Explore Digest

Uruguay

Education

Professional Training Uruguay

7 PROFESSIONAL TRAINING IN THE CULTURE SECTOR: 0.90/1 (2013)

Uruguay’s result of 0.90/1 indicates that the national authorities have manifested a clear interest and willingness to invest in the training of cultural professionals. The coverage of the national public and government-dependent private technical and tertiary...

Professional Training Uruguay
Professional Training in the culture sector: ()

7 PROFESSIONAL TRAINING IN THE CULTURE SECTOR: 0.90/1 (2013)

Uruguay’s result of 0.90/1 indicates that the national authorities have manifested a clear interest and willingness to invest in the training of cultural professionals. The coverage of the national public and government-dependent private technical and tertiary education is rather comprehensive, offering various programmes in higher education to citizens who want to undertake technical and professional studies in the field of culture.

Although Uruguayans benefit from both primary and secondary opportunities in arts education, one key gap remains in the training of cultural professionals. The field of cultural management is not represented in Uruguay’s technical and vocational educational system. Transforming artistic and creative capacities into economically viable activities, goods and services and the effective management of cultural businesses requires considering culture-specific aspects of the sector. A lack of training in cultural management may hinder the emergence of a dynamic cultural class and the development of competitive cultural enterprises. Nevertheless, to meet such training needs at the tertiary level, a new Diploma Programme in Cultural Management was created in 2013 as a graduate specialization offered by the Universidad de la Republica.

Also to be noted are other opportunities created in 2013, such as a 2-year technical training programme in film and video at the Universidad del Trabajo del Uruguay (UTU), which have helped to complete the coverage of education in the country. As part of the latter programme, the first-ever specialized technical audio-visual course has been made available on the capture and processing of sound and image. Such recent developments are signs that efforts are being made to address education and training gaps to be filled.

Governance

Standard-setting Uruguay

8 STANDARD-SETTING FRAMEWORK FOR CULTURE: 0.82/1 (2013)

Uruguay’s result of 0.82/1 indicates that there is already a reasonable standard-setting framework for culture in place and that the country has made many efforts to ratify key international legal instruments affecting cultural development, cultural rights and cultural...

Standard-setting Uruguay
Standard-setting framework for culture: ()

8 STANDARD-SETTING FRAMEWORK FOR CULTURE: 0.82/1 (2013)

Uruguay’s result of 0.82/1 indicates that there is already a reasonable standard-setting framework for culture in place and that the country has made many efforts to ratify key international legal instruments affecting cultural development, cultural rights and cultural diversity, as well as to establish a national framework to recognize and implement these obligations.

Uruguay scored 0.91/1 at the international level, highlighting the degree of priority given to culture and the country’s high level of commitment to international norms on cultural development, cultural rights and cultural diversity. Uruguay has ratified all recommended conventions, declarations and recommendations, with the exception of the Convention on the Protection of Underwater Cultural Heritage, the UNIDROIT Convention on Stolen or Illegally Exported Cultural Objects, and the Brussels Convention Relating to the Distribution of Programme-Carrying Signals Transmitted by Satellite.

At the national level, a lower score of 0.77/1 indicates that public efforts have been made to integrate many of the international obligations that Uruguay has adopted into national legislation, a vital step for the active implementation of these obligations. However, room for improvement still remains as several key items continue to be missing from the national legislation and regulatory frameworks. For example, certain key provisions and cultural rights have yet to be explicitly integrated in the national constitution, such as the right to participate in cultural life, and the recognition and respect of linguistic and cultural diversity. Furthermore, no ‘framework law’ for culture yet exists. Nevertheless, within the Ministry of Education and Culture, the National Directorate of Culture has begun drafting such a bill for future consideration. Such improvements in the national framework and its continual updating are a priority of authorities. For example, in 2005, Law 17.930 on the National Budget for the Promotion of Arts and Culture was adopted; offering companies the possibility of tax breaks if they support cultural projects, helping to promote the sector and create a favourable environment. Another example of on-going improvement, the Commission for the Cultural Heritage of the Nation has been working on a new draft bill, updating heritage law to include concepts such as intangible heritage. In 2008, the Status of the Artist and Related Trades (Law 18,384) was established extending social security benefits of performing artists. Furthermore, consultations had also begun regarding reform and the recognition of the specific circumstances of writers and visual artists in existing regulations on the Status of the Artist. Finally, one more bill currently under deliberation is the Services and Audiovisual Communication Bill, which is meant to update the Radio and Television Law of 1977. This new bill proposes means to promote the production of quality national content, and specifically educational programs and television fiction for children and adolescents. The latter merits consideration when analyzing the indicators of the Communication Dimension. Finally, it is to be noted that the country has shown a clear interest in ensuring continuous opportunities for training to accompany the process of institutionalization of culture through the professionalization of its actors. The Stimulus Fund for Artistic Training and Creation (FEFCA) was created by Article 507 of Law 18,719 .

