subjects in the first two years of secondary school; 0% of the official curriculum is dedicated to arts or culture, according to the 1976 Current Trends in Educational Policy, still in application in 2013. This result indicates a low level of public priority given to arts and culture subjects. Nation-wide, students have few opportunities in these fields.  However, in select schools limited opportunities are available as extracurricular activities including traditional dance, drum majorettes and singing. Moreover, in an attempt to reach policy objectives, the Ministry of Education has already begun piloting the introduction of Practical Arts into the primary school system from Grades 3 to Grades 5, including music, drama, dance and the visual arts as topics.
 
Swaziland’s result for arts education in secondary schools is hoped to change in coming years, as secondary school curriculums are updated and made to conform to the government ambitions stated above. In 2010, the Ministry of Sports, Culture, and Youth Affairs developed a policy that would require the mainstreaming of the arts in secondary schools, and the Ministry of Education has publicly taken it upon itself to ensure that this becomes a reality. The National Curriculum Centre is developing an Arts and Culture Syllabus to incorporate drama, dance, music, visual arts, fine arts, craft, media and entrepreneurship studies as core subjects in secondary schools, dove tailing the piloted program in primary schools. The aim is to implement the new curriculum by 2016. However, extensive gaps are revealed in the offering of technical and tertiary training in the culture sector in the following indicator, which have led key stakeholders to question the ability to implement a new curriculum by 2016 due to a lack of qualified teachers. The cross-analysis of these CDIS indicators has led stakeholders to suggest approaching arts education at the secondary and tertiary levels in a holistic manner.

 

7  PROFESSIONAL TRAINING IN THE CULTURE SECTOR: 0.3/1 (2013) For Swaziland to be globally competitive, recognition of the need to revise technical and tertiary training opportunities to ensure that students have relevant quality education available that widens their choices, economically empowers them, and meets the demands of a diverse...
Professional Training in the culture sector: ()
7  PROFESSIONAL TRAINING IN THE CULTURE SECTOR: 0.3/1 (2013)
 
For Swaziland to be globally competitive, recognition of the need to revise technical and tertiary training opportunities to ensure that students have relevant quality education available that widens their choices, economically empowers them, and meets the demands of a diverse job market can be found in the National Development Strategy (1997-2022), the Government Programme of Action (2008-2013), and the Education Sector Policy (2011). However, in spite of culture’s already significant contribution to the economy, limited opportunities for professional training in the culture sector exist. Swaziland’s result of 0.3/1 indicates that significant gaps persist in the coverage of cultural fields in technical and tertiary education programmes offered in public-supported schools. As highlighted in the Swaziland National Council of Arts and Culture (SNCAC) Policy (2009), “Swaziland currently has no formal school of art and opportunities to study performing or visual art are limited.” These limitations extend to other cultural fields as well. The SNCAC Strategic Plan (2012-2017) recognizes culture’s already significant role as an employer, and seeks to improve the opportunities for skill development in key fields such as crafts production.
 
A closer look at the result of 0.3/1 reveals that while select opportunities exist in public-supported universities, no public-supported technical training programmes exist in any cultural field. The University of Swaziland, the Limkokwing University, the Swaziland College of Technology, the Institute of Development Management, and the Co-operative Development Centre offer select degree and certificate programmes in heritage-related fields, the fine arts, and film and image. No training programmes of any kind are available in the fields of music or cultural management, the latter being a key subject to foster the emergence of competitive domestic cultural enterprises. However, a few private facilities offer limited technical training opportunities in music, as well as fine arts, film and image. This result indicates a low level of public priority given to the development of a skilled and dynamic creative class, as it is well below the average for test phase countries of the CDIS, situated at 0.74/1.

Gender-Equality

Gender Equality Montenegro
17 GENDER EQUALITY OBJECTIVE OUTPUTS: 0.38/1 (2013) The 2005 Constitution of the Kingdom of Swaziland states “a person of whatever gender… shall be entitled to the fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual” (Art. 14) and “a person shall not be discriminated against on the grounds of gender (Art. 20). Likewise...
Gender Equality Montenegro
Gender equality objectives outputs: ()
17 GENDER EQUALITY OBJECTIVE OUTPUTS: 0.38/1 (2013)
 
The 2005 Constitution of the Kingdom of Swaziland states “a person of whatever gender… shall be entitled to the fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual” (Art. 14) and “a person shall not be discriminated against on the grounds of gender (Art. 20). Likewise, the National Development Strategy (1997-2022) declares gender equity as key to increasing the quality of life.
 
Within this context, the result of 0.38/1 reflects the significant remaining disparities in gender equality objective outputs and the needed efforts of the Swazi government in order to elaborate and implement laws, policies and measures intended to support the ability of women and men to enjoy equal opportunities and rights. Swaziland’s result suggests that the government’s actions are not currently as effective as those of other countries as the average result for test phase countries of the CDIS is situated at 0.64/1. 
 
A detailed analysis of the four areas covered by the indicator, reveals major gaps where additional investment is needed to improve gender equality basic outputs. A comparison of the average number of years of education for men and women aged 25 years and above reveals little divergence, but greater differences can be observed regarding labour force participation. Although 70.8% of men are either employed or actively searching for work, women only have a labor force participation rate of 46.3%. Additionally, the adoption and implementation of targeted gender equity legislation needs to be improved. While the National Development Strategy calls for a review of legislation to remove all forms of discrimination, as well as a review for penalties of violent crimes including rape, much remains to be done. While limited legislation is in place against rape, insufficient legal tools protect against domestic violence and sexual harassment, and no quota systems are in place to assist in promoting women’s participation in politics. More aggressive reforms and new legislation is needed to fully assure gender equity. Finally, an equally significant gap is observed regarding the outcomes of political participation where a major imbalance persists. Indeed, in 2013, women represented only 14% of parliamentarians.  This is in great contrast with the Swazi government’s commitment, as a signatory of the SADC Protocol on Gender and Development (2008), to increase women’s political participation and reach a goal of 50% of all public and private decision-making posts being held by women by 2015 (Art. 12).
 
In conclusion, even though gender equality is reflected as an objective in national legislation and regional commitments, much progress remains to be achieved in Swaziland. Policies require people, and a further look at the alternative and additional subjective indicators below suggests not only a need to continue to pursue more effective legislation, policies and mechanisms, but also a need to address deep-set cultural values that reinforce the subordinate role of women and challenge progress on key development issues. Resistance due to embedded cultural values can undermine the feasibility of objectives and the sustainability of performance outcomes.