 

Policy Uruguay

9 POLICY AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR CULTURE: 0.91/1 (2013)

The final result of 0.91/1 reflects the many efforts of national authorities to establish targeted policies and mechanisms to promote the culture sector and implement the obligations and priorities found in national legislation, while revealing the select remaining...

Policy Uruguay
Policy and institutional framework for culture: ()

9 POLICY AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR CULTURE: 0.91/1 (2013)

The final result of 0.91/1 reflects the many efforts of national authorities to establish targeted policies and mechanisms to promote the culture sector and implement the obligations and priorities found in national legislation, while revealing the select remaining improvements necessary in the policy framework and administrative system. Uruguay’s results are just above the average result of test phase countries of the CDIS, which is 0.79/1.

Uruguay scored 0.91/1 for the Policy Framework sub-indicator, indicating that many well-defined culture and sectoral policies and strategies have been put in place. One priority seen in national policy is the promotion of access and participation of minorities and other groups with specific needs in cultural life, demonstrated through many policies and programs that target marginalized groups. For example, Ministry of Education and Culture (MEC) Centres for Digital Literacy offer workshops relating to different forms of artistic expression in towns with fewer than 5000 inhabitants. In addition, Grant Funds for Culture have been decentralized to the Department level to help promote local development of the sector, and since 2009, the Fund for the Development of Cultural Infrastructure in the Interior of the Country has aimed to increase access and the quality of cultural centres available to those that are the most isolated and socially marginalized. Many such actions are led by the Cultural Citizenship Unit of the National Directorate of Culture (MEC) and merit consideration when cross-analyzing with the other indicators of this dimension. The main gap in the national cultural policy framework is the lack of integration of culture in national development strategies and plans, a key obstacle to the systematic inclusion of culture in development activities.

Uruguay scored 0.92/1 for the Institutional Framework sub-indicator, which assesses the operationalization of institutional mechanisms and the degree of cultural decentralization. Many positive factors account for such a result. Multiple institutions have been founded for the management and promotion of specific cultural sub-sectors, such as the National Institute of Performing Arts founded in 2010 and the Department of Cinema and National Audiovisuals founded in 2011, which unified National Television, National Broadcasting and the Institute of Cinema and Audiovisuals of Uruguay. Regarding the decentralization of cultural governance, since 2012, Uruguay has a Network of Departmental Directors of culture to promote dialogue and horizontal exchange on culture at the Department level of government. However, no specialized institutions or positions for culture have yet been established at the local/municipal level of public administration. While overall the results for this indicator are very positive and reflect the many formal institutions, policies and mechanisms in place in Uruguay, additional research is necessary to go further and evaluate the effective impact of the national policy and institutional framework for culture and the translation of words into action and results.

 

Infrastructure Uruguay

10 DISTRIBUTION OF CULTURAL INFRASTRUCTURES: 0.53/1 (2013)

Uruguay’s final result is 0.53/1, 1 representing the situation in which selected infrastructure is equally distributed amongst Departments according to the relative size of the population. The score of 0.53/1 thus reflects that across the 19 Departments of Uruguay,...

Infrastructure Uruguay Infrastructure Uruguay
Distribution of cultural infrastructures: ()

10 DISTRIBUTION OF CULTURAL INFRASTRUCTURES: 0.53/1 (2013)

Uruguay’s final result is 0.53/1, 1 representing the situation in which selected infrastructure is equally distributed amongst Departments according to the relative size of the population. The score of 0.53/1 thus reflects that across the 19 Departments of Uruguay, there is an unequal distribution of cultural facilities.

When looking at the figures for the three different categories of infrastructures, Uruguay scores 0.62/1 for Museums, 0.44/1 for Exhibition Venues Dedicated to the Performing Arts and 0.52/1 for Libraries and Media Resource Centers. This suggests that the most equal distribution of access exists for Museums, and that the most unequal distribution for Exhibition Venues. All Departments have access to at least one of each category of facility but the concentration relative to population size greatly varies. For example, while Montevideo benefits from relatively proportionate distribution of cultural infrastructures given its population, the bordering Departments of Canelones and San José are amongst the lowest scoring for all three types of selected infrastructures. Several of these Departments’ most populous cities being within the Montevideo Metropolitan Area, many inhabitants use the capital’s facilities to partake in cultural activities, in part explaining the lack of infrastructure development. Similarly, in most Departments the Libraries and Exhibition Venues available are located in major cities, presenting an obstacle to cultural participation as it requires mobility from more rural areas, and prevents the creation of strong ties between cultural centres and communities. Other Departments that are inadequately furnished with cultural facilities relative to population size include the Rivera Department bordering Brazil, having a total of only 4 Museums (2%), 2 Exhibition Venues (1.6%) and 6 Libraries (1.6%) but 3.2% of the total population.

It is interesting to note that amongst the Departments with the most access to cultural infrastructure are those like Colonia and Maldonado, which are characterized by significant flows of tourists. In Maldonado, Punta del Este is one of the main national tourist attractions and 5 of 12 Exhibition Venues of the entire Department are located in the city despite only 6% of the total population of the Department living in the area. This suggests a relationship between available infrastructures and the cultural consumption habits of a mobile tourist population. While such a correlation contributes to the development of cultural industries and the cultural economy for foreign consumption, increasing the equality of access across all 19 Department could increase opportunities for Uruguayans to take part in cultural activities, promote the development of the cultural and creative industries for domestic consumption and enjoyment, and provide an enabling environment for cultural professionals and businesses to create, produce, promote and disseminate their work. A detailed analysis of cultural participation could assist in assuring appropriate supply of cultural facilities, taking into account the characteristics of cultural consumption of the population and the artistic and cultural offerings available (time availability, ticket prices, dissemination and outreach strategies, etc.). This is a crucial and common challenge among all the countries that have implemented the CDIS, as the average score for this indicator is 0.43/1.

 

Civil Society Uruguay

11 CIVIL SOCIETY PARTICIPATION IN CULTURAL GOVERNANCE: 0.89/1 (2013)

The final result of 0.89/1 indicates that many opportunities exist for dialogue and representation of both cultural professionals and minorities in regards to the formulation and implementation of cultural policies, measures and programmes that concern them. Such...

Civil Society Uruguay
Civil Society participation in cultural Governance: ()

11 CIVIL SOCIETY PARTICIPATION IN CULTURAL GOVERNANCE: 0.89/1 (2013)

The final result of 0.89/1 indicates that many opportunities exist for dialogue and representation of both cultural professionals and minorities in regards to the formulation and implementation of cultural policies, measures and programmes that concern them. Such opportunities for participation in cultural governance exist at the national as well as regional and local levels.

To facilitate the participation of cultural professionals in governance, there are several institutional mechanisms and statutory bodies that provide for participation at the local, regional and national levels. One of the key permanent structures that provides a space for dialogue with cultural professions is the National Assembly of Culture, which through intense participation and exchanges between the State, arts and culture trade unions, NGOs and academics, tries to reach a consensus on the direction and priorities of cultural policy. As for statutory bodies, cultural professionals are included in the deliberation and decision processes of many such bodies regarding the implementation of policies and mechanisms meant to benefit the sector and promote the work and status of creative professionals. For example, cultural professionals assist the Certification Commission for the Status of the Artist and Related Trades in the decision to assign the status of ‘professional artist’ to an individual, and they assist the Board of Assessment and Promotion of Cultural Art Projects (CONAEF) in the selection of projects meant to benefit from the Fiscal Incentives Act.

Though less formalized and ad hoc in nature, limited examples do exist showing the punctual participation of minorities in cultural governance and will hopefully lead to enhanced and more institutionalized integration of minorities in decision-making processes in the future. For example, minorities have been included in a national level consultative process regarding the National Plan Against Racism and Discrimination and they have been included in the roundtables concerning the declaration of Candombe as intangible cultural heritage. Though not uniquely specific to culture, select government structures are already formalizing minority participation in stable decision-making mechanisms, such as the Department of Afro Women of the Ministry of Social Development. Nevertheless, the dissemination and regularity of these mechanisms can still be further developed at all levels of public administration and further analysis of their ability, as well as that of cultural professionals, to effectively influence the formulation and implementation of cultural policies and measures may be necessary.

Social-Participation

Going-Out Uruguay

12 PARTICIPATION IN GOING-OUT CULTURAL ACTIVITIES: 68.8% (2009)

In Uruguay, 68.8% of the population 12 years or older participated at least once in a going-out cultural activity in 2009. Going-out cultural activities include visits to cultural venues, such as cinemas, theatres, concerts, music festivals, galleries, museums, libraries...

Going-Out Uruguay
Participation in going-out cultural activities: ()

12 PARTICIPATION IN GOING-OUT CULTURAL ACTIVITIES: 68.8% (2009)

In Uruguay, 68.8% of the population 12 years or older participated at least once in a going-out cultural activity in 2009. Going-out cultural activities include visits to cultural venues, such as cinemas, theatres, concerts, music festivals, galleries, museums, libraries, historical and archaeological monuments. Such activities require people actively choosing to attend a particular cultural activity, thus providing insight into the degree of cultural vitality and appreciation of culture. They also imply physical places for encounters to occur between audiences and artists, as well as among audiences, and thus insight into the degree of social interaction and connectivity. A result of 68.8% suggests a relatively high degree of participation in going-out activities overall and a steady base for a domestic cultural audience; the average for countries participating in the CDIS is situated at 46.1%.