 

Gender Perception Swaziland

18 PERCEPTION OF GENDER EQUALITY (ALTERNATIVE INDICATOR): 62% (2013)

 In 2013, 62% of Swazis positively perceived gender as a factor for development, according to their responses to questions regarding two key domains that parallel the objective indicator for this dimension- political participation and education. The final result is a...
Gender Perception Swaziland Gender Perception Swaziland Gender Perception Swaziland Gender Perception Swaziland
Perception of gender equality: ()

18 PERCEPTION OF GENDER EQUALITY (ALTERNATIVE INDICATOR): 62% (2013)

 
In 2013, 62% of Swazis positively perceived gender as a factor for development, according to their responses to questions regarding two key domains that parallel the objective indicator for this dimension- political participation and education. The final result is a composite indicator, which suggests that three-fifths of the population of Swaziland view gender as a positive factor for development, while two-fifths still consider it as an irrelevant or a negative factor. However, the perception of gender equality greatly varied according to the domain of the question asked, and select findings contradict the observed objective outputs in the previous indicator. 44% of the population agreed that when funds for school are limited, all children should have equal opportunities to learn based on abilities. This figure is surprisingly low in comparison to the marginal gap recorded for men and women’s average years of education. Less unexpected, only 7% of Swazis agreed that boys should always have a priority to education over girls. More openly favorable perceptions were recorded regarding political participation. When asked if “women should have the same chance of being elected to political office as men,” 80% of respondents agreed, suggesting that politics is a domain in which gender equality is likely to be perceived by Swazis as a positive factor for development, though these figures are inconsistent with the still significant gap regarding women’s political participation in parliament. A further look into additional subjective indicators reveals more inconsistencies in the public’s perception of gender equality according to various topics, including issues of particular significance in Swaziland. 
 
At the top end of the spectrum of responses to key questions on gender equality in the Demographic and Health Survey (2006/2007), 93.3% of married women in Swaziland feel that they have a say in how their own cash earnings are spent. This suggests that employment is a source of empowerment for Swazi women. Less positive, only 65.2% of married women felt that they have a role in household decision-making regarding areas such as personal health care, major household purchases, purchases of daily needs and visits to her family. Room for improvement still remains, but more serious negative culturally based perceptions on gender equality persist in other key areas such as violence against women. Indeed, only 60.8% of the population believe that a husband is never justified in beating his wife; the other 39.2% of the population agrees that beating one’s wife can be justified for the following reasons: she burns the food, argues with him, goes out without telling him, neglects the children, refuses to have sexual intercourse with him, or has sex with other men. An astoundingly low figure of 43.4% of the population between the ages of 15-19 agree that being beaten can never be justified, while 69.6% of the population ages 45-49 agree. This indicates that domestic violence is not only accepted by over one-third of the population, but more widely accepted amongst youths. In any context, violence against women is a key issue for gender equality, but as stated in the Swaziland National Development Strategy (1997-2022), domestic violence and sexual abuse are also related to a key national development and health priority: the spread of HIV/AIDS. The same survey revealed that only 37.5% of women and 44.1% of men agree that a woman has the right to refuse sexual intercourse with her husband, including if she knows her husband has a sexually transmitted disease or has intercourse with other women. 
 
>> This cross-analysis of the subjective and objective indicators reveals that certain gender-biased social and cultural norms remain dominant, resulting in inconsistent perceptions of gender equality, inadequate legislation and low objective outputs. Improved policies and legal tools, as well as targeted cultural and educational measures are needed to instill ownership and understanding of how gender equality is beneficial for all. In this sense, the National Development Strategy has recognized “that some cultural practices can be obstacles, and [there is a] need to sensitise agents of socialisation to change attitudes and behaviour patterns” in order to empower girls and women to equally participate in national development. Similarly, the Swaziland National Council of Arts and Culture Policy (2009) calls for the discouragement of harmful cultural practices through public education and appropriate legislation, and the effective implementation of gender policies to achieve a “culturally supportive society in respect of the rights and status of women and girls.”

Governance

10 DISTRIBUTION OF CULTURAL INFRASTRUCTURES: 0.36/1 (2013) The Swaziland National Council of Arts and Culture (SNCAC) Policy (2009) aims “to create an enabling environment that facilitates the preservation, development, promotion and sustainability of arts and culture and to make it accessible to every person,” as well as “...
Distribution of cultural infrastructures: ()
10 DISTRIBUTION OF CULTURAL INFRASTRUCTURES: 0.36/1 (2013)
 
The Swaziland National Council of Arts and Culture (SNCAC) Policy (2009) aims “to create an enabling environment that facilitates the preservation, development, promotion and sustainability of arts and culture and to make it accessible to every person,” as well as “to ensure that all citizens can freely, equally and democratically participate in all art and cultural activities and to enable them to benefit from the sector.” As part of achieving this, the SNCAC Strategic Plan sets an objective of developing regional amphitheatres. In addition, the National Development Strategy (1997-2022) recognizes that it is the role of the government to improve infrastructure to stimulate development, and though not specific to culture, recognizes the need to construct and develop recreational facilities for all Swazis. The distribution of cultural infrastructure in Swaziland paints a picture of ongoing challenges to equal access.
 
On a scale from 0 to 1, Swaziland’s result for this indicator is 0.36, 1 representing the situation in which selected cultural infrastructures are equally distributed amongst regions according to the relative size of their population. The score of 0.36 thus reflects that across the 4 regions of Swaziland, there is an unequal distribution of cultural facilities. 
 
When looking at the figures for the three different categories of infrastructures, Swaziland scores 0.28/1 for Museums, 0.28/1 for Exhibition Venues Dedicated to the Performing Arts and 0.52/1 for Libraries and Media Resource Centers. This suggests that the most equal distribution of access exists for Libraries, and that the most unequal distribution of infrastructures exists for Museums and Exhibition Venues, there being 4 of each such facilities nation-wide. The Shiselweni and Lubombo regions have neither of the latter facilities. Overall, the most fair distribution relative to population size occurs in Manzini, while the capital region of Hhohho has proportionally more Museums and Exhibition Venues. Building cultural infrastructures and increasing equality of access across all 4 regions could increase opportunities to take part in cultural and creative activities as stated in the SNCAC Policy (2009), as well as promote the development of the creative industries by providing facilities for the production and consumption of cultural goods and service. This is a crucial and common challenge for countries that have implemented the CDIS, as the average result is only 0.43/1.

 

11 CIVIL SOCIETY PARTICIPATION IN CULTURAL GOVERNANCE: 0.69/1 (2013) The final result of 0.69/1 indicates that many opportunities exist at the national level for dialogue and representation of both cultural professionals and minorities in regards to the formulation and implementation of cultural policies, measures and programmes that concern...
Civil Society participation in cultural Governance: ()
11 CIVIL SOCIETY PARTICIPATION IN CULTURAL GOVERNANCE: 0.69/1 (2013)
 
The final result of 0.69/1 indicates that many opportunities exist at the national level for dialogue and representation of both cultural professionals and minorities in regards to the formulation and implementation of cultural policies, measures and programmes that concern them, but that increased opportunities for the participation of cultural professionals at the regional and local levels can still be achieved. 
 
Regarding the participation of minorities, for the purpose of constructing this core CDIS indicator in Swaziland, flexibility was adopted regarding the definition of ‘minorities’ as there are no recognized minorities in Swaziland but rather all Swazis are considered one tribe. Thus, focus was instead placed on inclusive participation more generally and the access of individuals from all clans to participate in the decision-making process regarding cultural policies, measures and programmes that affect them. Similarly, participation processes in Swaziland are unique compared to other CDIS countries, as it is the only monarchy to take part in implementation. Applying this flexibility, mechanisms for popular participation can be observed at both the national and local levels. At the national level, the process of Sibaya, or Swazi National Council, assures that each individual has an opportunity to voice their opinions on all laws, policies, measures and programmes that concern them. Sibaya is called by the King in order for all adult citizens to gather at his residence. Recent examples showing the use of this practice for participation in the adoption of new cultural legislation include the Sibaya that occurred in 2012, preceding the adoption of the 1970, 2003 and 2005 Conventions. Similarly, at the local level, the 318 Chiefdoms of Swaziland permit Chiefs to act as the ‘eyes of the King’.  Should an individual of any clan have a concern with a policy, measure or programme, they are to bring their concerns to the Chiefs, who then meet amongst themselves before making a decision or bringing these concerns to the King. For issues of particular importance, discussion will pass first to Parliament before being brought to the King. In urban environments, Town Councils act in the same manner as Chiefdoms.
 
To facilitate the participation of cultural professionals in governance, the Swaziland National Council of Arts and Culture (SNCAC) Committee operates at the national level. Acting under the Ministry of Sports, Culture and Youth Affairs, the SNCAC has delegated powers concerning the promotion of culture and the arts in the Kingdom. Within the SNCAC, the Committee is composed of members representing cultural associations and professions, and is called on to solicit their views on programme activities and draft legislation, as early as its inception. Recent examples of legislation debated by the Committee include the SNCAC National Arts and Culture Council Bill (2011) and the Intellectual Property and Neighbouring Rights Bill (2010). Improvement of opportunities still remains for the participation of cultural professionals at the regional and local levels. While some regional structures mobilize to form committees on an ad hoc basis, this is not a formalized or regular activity. Existing regional structures are more actively involved in carrying out cultural events via logistics and planning activities, but less involved in decision-making processes. Such mechanisms would assist in assuring that effective policies correspond to the needs of the culture sector community.

 

9 POLICY AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR CULTURE: 0.75/1 (2013) The final result of 0.75/1 reflects great progress in establishing targeted policies and mechanisms to promote the culture sector, while revealing the remaining improvements necessary in the institutional framework and administrative system. Indeed, Swaziland’s results are...
Policy and institutional framework for culture: ()
9 POLICY AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR CULTURE: 0.75/1 (2013)
 
The final result of 0.75/1 reflects great progress in establishing targeted policies and mechanisms to promote the culture sector, while revealing the remaining improvements necessary in the institutional framework and administrative system. Indeed, Swaziland’s results are just below the average result of test phase countries of the CDIS, which is 0.79/1.
 
In Swaziland, the responsibility for formulating, implementing and managing culture related policies and activities is shared between multiple actors due to the isolation of heritage as separate to other cultural issues. Demonstrating the government’s recent boost in commitment to the arts and culture, the Ministry of Sports, Culture and Youth Affairs was created (MSCYA) in 2008 and has a significant role being tasked with the formulation of all policies related to culture, as well as the promotion, development, and monitoring of cultural empowerment and development. To accomplish these tasks, they are to maintain data banks of information relevant to culture and mobilize resources for the development and maintenance of infrastructure. Within the Ministry, the Swaziland National Council of Arts and Culture (SNCAC) acts as an administrative organization with delegated powers to preserve, promote and coordinate all matters of culture and the arts in the Kingdom. Concerning heritage, the Swaziland National Trust Commission (SNTC) is the parastatal organization responsible for the conservation of nature and cultural heritage, operating under the Ministry of Tourism and Environmental Affairs. 
 
Swaziland scored 1/1 for the Policy Framework sub-indicator, indicating that in the short time since the creation of the MSCYA, many well-defined culture and sectoral policies and strategies have been put in place.  Most significant, the 2011 SNCAC Policy is broad in scope and provides policy and strategy elements for various individual sub-sectors. In continuation with the past mention of culture in the National Development Strategy (1997-2022), culture was recognized as important, especially for youth, in the Government Priority Programme (2008-2013) in 2008. However, although culture has been integrated as a priority, no concrete objectives have yet to be established in these national development strategy documents, rather the private sector is encouraged to invest in culture. Increased public initiative is still needed.
 
Swaziland scored 0.58/1 for the Institutional Framework sub-indicator, which assesses the operationalization of institutional mechanisms and the degree of cultural decentralization. Positive accomplishments include the creation of the MSCYA in 2008, the establishment of a committee dealing with culture in Parliament, training programmes for workers in the public administration of culture, and the existence of several organizations to promote one or more culture sectors, such as the Swaziland Arts and Music Association, the Association of Swazi Theatre Groups, and the Swaziland Schools Culture Association to name a few. However, many key areas for improvement remain. Though key institutions have been established at the national level, no system for public subsidies yet exists, and there is a lack of formal decentralization of cultural responsibilities and funds to the regional and municipal levels. For all competencies, the NDS (1997-2022) calls for the strengthening of decentralization to ensure effective delegation and execution of functions and duties. With recent policies in place, it is hoped that this may effectively change as the SNCAC Policy (2011) and Strategic Plan (2012-2017) aim for such decentralization regarding culture, but as a first step the necessary authorities and institutions must be established at these more local levels.

 

8 STANDARD-SETTING FRAMEWORK FOR CULTURE: 0.42/1 (2013) Swaziland’s result of 0.42/1 reflects persisting gaps in the national standard-setting framework for culture and indicates a need for heightened public efforts. Establishing a comprehensive framework would assist in realizing the objective of the Swaziland National Council of Arts...
Standard-setting framework for culture: ()
8 STANDARD-SETTING FRAMEWORK FOR CULTURE: 0.42/1 (2013)
 
Swaziland’s result of 0.42/1 reflects persisting gaps in the national standard-setting framework for culture and indicates a need for heightened public efforts. Establishing a comprehensive framework would assist in realizing the objective of the Swaziland National Council of Arts and Culture (SNCAC) to create an environment favorable to the culture sector (SNCAC Policy, 2009). Thus, in addition to recent accomplishments, authorities should work towards the ratification of key international legal instruments affecting cultural development, cultural rights and cultural diversity, as well as establish a national framework to recognize and implement these obligations. A result of 0.42/1 indicates a low degree of completeness when compared to the average score of 0.78/1 for all countries that have implemented the CDIS.
 