The results vary indicating that out of the total, 61% of participants in going-out cultural activities were men and 39% women. Similarly, adults 30-60 years of age (52.3%) represented the majority compared to those 16-29 years of age (27.3%) or above 61 years of age (20.3%). There is also a connection between partaking in cultural outings and being members of the middle and elite classes of society, as most participants were from the highest income group (38.3%) and had at least a secondary education (84.7% of participants had a secondary education or higher). Finally, a geographical divide can also be confirmed as 60.1% of all participants were located in Montevideo. To further stimulate participation amongst youth, women and marginalized populations, and to develop targeted policies to increase access to such cultural activities, the above results merit cross-analysis with the indicators of the Education and Governance dimensions, the latter of which reveals that in the case of Montevideo, over 40% of all cultural infrastructures nation-wide are found in the capital region, suggesting that increasing equitable access to facilities may further enhance levels of participation in going-out cultural activities amongst all, boosting social connectivity and the consumption of cultural goods and services across all socio-economic groups.

 

Identity-building Uruguay

13 PARTICIPATION IN IDENTITY-BUILDING CULTURAL ACTIVITIES: 67.3% (2009)     

In 2009, 67.3% of the population 12 years or older participated at least once in an identity-building cultural activity. Participation in identity-building cultural activities includes partaking in amateur cultural practices, popular culture,...

Identity-building Uruguay
Participation in identity-building cultural activities: ()

13 PARTICIPATION IN IDENTITY-BUILDING CULTURAL ACTIVITIES: 67.3% (2009)     

In 2009, 67.3% of the population 12 years or older participated at least once in an identity-building cultural activity. Participation in identity-building cultural activities includes partaking in amateur cultural practices, popular culture, ethnic culture, community practices and youth culture. For the purpose of this indicator, such activities include carnivals, as well as village, regional and national festivals. Identity-building activities are often at the core of social connectivity and the intangible cultural heritage of a society or group. A result of 67.3% already suggests a relatively high degree of participation in identity-building cultural activities as over two-thirds of the population indicated taking part in such events. However, the result for this indicator is likely an underestimation due to the difficulty of obtaining and correlating all the relevant data. This figure does not include participation in identity-building activities such as ceremonies, rituals or community events (e.g., births, marriages, funerals, rites of passage) as no such data is collected at the national level.

Similar to participation in going-out cultural activities, the results vary indicating that out of the total, 60% of participants in identity-building cultural activities were men and 40% women, the majority of participants were adults 30-60 years of age (50.7%), and most participants had at least a secondary education (78.4% of participants had a secondary education or higher). However, unlike going-out cultural activities, less of a divide is recorded between the capital and other regions, and most participants are from middle-income houses (34.6%), not the wealthiest. Overall, Uruguay’s relatively high results for participation in identity-building cultural activities should be considered as a positive factor for social cohesion, and merit consideration when cross-analyzing with the country’s relatively high averages for the other indicators of this dimension regarding tolerance of other cultures and interpersonal trust.

 

Tolerance Uruguay

14 TOLERANCE OF OTHER CULTURES: 92.7% (2006)

In 2006, 92.7% of Uruguayans agreed that they do not find people of a different culture as undesirable neighbours. This indicator provides an assessment of the degree of tolerance and openness to diversity, thus providing insight into the levels of interconnectedness within a given society...

Tolerance Uruguay
Tolerance of other cultures: ()

14 TOLERANCE OF OTHER CULTURES: 92.7% (2006)

In 2006, 92.7% of Uruguayans agreed that they do not find people of a different culture as undesirable neighbours. This indicator provides an assessment of the degree of tolerance and openness to diversity, thus providing insight into the levels of interconnectedness within a given society. It is a composite result of respondents’ replies regarding neighbours falling under 3 categories: people of a different race, immigrants/foreign workers, and people of a different religion.

Since independence in 1830, Uruguay has faced multiple waves of immigration, significant European influences and pro-assimilation policies meant to create a homogeneous nation out of a mixed indigenous and immigrant society through such mechanisms as the adoption of secularism and a singular national language- Spanish. Though as indicated by the Governance Dimension indicators, cultural diversity has yet to be explicitly integrated in the constitution. In the early 2000s Uruguay’s national policies greatly changed as authorities adopted a series of specific laws in favour of multiculturalism, cultural diversity, and the recognition of diversity’s role in the construction of a national identity. Such laws include the Law against Racism, Discrimination, and Xenophobia and the Law on Immigration. In additional, several new holidays, celebrations and cultural groups have been recognized to stimulate this new way of thinking, including the National Day of Candombe, Charrua Indian Nation Day, and Afro-Uruguayan Culture.

The challenge for the country is to reshape the imagination of a homogenous society, incorporating indigenous people, afro Uruguayans, as well as past and future immigrants' demands for recognition and encouraging cultural communities to maintain aspects of their ethnic heritage, as descendants of immigrants make a visible contribution to building the country. Within this context, a result of 92.7% suggests that a cultural system of values is in place, which nurtures diversity, promotes tolerance, and encourages an interest in new or different traditions, thus creating a social environment favorable to development.