Swaziland scored 0.45/1 at the international level, which reflects the many recent achievements, while still highlighting significant international legal tools that have yet to be adopted. Important recent achievements include the 2012 ratifications of the 1972 Convention Concerning the Protection of World Cultural and Natural Heritage; the 2003 Convention for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage; the 2005 Convention of the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions; and the 1970 Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property. Swaziland is still working towards the ratification of several additional international instruments for the protection of cultural assets, such as the 1995 UNIDROIT Convention on Stolen or Illegally Exported Cultural Objects, the 1954 Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict, the 1971 Universal Copyright Convention and the 1996 WIPO Copyright Treaty.
 
At the national level, a score of 0.40/1 indicates a need to reinforce national legislation to assist in implementing international commitments that Swaziland has agreed to at the country level, or is still working towards including in the framework. However, as at the international level, some key successes show a recent move in the right direction. The 2005 Constitution already recognizes cultural and linguistic diversity, the cultural right to an education and the right to cultural life. Similarly, national sectoral laws already exist for heritage, books and publishing, cinema, television and radio. Nevertheless, many of these are outdated. For example, the Cinematography Act dates from 1920. Many monumental changes have occurred in the industry and updated legislation is needed to structure the sector. The same can be said for the Copyright Act, which dates 1912. No reformed copyright law exists. As stated in the SNCAC Policy (2009), “the absence of a copyright law in Swaziland has been a thorny issue to artists for many years.  Many artists have lost a lot of money and recognition because they could not lay legal claim to their rights for published creative works.” Nevertheless, it is hoped that the 2010 Intellectual Property Rights Bill will pass and resolve this deficiency. Additional gaps in the framework include the inexistence of a ‘framework law’ for culture, as well as a lack of regulations dealing with the tax status of culture, public assistance and subsidies, and the status of the artist. Nevertheless, as for copyright legislation, if passed, the 2011 National Arts and Culture Council Bill will resolve many outstanding issues as well as update old legislation.

Heritage

22 HERITAGE SUSTAINABILITY: 0.70/1 (2013) Swaziland’s result of 0.70/1 is reflective of the high level of priority given to the protection, safeguarding and promotion of heritage sustainability by Swazi authorities. While many public efforts are dedicated to national registrations and inscriptions, raising-awareness, and community...
Heritage sustainability: ()
22 HERITAGE SUSTAINABILITY: 0.70/1 (2013)
 
Swaziland’s result of 0.70/1 is reflective of the high level of priority given to the protection, safeguarding and promotion of heritage sustainability by Swazi authorities. While many public efforts are dedicated to national registrations and inscriptions, raising-awareness, and community involvement; select persisting gaps in conservation and management, capacity-building, and stimulating support amongst the private sector call for additional actions to improve this multidimensional framework.
 
The Swaziland National Trust Commission (SNTC) is the parastatal organization responsible for the conservation of nature and the cultural heritage of the Kingdom of Swaziland, operating under the Ministry of Tourism and Environmental Affairs. The SNTC was established by the SNTC Act of 1972. The National Museum, the National Monuments, Archaeology and Wildlife/Parks departments of the SNTC work in their respective capacities toward the protection and promotion of natural and cultural heritage.
 
Swaziland scored 0.73/1 for registrations and inscriptions, indicating that authorities’ efforts have resulted in many up-to-date national registrations and inscriptions of Swazi sites and elements of tangible and intangible heritage. Swaziland has 79 items on the national registry of natural and cultural heritage, 1 of which, the Ngwenya Mines, was submitted in 2008 on the World Heritage Tentative List but has failed to complete the inscription due to the reopening of mining activities. In addition, though having only ratified the 2003 Convention in 2012, fifteen elements of intangible heritage have already been inventoried as part of the Flanders financed Projects on Community-based Inventorying of Intangible Heritage since 2011. Likewise, prior to the 2012 ratification of the 1970 Convention, stolen cultural objects were already part of a national register of stolen movable heritage and museum property. 
 
Swaziland scored 0.67/1 for the protection, safeguarding and management of heritage, indicating that there are several well-defined policies and measures, as well as efforts to involve communities. Many recent efforts have been made to enhance the promotion of heritage, include the ratifications of the 1970, 1972, 2003, and 2005 Conventions, and the consequent review of national policies to accommodate new commitments such as those regarding intangible heritage. Regarding community involvement, the SNTC Act (1972) clearly states that heritage belongs to communities. As a result, the SNTC actively involves communities in the process of identifying tangible and intangible heritage, and traditional authorities are consulted in order to respect customary practices and the sacred nature of sites. Heritage site management is also entirely driven by community committees; the SNTC acts as an advisory body. However, notable gaps in the framework can still be identified. While recent policy changes have been made to better accommodate intangible cultural heritage, additional efforts are needed to adopt concrete policies and measures to prevent the illicit trafficking of cultural property. Other exclusions include the incorporation of heritage in the National Development Strategy, the existence of a specialized police unit for illicit trafficking and specific training efforts regarding the protection of cultural property in armed conflict.
 
Swaziland scored 0.72/1 for the transmission and mobilization of support, which reflects efforts taken to raise awareness of heritage’s value and its threats amongst the population, as well as efforts to involve the civil society and the private sector. In addition to signage at heritage sites and differential pricing, awareness-raising measures include the SNTC’s radio programme to promote heritage and environmental issues, as well as the inclusion of heritage topics in school syllabi as early as Grade 4. While many means are used to educate the public, limited efforts are put into place to gain the support of the private sector. Though the SNTC is currently in the process of signing a memorandum of understanding with the Swaziland Television Authority to promote heritage, and efforts to form private foundations to assist in the protection of heritage have resulted in such groups as the Natural History Society, explicit agreements with tour operators is an additional means to be further explored. The Swaziland National Council of Arts and Culture Policy (2009) states as an objective to “draw and enter into memoranda of agreement with other countries and international organisations on the promotion of arts and culture.” This includes the promotion of heritage. The National Development Strategy (1997-2022) similarly calls for cooperation with neighbouring countries to promote tourism. Thus, formalizing existing tentative partnerships between South African tour providers and museum officers could enhance the framework for heritage sustainability.

Social-Participation

15 INTERPERSONAL TRUST: 9% (2013)  In 2013, approximately 9% of Swazis agreed that most people can be trusted. Within the context described above, this indicator further assesses the level of trust and sense of solidarity and cooperation in Swaziland, providing insight into its social capital. A result of 9% indicates a persistent low...
Interpersonal trust: ()
15 INTERPERSONAL TRUST: 9% (2013) 
 
In 2013, approximately 9% of Swazis agreed that most people can be trusted. Within the context described above, this indicator further assesses the level of trust and sense of solidarity and cooperation in Swaziland, providing insight into its social capital. A result of 9% indicates a persistent low level of trust and solidarity as the average of the countries having implemented the CDIS is situated at 19.22%. This result does not suggest that factors creating a social environment favorable to development have improved over the last decade, since the recording of the data from the previous alternative indicator in 2001. Though all groups of the population show low levels of trust, there are variations in the results for men and women and across age groups. Only an approximate 7% of women agree that most people can be trusted compared to 10% of men, and the results for different age groups vary from 7% of the people ages 30-49 to, to 9% of the population 15-29 and 10% of the people ages 50+. Regardless, all of these figures remain rather low, and when combined with the alternative and additional indicators presented above, these figures suggest that there remains an obstruction to fostering trust in the fabric of Swaziland’s society. This indicates that building on culture’s potential to further reinforce the feelings of mutual cooperation and solidarity amongst Swazis, and as a consequence, nurture social capital, deserves to be considered as a priority through the development of targeted measures and programmes.  
 
The conflicting results seen in this dimension between openness to diversity and interest in other cultures on the one hand, and tolerance and trust on the other, suggest that much work still remains in this area and it is recommended to not only emphasize social priorities in Government Programmes for Action and cultural policies, but also to integrate relevant cultural and social questions into regular national surveys in order to establish consistent statistics and monitor progress on all topics.

 

14 TOLERANCE OF OTHER CULTURES (ALTERNATIVE INDICATOR): 59.9% (2001)

 The Swaziland National Council of Arts and Culture Policy (SNCAC) (2009) recognizes that due to globalization there are diverse cultures in Swaziland and that policies should “focus on the promotion of harmonious co-existence among the different communities and...
Tolerance of other cultures: ()

14 TOLERANCE OF OTHER CULTURES (ALTERNATIVE INDICATOR): 59.9% (2001)

 
The Swaziland National Council of Arts and Culture Policy (SNCAC) (2009) recognizes that due to globalization there are diverse cultures in Swaziland and that policies should “focus on the promotion of harmonious co-existence among the different communities and encourage intra and inter-cultural exchange,” going on to state “respect for culture is crucial for mutual interdependence, which is a prerequisite for social harmony and cohesion.” The National Development Strategy (1997-2022) recognizes such social integration as a key dimension to increase the quality of life.
 
Within this context, 59.9% of Swazis agreed that they can usually accept people from different cultures in 2001. The result for this alternative indicator suggests that the values, attitudes and convictions of three-fifths of Swazis favor the acceptance of other cultures, while two-fifths of the population do not. In the same survey, only 7.2% of Swazis responded that it is easy to trust a person from a different culture. Combined, these results suggest a rather low degree of tolerance. However, in the same survey, 75.6% of Swazis agreed that beyond accepting other cultures, they agree that exposure to other cultures enriches their own lives. Such mixed data suggests that while the cultural system of values in place may promote openness to diversity and an interest in new or different traditions, it does not permit

 

Uruguay

Economy

2 CULTURAL EMPLOYMENT: 3.1% (2012)
 
In 2012, 3.1% of the employed population in Uruguay had cultural occupations, 43% of which were women and 57% men. 83% of these individuals held central cultural occupations, while 17% held occupations in supporting or equipment related activities. The sub-sectors that contributed the most to...

Cultural Employment: ()

2 CULTURAL EMPLOYMENT: 3.1% (2012)
 
In 2012, 3.1% of the employed population in Uruguay had cultural occupations, 43% of which were women and 57% men. 83% of these individuals held central cultural occupations, while 17% held occupations in supporting or equipment related activities. The sub-sectors that contributed the most to national cultural employment include handicraft workers (22.5%); architects, planners, surveyors and designers (17.7%); teachers of arts and culture (16.2%); and creative and performing artists (11.7%).

Though this result already emphasizes culture’s importance as a provider of employment and wellbeing in the country, the global contribution of the culture sector to employment is underestimated in this indicator due to the difficulty of obtaining and correlating all the relevant data. This figure likely does not cover all informal employment in the culture sector due to the reluctance of some participants to convey such occupations during official surveys. In addition, this figure does not cover induced occupations with a strong link to culture or non-cultural occupations performed in cultural establishments. Nevertheless, in regards to the latter constraint, an additional indicator illustrates that 2.8% of the total employed population worked in cultural establishments in 2012, highlighting a similarity to the core indicator and reinforcing its validity.

To further enhance culture’s economic role, Uruguay has adopted a cluster policy for culture sub-sectors, which promotes links between companies, research institutions, private sector institutions and government bodies in order to promote the activity of each sub-sector with an emphasis on economic contributions and the development of each sub-sector as a creator of income, exports, employment and wellbeing.

 

Household expenditures Uruguay

3 HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURES ON CULTURE: 3.08% (2005-2006)

In Uruguay, 3.08% of household consumption expenditures were devoted to cultural activities, goods and services in the year of 2005-2006. 72.8% was spent on central cultural goods and services, and 27.2% on equipment/supporting goods and services. The consumption of cultural...

Household expenditures Uruguay Household expenditures Uruguay
Household expenditures on culture: ()

3 HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURES ON CULTURE: 3.08% (2005-2006)

In Uruguay, 3.08% of household consumption expenditures were devoted to cultural activities, goods and services in the year of 2005-2006. 72.8% was spent on central cultural goods and services, and 27.2% on equipment/supporting goods and services. The consumption of cultural services was responsible for the largest share of central goods and services consumed (48%). Cultural services include entry fees to cinemas, museums, theatres, concerts, national parks and heritage sites, the hire of equipment for culture (televisions, video cassettes) etc. The purchase of books was responsible for the second largest share of central goods and services consumed (13%), and the repair of equipment for the reception, recording and reproduction of sound and pictures (such as televisions, radios, stereos etc.) was responsible for the largest shares of equipment/supporting goods and services (13%).

This result suggests a significant demand for cultural goods, though variations in the consumption of cultural goods and services can be noted across income quintiles suggesting that an increase in consumption of cultural goods corresponds to an increase in wealth. This data should be taken into account when analyzing policies and mechanisms in place to permit individuals of all income groups to participate in cultural activities and the consumption of cultural goods and services.
 
Though already significant, this final result of 3.08% is a sub-estimation of the total actual consumption of households. It does not account for the value of cultural goods and services acquired by households and provided by non-profit institutions at prices that are not economically significant (e.g. in-kind transfers). For example, it does not include museum and public library services and free public cultural events.

>> While the Economy indicators suggest that there is a non-negligible demand for the consumption of cultural goods, services and activities, and that culture is already a significant employer, cross-analysis with CDIS indicators from the Communication and Governance dimensions suggests that the potential for production and the domestic consumption of cultural goods could be further enhanced by reinforcing support of local cultural industries and the equal distribution of cultural infrastructures.