 

Interpersonal Trust Uruguay

15 INTERPERSONAL TRUST: 30.9% (2010)

In 2010, 30.9% of the Uruguayan population agreed that most people can be trusted. This indicator assesses the level of trust and sense of solidarity and cooperation in Uruguay, providing insight into its social capital. A result of 30.9% indicates a relatively low level of trust and solidarity,...

Interpersonal Trust Uruguay
Interpersonal trust: ()

15 INTERPERSONAL TRUST: 30.9% (2010)

In 2010, 30.9% of the Uruguayan population agreed that most people can be trusted. This indicator assesses the level of trust and sense of solidarity and cooperation in Uruguay, providing insight into its social capital. A result of 30.9% indicates a relatively low level of trust and solidarity, as only one-third of the population responded favourably. Only minimal variations in the results can be seen across genders and sexes. While 32% of men agreed that most people can be trusted, only 30% of women agreed. Variation across age groups ranges from 31.7% of people aged 15-29 to 30.7% for people aged 26-40 and aged 41-60. These results indicate that while recent public efforts have successfully laid a foundation for tolerance, additional efforts may still be needed to enhance the potential of cultural participation to reinforce feelings of mutual understanding, solidarity and cooperation, and to foster trust amongst the diverse people of Uruguay. While 30.9% indicates ongoing room for improvement, Uruguay’s results are above the average for all countries having participated in the CDIS, which is situated at 19.22%, as well as above the results all countries within the region. Nurturing interpersonal trust is a common obstacle amongst participating countries. In this regard, the challenge facing Uruguay is to continue to develop and implement policies to promote cultural diversity so that the basis of trust is not a homogeneous identity that weakens cultural differences, but to the contrary the recognition and respect of such cultural differences.

 

Freedom of expression Uruguay

16 FREEDOM OF SELF-DETERMINATION: 7.48/10 (2006)

Uruguay’s final result is 7.48/10, 10 representing the situation in which individuals believe that there is ‘a great deal of freedom of choice and control’ and 1 being ‘no freedom of choice and control.’ The score of 7.48/10 indicates that the...

Freedom of expression Uruguay
Freedom of self-determination: ()

16 FREEDOM OF SELF-DETERMINATION: 7.48/10 (2006)

Uruguay’s final result is 7.48/10, 10 representing the situation in which individuals believe that there is ‘a great deal of freedom of choice and control’ and 1 being ‘no freedom of choice and control.’ The score of 7.48/10 indicates that the majority of Uruguayans feel that they have a relatively high degree of control over their lives and are free to live the life they choose, according to their own values and beliefs. By assessing this freedom, this indicator evaluates the sense of empowerment and enablement of individuals for deciding and orienting their development. While the median response for the population is 7.48, variations can be seen according to the age of respondents. The median response was 7.35 for people aged 15-29, 7.52 for peoples aged 30-49 and 7.53 for those aged 50 and above.

These results suggest a rather high level of individual agency in Uruguay overall, above the average results for all countries having implemented the CDIS, which is situated at 6.7/10. This indicates that for the majority of citizens, Uruguay provides the necessary enabling political, economic, social and cultural context for individual well-being and life satisfaction and builds common values, norms and beliefs which succeed in empowering them to live the life they wish.

Montenegro

Governance

No indicators were able to be constructed for the Social Participation dimension in Montenegro.  RECOMMENDATIONS FOR IMPROVING CULTURAL STATISTICS In order to improve the assessment of the connection between culture and social participation in Montenegro, regular statistics and raw data need to be made available. PARTICIPATION...
Social Participation: ()
No indicators were able to be constructed for the Social Participation dimension in Montenegro. 
 
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR IMPROVING CULTURAL STATISTICS
 
In order to improve the assessment of the connection between culture and social participation in Montenegro, regular statistics and raw data need to be made available.
 
PARTICIPATION IN GOING-OUT CULTURAL ACTIVITIES
The core indicator on participation in going-out cultural activities could not be constructed due to a lack of necessary data. The Statistical Office of Montenegro (MONSTAT) follows the cultural vitality of Montenegro by calculating ad hoc data for ticket sales and participation in specific cultural activities. No data is systematically collected on overall participation in going-out cultural activities in Montenegro, as is necessary according to CDIS Methodology.
 
PARTICIPATION IN IDENTITY-BUILDING CULTURAL ACTIVITIES
 
TOLERANCE OF OTHER CULTURES
 
INTERPERSONAL TRUST
 
FREEDOM OF SELF-DETERMINATION
The core indicators on participation in identity-building cultural activities, tolerance of other cultures, interpersonal trust and freedom of self-determination could not be constructed due to a lack of necessary data.
 