Education

Inclusive Education Uruguay

4 INCLUSIVE EDUCATION: 0.96/1 (2011)

‘Secular, free and compulsory’ education has been installed in Uruguay since the Valerian Reform in 1876. Primary education is accessible to nearly all citizens since the second half of the twentieth century, and the illiteracy rate is low amongst Uruguayans. Within this context, the...

Inclusive Education Uruguay
Inclusive education: ()

4 INCLUSIVE EDUCATION: 0.96/1 (2011)

‘Secular, free and compulsory’ education has been installed in Uruguay since the Valerian Reform in 1876. Primary education is accessible to nearly all citizens since the second half of the twentieth century, and the illiteracy rate is low amongst Uruguayans. Within this context, the result of 0.96/1 reflects the success of national authorities in guaranteeing the fundamental cultural right to education in a complete, fair and inclusive manner. This result shows that on average, the target population aged 17-22 has 9.8 years of schooling, which is only slightly below the targeted average of 10 years. In addition, only a very small minority of 2% of the target population lives in education deprivation, having less than 4 years of schooling. This result shows that public authorities’ efforts have been overwhelmingly successful in assuring that citizens enjoy the cultural right to an education, and participate in the construction and transmission of values, attitudes and cultural skills throughout school, as well as benefit from the personal and social empowerment of learning. Nevertheless, to further enhance education opportunities in the country, targeted policies may still be necessary to address high repetition rates in primary school, educational underachievement and high dropout rates in high school, which continue to be highlighted as key obstacles by the Ministry of Social Development and the Ministry of Education and Culture (2011).

 

Multilingual Education Uruguay

5 MULTILINGUAL EDUCATION: 49.5% (2011)

The Education Act of 2008 states that “language education will aim to develop the communication skills of individuals, mastery of written language, respect for linguistic diversity, reflection on language, the consideration of the different mother tongues in the country (Uruguayan Spanish...

Multilingual Education Uruguay
Multilingual Education: ()

5 MULTILINGUAL EDUCATION: 49.5% (2011)

The Education Act of 2008 states that “language education will aim to develop the communication skills of individuals, mastery of written language, respect for linguistic diversity, reflection on language, the consideration of the different mother tongues in the country (Uruguayan Spanish, Uruguayan Portuguese, Uruguayan Sign Language), and multilingual education through the teaching of second languages and foreign languages” (Article 42).

In 2011, 49.5% of the hours to be dedicated to languages in the first two years of secondary school was to be dedicated to the teaching of the official national language- Spanish. The remaining 50.5% of the time was to be dedicated to the teaching of international languages, dominated by the teaching of English. These results indicate the priority given by the Uruguayan educational system to the promotion of international linguistic diversity and bilingualism. It should be noted that non-verbal languages are not considered for the construction of this indicator according to CDIS methodology.

However, in spite of the promotion of diversity, Portuguese, a spoken language, is not part of the required curriculum in schools as a local, regional or foreign language despite its recognized status and importance within the South American continent. Nevertheless, select learners in the regions bordering Brazil may now have the opportunity to partake in Education Immersion Programs in Portuguese during primary education. The objective of these programs is to promote academic achievement of oral and writen standard Spanish and Portuguese, respecting the border region’s diversity and exchanging amongst communities. Such initiatives could be reinforced throughout the country at various levels of the education system to provide Uruguayans enhanced language opportunities and promote cultural exchanges with their geographic neighbors.

 

Arts Education Uruguay

6 ARTS EDUCATION: 9.7% (2011)

In 2011, 9.7% of the total instructional hours in the first two years of secondary education was to be devoted to arts education. This result is above the average for countries having implemented the CDIS, which is around (4.84%), and is reflective of authorities’ recent commitment to increase...

Arts Education Uruguay
Arts Education: ()

6 ARTS EDUCATION: 9.7% (2011)

In 2011, 9.7% of the total instructional hours in the first two years of secondary education was to be devoted to arts education. This result is above the average for countries having implemented the CDIS, which is around (4.84%), and is reflective of authorities’ recent commitment to increase opportunities in arts and culture.

Recent changes have been implemented in public educational programs in Uruguay. Arts education was diversified with the creation of artistic programmes for upper secondary schools in 2007. From 2009 onwards, a new Primary Education Program has been implemented and includes courses for artistic knowledge, breaking from previous programs where arts and culture were absent. These changes, both in secondary and in primary schools, reflect improvement in the degree of valorization of arts education in Uruguayan public education. Through arts and cultural education, horizons for personal development and cultural participation are expanded. Although no major recent changes have occurred for basic secondary education, these amendments confirm authorities’ intention to encourage the development of artistic talent; ensure the training of producers of cultural content, goods and services; and foster the appreciation and consumption of cultural and artistic expressions.

 

Professional Training Uruguay

7 PROFESSIONAL TRAINING IN THE CULTURE SECTOR: 0.90/1 (2013)

Uruguay’s result of 0.90/1 indicates that the national authorities have manifested a clear interest and willingness to invest in the training of cultural professionals. The coverage of the national public and government-dependent private technical and tertiary...

Professional Training Uruguay
Professional Training in the culture sector: ()

7 PROFESSIONAL TRAINING IN THE CULTURE SECTOR: 0.90/1 (2013)

Uruguay’s result of 0.90/1 indicates that the national authorities have manifested a clear interest and willingness to invest in the training of cultural professionals. The coverage of the national public and government-dependent private technical and tertiary education is rather comprehensive, offering various programmes in higher education to citizens who want to undertake technical and professional studies in the field of culture.

Although Uruguayans benefit from both primary and secondary opportunities in arts education, one key gap remains in the training of cultural professionals. The field of cultural management is not represented in Uruguay’s technical and vocational educational system. Transforming artistic and creative capacities into economically viable activities, goods and services and the effective management of cultural businesses requires considering culture-specific aspects of the sector. A lack of training in cultural management may hinder the emergence of a dynamic cultural class and the development of competitive cultural enterprises. Nevertheless, to meet such training needs at the tertiary level, a new Diploma Programme in Cultural Management was created in 2013 as a graduate specialization offered by the Universidad de la Republica.

Also to be noted are other opportunities created in 2013, such as a 2-year technical training programme in film and video at the Universidad del Trabajo del Uruguay (UTU), which have helped to complete the coverage of education in the country. As part of the latter programme, the first-ever specialized technical audio-visual course has been made available on the capture and processing of sound and image. Such recent developments are signs that efforts are being made to address education and training gaps to be filled.

Governance

Standard-setting Uruguay

8 STANDARD-SETTING FRAMEWORK FOR CULTURE: 0.82/1 (2013)

Uruguay’s result of 0.82/1 indicates that there is already a reasonable standard-setting framework for culture in place and that the country has made many efforts to ratify key international legal instruments affecting cultural development, cultural rights and cultural...