There is no formal institution that is engaged in regularly following and monitoring culture and social issues in Montenegro. A first step to improve cultural statistics would be to identify an institution to be tasked with such observations and data collection, or to regularly engage an independent research agency to be responsible for the production and analysis of such data for the monitoring of culture, social progress and development.

Viet Nam

Communication

19 FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION: 16/100 (2012)

The 1992 Constitution of Viet Nam (amended in 2013) and the 1989 Law on Media (amended in 1999), protect the freedom of expression and the freedom of the press.

Viet Nam’s score of 16/100 reflects the efforts still needed by the Vietnamese authorities to guarantee these...

Freedom of expression: ()

19 FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION: 16/100 (2012)

The 1992 Constitution of Viet Nam (amended in 2013) and the 1989 Law on Media (amended in 1999), protect the freedom of expression and the freedom of the press.

Viet Nam’s score of 16/100 reflects the efforts still needed by the Vietnamese authorities to guarantee these freedoms, understood as the building blocks for the development of open and participatory societies as well as key enablers for creativity, innovation, and cultural diversity. This result suggests that the print, broadcast and internet-based media in the country is currently ‘not free’ and that obstacles persist in the establishment of an enabling environment, which is a condition for fostering the free flow of ideas, knowledge, information and content, as well as for building knowledge societies. Key problematic areas include the legal and political environments. For example, while freedom of expression is enshrined in legislation such as the Constitution and the Law on Media, the Criminal Code does not allow the press to criticize authorities (Article 88). Recent decrees have also banned the use of pseudonyms and anonymous sources, and have drawn a clear division between credentialed journalists and bloggers, eliminating the latter from the ‘press.’ In addition, nearly all print media are owned or under the control of Vietnamese authorities. These are all factors that limit freedom of expression in media.
However, an additional subjective indicator reveals that to the contrary, in 2005, 79% of Vietnamese people agreed that they are free to say what they think without fear.

This additional subjective indicator provides complimentary information on the assessment of the freedom of expression by evaluating to what degree individuals feel that they have the right to exercise this freedom. 36.7% strongly agree with this statement, while 42.3% somewhat agree. The latter indicates a certain level of hesitation to speak openly, but as a whole, the majority of Vietnamese feel that they are free to enjoy the freedom of expression, opposing the findings of the core objective indicator.

 

20 ACCESS AND INTERNET USE: 35.07% (2011)

In 2011, 35.07% of the national population used the Internet in Viet Nam. The Vietnamese government has officially embraced digital technology, positioning it as a key driver for economic growth and increased competitivity. Digital technologies’ role for development, innovation and...

Access and Internet use: ()

20 ACCESS AND INTERNET USE: 35.07% (2011)

In 2011, 35.07% of the national population used the Internet in Viet Nam. The Vietnamese government has officially embraced digital technology, positioning it as a key driver for economic growth and increased competitivity. Digital technologies’ role for development, innovation and creation is set to be included in a new National Strategy for the Cultural Economy. The result of the emphasis given by authorities has been a rapid rise in access and Internet use at the national level.

According to the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), 23.9% of the Vietnamese population used the Internet in 2008, rising to 30.7% by 2010. In June 2009, the first 3G licenses were awarded by the Ministry of Information and Communication to 5 operators who committed to invest in infrastructures and a total of 30,000 base transceiver stations. By 2011, the Ministry of Information and Communication recorded 26,784,035 Internet subscribers, a total of 35.07% of the population. This accounts for an increase of over 11% over a period of 3 years. Access to the Internet is on the rise, and new platforms for access, including smartphones, are democratizing technology use for millions of Vietnamese.

Increased access and use of the Internet may assist in the introduction of new types of content creation and social media. These can be positive factors for the growth of the creative economy as the arts and culture are likewise encouraged to take on new forms, encouraging new means of participation in cultural activities.

Education

4 INCLUSIVE EDUCATION: 0.76/1 (2010)

Investment in education is a high level priority in Viet Nam’s Socio-economic Development Strategy (2010-2020), and in recent years the State budget dedicated to education has nearly doubled from 11.6% in 2000 to 20% in 2010. This priority is further concretized in the Education Development...

Inclusive education: ()

4 INCLUSIVE EDUCATION: 0.76/1 (2010)

Investment in education is a high level priority in Viet Nam’s Socio-economic Development Strategy (2010-2020), and in recent years the State budget dedicated to education has nearly doubled from 11.6% in 2000 to 20% in 2010. This priority is further concretized in the Education Development Strategic Plan (2011-2020), which targets revitalizing the education system and inclusive education for marginalized groups, amongst other objectives. Within this context, the result of 0.76/1 reflects the efforts of Vietnamese authorities to guarantee this fundamental cultural right in a complete, fair and inclusive manner. This result shows that the average years of schooling of the target population aged 17 to 22 is 8.3 years. Therefore, though below the targeted average of 10 years of schooling, the majority of Vietnamese citizens can enjoy the right to an education and participate in the construction and transmission of values, attitudes and cultural skills, as well as personal and social empowerment throughout primary and secondary school. However, 8.7% of the target population in Viet Nam is still living in education deprivation, meaning that they have fewer than 4 years of schooling. This 8.7% highlights the persistence of inequality in the enjoyment of this fundamental cultural right, but hides a further geographic divide. While the percentage of the target population living in urban areas and experiencing education deprivation is only 4%, 9.8% of the target population in rural areas has less than four years of schooling. Furthermore, data suggests that as education progresses, there is a significant drop in participation; the net enrolment rate (NER) for lower secondary education is 82.6% while it is only 56.7% for upper secondary education.

These results indicate that for fair and inclusive education, more efforts are needed to improve access to and continuity of education for marginalized youth. Vietnamese authorities are currently working to implement compulsory secondary education nationwide, and further efforts to target socio-economic groups facing the brunt of deprivation are needed to eradicate ongoing inequality.

 

5 MULTILINGUAL EDUCATION: 46.3% (2012)

Viet Nam is a culturally diverse and rich country, with 54 distinct ethnic groups recognized by the government. The rights of each community to practice and transmit their own customs and use their own languages are guaranteed in the 1992 Constitution of Viet Nam (amended in 2013). Education has...

Multilingual Education: ()

5 MULTILINGUAL EDUCATION: 46.3% (2012)

Viet Nam is a culturally diverse and rich country, with 54 distinct ethnic groups recognized by the government. The rights of each community to practice and transmit their own customs and use their own languages are guaranteed in the 1992 Constitution of Viet Nam (amended in 2013). Education has been identified as a key tool to ensure the fundamental cultural rights of all of Viet Nam’s peoples, as well as foster awareness and appreciation of cultural diversity. Multilingual education is a necessary component to encourage understanding between different groups and guarantee the respect of fundamental rights.

According to the national curriculum, 53.7% of the hours to be dedicated to languages in the first two years of secondary school is to be dedicated to the teaching of the official national language - Vietnamese. The remaining 46.3% of the time is to be dedicated to teaching international languages. This indicates significant appreciation for linguistic diversity on a global scale; however, 0% of the required national curriculum is dedicated to local or regional languages, despite the estimated 102 local and regional languages spoken.

Local and regional languages are not required to be taught during the first two years of secondary school (Grades 6-7) and are instead only taught at the primary level. In Viet Nam, the Law on Education (1999) states, “the ethnic minority groups have the right to use their own spoken languages and scripts together with Vietnamese to achieve primary education." The Ministry of Education and Training has developed a primary level syllabus for 8 minority ethnic languages to teach in areas with a high percentage of ethnic people, though such programmes are not to be considered part of the core curriculum but rather additional courses. Expanding opportunities to learn local and regional languages would improve minorities’ education and working opportunities, and would further enhance cross-cultural understanding amongst the people of Viet Nam. Such considerations should be taken into account when cross-analyzing with the results of other dimensions, particularly Social Participation.

 

6 ARTS EDUCATION: 12% (2012)

According to the national curriculum, 12% of the total number of instructional hours is to be dedicated to arts education in the first two years of secondary school. 40% of that time is dedicated to the subject ‘Literature’ and 30% of that time is dedicated to both ‘Music’ and ‘...

Arts Education: ()

6 ARTS EDUCATION: 12% (2012)

According to the national curriculum, 12% of the total number of instructional hours is to be dedicated to arts education in the first two years of secondary school. 40% of that time is dedicated to the subject ‘Literature’ and 30% of that time is dedicated to both ‘Music’ and ‘Arts’ subjects. In addition to arts education’s necessity for nurturing creativity and an interest in culture and cultural professions amongst learners, significant evidence points to the ways arts education and creative education overall helps to lift confidence, improve problem-solving skills, and aid attainment and achievement in other key subjects like science, technology, engineering and mathematics.  In Viet Nam, this figure of 12% indicates Vietnamese authorities already greatly value arts education, having a result that is more than double the average for test phase countries of the CDIS, which is situated at 4.8%.

 

7 PROFESSIONAL TRAINING IN THE CULTURE SECTOR: 1/1 (2012/2013)

Viet Nam’s result of 1/1 reflects complete and comprehensive coverage of professional training opportunities in the culture sector at national public and government-dependent private technical and tertiary education facilities. The result of 1/1 indicates that at...

Professional Training in the culture sector: ()

7 PROFESSIONAL TRAINING IN THE CULTURE SECTOR: 1/1 (2012/2013)

Viet Nam’s result of 1/1 reflects complete and comprehensive coverage of professional training opportunities in the culture sector at national public and government-dependent private technical and tertiary education facilities. The result of 1/1 indicates that at the national level at least one course is offered in all technical and tertiary fields considered by the indicator, suggesting wide-ranging possibilities in cultural fields and a manifest willingness of national authorities to invest in cultural education.