Standard-setting Uruguay
Standard-setting framework for culture: ()

8 STANDARD-SETTING FRAMEWORK FOR CULTURE: 0.82/1 (2013)

Uruguay’s result of 0.82/1 indicates that there is already a reasonable standard-setting framework for culture in place and that the country has made many efforts to ratify key international legal instruments affecting cultural development, cultural rights and cultural diversity, as well as to establish a national framework to recognize and implement these obligations.

Uruguay scored 0.91/1 at the international level, highlighting the degree of priority given to culture and the country’s high level of commitment to international norms on cultural development, cultural rights and cultural diversity. Uruguay has ratified all recommended conventions, declarations and recommendations, with the exception of the Convention on the Protection of Underwater Cultural Heritage, the UNIDROIT Convention on Stolen or Illegally Exported Cultural Objects, and the Brussels Convention Relating to the Distribution of Programme-Carrying Signals Transmitted by Satellite.

At the national level, a lower score of 0.77/1 indicates that public efforts have been made to integrate many of the international obligations that Uruguay has adopted into national legislation, a vital step for the active implementation of these obligations. However, room for improvement still remains as several key items continue to be missing from the national legislation and regulatory frameworks. For example, certain key provisions and cultural rights have yet to be explicitly integrated in the national constitution, such as the right to participate in cultural life, and the recognition and respect of linguistic and cultural diversity. Furthermore, no ‘framework law’ for culture yet exists. Nevertheless, within the Ministry of Education and Culture, the National Directorate of Culture has begun drafting such a bill for future consideration. Such improvements in the national framework and its continual updating are a priority of authorities. For example, in 2005, Law 17.930 on the National Budget for the Promotion of Arts and Culture was adopted; offering companies the possibility of tax breaks if they support cultural projects, helping to promote the sector and create a favourable environment. Another example of on-going improvement, the Commission for the Cultural Heritage of the Nation has been working on a new draft bill, updating heritage law to include concepts such as intangible heritage. In 2008, the Status of the Artist and Related Trades (Law 18,384) was established extending social security benefits of performing artists. Furthermore, consultations had also begun regarding reform and the recognition of the specific circumstances of writers and visual artists in existing regulations on the Status of the Artist. Finally, one more bill currently under deliberation is the Services and Audiovisual Communication Bill, which is meant to update the Radio and Television Law of 1977. This new bill proposes means to promote the production of quality national content, and specifically educational programs and television fiction for children and adolescents. The latter merits consideration when analyzing the indicators of the Communication Dimension. Finally, it is to be noted that the country has shown a clear interest in ensuring continuous opportunities for training to accompany the process of institutionalization of culture through the professionalization of its actors. The Stimulus Fund for Artistic Training and Creation (FEFCA) was created by Article 507 of Law 18,719 .

 

Policy Uruguay

9 POLICY AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR CULTURE: 0.91/1 (2013)

The final result of 0.91/1 reflects the many efforts of national authorities to establish targeted policies and mechanisms to promote the culture sector and implement the obligations and priorities found in national legislation, while revealing the select remaining...

Policy Uruguay
Policy and institutional framework for culture: ()

9 POLICY AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR CULTURE: 0.91/1 (2013)

The final result of 0.91/1 reflects the many efforts of national authorities to establish targeted policies and mechanisms to promote the culture sector and implement the obligations and priorities found in national legislation, while revealing the select remaining improvements necessary in the policy framework and administrative system. Uruguay’s results are just above the average result of test phase countries of the CDIS, which is 0.79/1.

Uruguay scored 0.91/1 for the Policy Framework sub-indicator, indicating that many well-defined culture and sectoral policies and strategies have been put in place. One priority seen in national policy is the promotion of access and participation of minorities and other groups with specific needs in cultural life, demonstrated through many policies and programs that target marginalized groups. For example, Ministry of Education and Culture (MEC) Centres for Digital Literacy offer workshops relating to different forms of artistic expression in towns with fewer than 5000 inhabitants. In addition, Grant Funds for Culture have been decentralized to the Department level to help promote local development of the sector, and since 2009, the Fund for the Development of Cultural Infrastructure in the Interior of the Country has aimed to increase access and the quality of cultural centres available to those that are the most isolated and socially marginalized. Many such actions are led by the Cultural Citizenship Unit of the National Directorate of Culture (MEC) and merit consideration when cross-analyzing with the other indicators of this dimension. The main gap in the national cultural policy framework is the lack of integration of culture in national development strategies and plans, a key obstacle to the systematic inclusion of culture in development activities.

Uruguay scored 0.92/1 for the Institutional Framework sub-indicator, which assesses the operationalization of institutional mechanisms and the degree of cultural decentralization. Many positive factors account for such a result. Multiple institutions have been founded for the management and promotion of specific cultural sub-sectors, such as the National Institute of Performing Arts founded in 2010 and the Department of Cinema and National Audiovisuals founded in 2011, which unified National Television, National Broadcasting and the Institute of Cinema and Audiovisuals of Uruguay. Regarding the decentralization of cultural governance, since 2012, Uruguay has a Network of Departmental Directors of culture to promote dialogue and horizontal exchange on culture at the Department level of government. However, no specialized institutions or positions for culture have yet been established at the local/municipal level of public administration. While overall the results for this indicator are very positive and reflect the many formal institutions, policies and mechanisms in place in Uruguay, additional research is necessary to go further and evaluate the effective impact of the national policy and institutional framework for culture and the translation of words into action and results.

 

Infrastructure Uruguay

10 DISTRIBUTION OF CULTURAL INFRASTRUCTURES: 0.53/1 (2013)

Uruguay’s final result is 0.53/1, 1 representing the situation in which selected infrastructure is equally distributed amongst Departments according to the relative size of the population. The score of 0.53/1 thus reflects that across the 19 Departments of Uruguay,...

Infrastructure Uruguay Infrastructure Uruguay
Distribution of cultural infrastructures: ()

10 DISTRIBUTION OF CULTURAL INFRASTRUCTURES: 0.53/1 (2013)

Uruguay’s final result is 0.53/1, 1 representing the situation in which selected infrastructure is equally distributed amongst Departments according to the relative size of the population. The score of 0.53/1 thus reflects that across the 19 Departments of Uruguay, there is an unequal distribution of cultural facilities.

When looking at the figures for the three different categories of infrastructures, Uruguay scores 0.62/1 for Museums, 0.44/1 for Exhibition Venues Dedicated to the Performing Arts and 0.52/1 for Libraries and Media Resource Centers. This suggests that the most equal distribution of access exists for Museums, and that the most unequal distribution for Exhibition Venues. All Departments have access to at least one of each category of facility but the concentration relative to population size greatly varies. For example, while Montevideo benefits from relatively proportionate distribution of cultural infrastructures given its population, the bordering Departments of Canelones and San José are amongst the lowest scoring for all three types of selected infrastructures. Several of these Departments’ most populous cities being within the Montevideo Metropolitan Area, many inhabitants use the capital’s facilities to partake in cultural activities, in part explaining the lack of infrastructure development. Similarly, in most Departments the Libraries and Exhibition Venues available are located in major cities, presenting an obstacle to cultural participation as it requires mobility from more rural areas, and prevents the creation of strong ties between cultural centres and communities. Other Departments that are inadequately furnished with cultural facilities relative to population size include the Rivera Department bordering Brazil, having a total of only 4 Museums (2%), 2 Exhibition Venues (1.6%) and 6 Libraries (1.6%) but 3.2% of the total population.

It is interesting to note that amongst the Departments with the most access to cultural infrastructure are those like Colonia and Maldonado, which are characterized by significant flows of tourists. In Maldonado, Punta del Este is one of the main national tourist attractions and 5 of 12 Exhibition Venues of the entire Department are located in the city despite only 6% of the total population of the Department living in the area. This suggests a relationship between available infrastructures and the cultural consumption habits of a mobile tourist population. While such a correlation contributes to the development of cultural industries and the cultural economy for foreign consumption, increasing the equality of access across all 19 Department could increase opportunities for Uruguayans to take part in cultural activities, promote the development of the cultural and creative industries for domestic consumption and enjoyment, and provide an enabling environment for cultural professionals and businesses to create, produce, promote and disseminate their work. A detailed analysis of cultural participation could assist in assuring appropriate supply of cultural facilities, taking into account the characteristics of cultural consumption of the population and the artistic and cultural offerings available (time availability, ticket prices, dissemination and outreach strategies, etc.). This is a crucial and common challenge among all the countries that have implemented the CDIS, as the average score for this indicator is 0.43/1.

 

Civil Society Uruguay

11 CIVIL SOCIETY PARTICIPATION IN CULTURAL GOVERNANCE: 0.89/1 (2013)

The final result of 0.89/1 indicates that many opportunities exist for dialogue and representation of both cultural professionals and minorities in regards to the formulation and implementation of cultural policies, measures and programmes that concern them. Such...

Civil Society Uruguay
Civil Society participation in cultural Governance: ()

11 CIVIL SOCIETY PARTICIPATION IN CULTURAL GOVERNANCE: 0.89/1 (2013)

The final result of 0.89/1 indicates that many opportunities exist for dialogue and representation of both cultural professionals and minorities in regards to the formulation and implementation of cultural policies, measures and programmes that concern them. Such opportunities for participation in cultural governance exist at the national as well as regional and local levels.

To facilitate the participation of cultural professionals in governance, there are several institutional mechanisms and statutory bodies that provide for participation at the local, regional and national levels. One of the key permanent structures that provides a space for dialogue with cultural professions is the National Assembly of Culture, which through intense participation and exchanges between the State, arts and culture trade unions, NGOs and academics, tries to reach a consensus on the direction and priorities of cultural policy. As for statutory bodies, cultural professionals are included in the deliberation and decision processes of many such bodies regarding the implementation of policies and mechanisms meant to benefit the sector and promote the work and status of creative professionals. For example, cultural professionals assist the Certification Commission for the Status of the Artist and Related Trades in the decision to assign the status of ‘professional artist’ to an individual, and they assist the Board of Assessment and Promotion of Cultural Art Projects (CONAEF) in the selection of projects meant to benefit from the Fiscal Incentives Act.

Though less formalized and ad hoc in nature, limited examples do exist showing the punctual participation of minorities in cultural governance and will hopefully lead to enhanced and more institutionalized integration of minorities in decision-making processes in the future. For example, minorities have been included in a national level consultative process regarding the National Plan Against Racism and Discrimination and they have been included in the roundtables concerning the declaration of Candombe as intangible cultural heritage. Though not uniquely specific to culture, select government structures are already formalizing minority participation in stable decision-making mechanisms, such as the Department of Afro Women of the Ministry of Social Development. Nevertheless, the dissemination and regularity of these mechanisms can still be further developed at all levels of public administration and further analysis of their ability, as well as that of cultural professionals, to effectively influence the formulation and implementation of cultural policies and measures may be necessary.

Social-Participation

Going-Out Uruguay

12 PARTICIPATION IN GOING-OUT CULTURAL ACTIVITIES: 68.8% (2009)

In Uruguay, 68.8% of the population 12 years or older participated at least once in a going-out cultural activity in 2009. Going-out cultural activities include visits to cultural venues, such as cinemas, theatres, concerts, music festivals, galleries, museums, libraries...

Going-Out Uruguay
Participation in going-out cultural activities: ()

12 PARTICIPATION IN GOING-OUT CULTURAL ACTIVITIES: 68.8% (2009)

In Uruguay, 68.8% of the population 12 years or older participated at least once in a going-out cultural activity in 2009. Going-out cultural activities include visits to cultural venues, such as cinemas, theatres, concerts, music festivals, galleries, museums, libraries, historical and archaeological monuments. Such activities require people actively choosing to attend a particular cultural activity, thus providing insight into the degree of cultural vitality and appreciation of culture. They also imply physical places for encounters to occur between audiences and artists, as well as among audiences, and thus insight into the degree of social interaction and connectivity. A result of 68.8% suggests a relatively high degree of participation in going-out activities overall and a steady base for a domestic cultural audience; the average for countries participating in the CDIS is situated at 46.1%.

The results vary indicating that out of the total, 61% of participants in going-out cultural activities were men and 39% women. Similarly, adults 30-60 years of age (52.3%) represented the majority compared to those 16-29 years of age (27.3%) or above 61 years of age (20.3%). There is also a connection between partaking in cultural outings and being members of the middle and elite classes of society, as most participants were from the highest income group (38.3%) and had at least a secondary education (84.7% of participants had a secondary education or higher). Finally, a geographical divide can also be confirmed as 60.1% of all participants were located in Montevideo. To further stimulate participation amongst youth, women and marginalized populations, and to develop targeted policies to increase access to such cultural activities, the above results merit cross-analysis with the indicators of the Education and Governance dimensions, the latter of which reveals that in the case of Montevideo, over 40% of all cultural infrastructures nation-wide are found in the capital region, suggesting that increasing equitable access to facilities may further enhance levels of participation in going-out cultural activities amongst all, boosting social connectivity and the consumption of cultural goods and services across all socio-economic groups.

CDIS Methodology was developed thanks to the financial support of
Government of Spain

Contact us

UNESCO

Section for the Diversity of Cultural Expressions (CLT/CRE/DCE)

7 place Fontenoy, 75352 Paris 07 SP - France

email: cdis@unesco.org