The reach and capacity of training programmes has been significantly extended in recent years. There are now several state-sponsored institutions, which offer cultural courses at both the tertiary and technical levels. Tertiary institutions offering culture programmes include: Ha Noi Culture University, HCMC Culture University, Viet Nam National Academy of Music, Ha Noi University of Industrial Arts, Viet Nam Institute of Culture and Arts Studies, and the Viet Nam Academy of Theater and Cinema. Institutions offering technical training in cultural fields include: Institute for Conservation of Monuments, College of Fine Arts, Institute of Cultural and Arts Studies, and the Ho Chi Minh City College of Theater and Cinema.

Nevertheless, while this indicator reflects complete coverage, improvement remains regarding the distribution of access to these opportunities nation-wide. The above institutions are largely concentrated in select major cities, while a deficit of provision in both technical and tertiary programmes persists outside of these areas. Finally, while select opportunities do exist in the field of cultural management, there continues to be a shortage of cultural management training and entrepreneurial training in the arts and culture sector.

Gender-Equality

17  GENDER EQUALITY OBJECTIVE OUTPUTS: 0.69/1 (2013)
 
Gender equality has been recently positioned as a major national objective of the Vietnamese government, as illustrated by the Law on Gender Equality (2007) and the recently adopted National Strategy on Gender Equality (2011-2015). Within this context, the result of 0.69...

Gender equality objectives outputs: ()

17  GENDER EQUALITY OBJECTIVE OUTPUTS: 0.69/1 (2013)
 
Gender equality has been recently positioned as a major national objective of the Vietnamese government, as illustrated by the Law on Gender Equality (2007) and the recently adopted National Strategy on Gender Equality (2011-2015). Within this context, the result of 0.69/1 reflects a medium degree of public investment and efforts made to elaborate and implement laws, policies and measures intended to support the ability of women and men to enjoy equal opportunities and rights. Though indicative of genuine efforts, Viet Nam’s result suggests that the governments’ actions are similar to those of other countries as the average result for test phase countries of the CDIS is situated at 0.64/1.

There are many basic preconditions for gender equality in place in Viet Nam. For example, while women account for nearly two-thirds of the world’s illiterate, 91.4% of Vietnamese women are literate compared to 95.8% of Vietnamese men; and a comparison of the average number of years of education for men and women aged 25 years and above reveals little divergence. However, a detailed analysis of the four areas covered by the indicator reveals persisting gaps where additional investment is needed to improve gender equality outputs. For example, the Viet Nam Housing and Living Standard Survey indicates that the remaining challenges to erase disparities in education between genders is limited to certain minority groups, such as the Hmong/Dao ethnic group, where females continue to lag behind males. Progress still needs to be made regarding the outcomes of political participation where a significant imbalance persists. In 2012, Vietnamese women represented only 24% of parliamentarians. Though this is amongst the highest rates of female political participation in the Asia Pacific region, much progress can still be achieved. Moreover, a closer look at women’s political participation reveals that their participation in the Councils of the National Assembly is predominately related to culture, education, youth, social affairs and the environment; but women remain significantly underrepresented in fields traditionally reserved for males such as economics, defense, security, finance and budgeting. Additionally, the lack of targeted quota systems to further encourage the advancement of female talent in political offices largely accounts for the gap documented for targeted gender equity legislation. Finally, although the gap in labour force participation is less apparent, some key obstacles for equality are still to be noted. Though women play an active role in the Vietnamese economy as indicated by a 68% female labour participation rate, in contrast, 78% of men are either employed or actively searching for work. Inequality in the workplace also persists regarding differential wages and access to managerial and executive positions. There are also significant barriers to accessing employment and civic roles in rural areas, contributing factors include societal pressure to play a domestic role or participate in unskilled agricultural activities.

In conclusion, even though Viet Nam has made gender equality a national priority and progress has been made, much remains to be achieved. Policies require people, and a further look at the subjective indicator below suggests a discord between recent forward-looking public actions like the National Strategy on Gender Equality (2011-2015) and deep-set cultural values. Resistance due to embedded cultural values can undermine the feasibility of objectives and the sustainability of performance outcomes.

 

18 PERCEPTION OF GENDER EQUALITY: 53.4% (2006)

In 2006, 53.4% of Vietnamese positively perceived gender as a factor for development, according to their responses to questions regarding three key domains that parallel the objective indicator for this dimension - employment, political participation and education. The final result is a...

Perception of gender equality: ()

18 PERCEPTION OF GENDER EQUALITY: 53.4% (2006)

In 2006, 53.4% of Vietnamese positively perceived gender as a factor for development, according to their responses to questions regarding three key domains that parallel the objective indicator for this dimension - employment, political participation and education. The final result is a composite indicator, which suggests that nearly half of the population of Viet Nam continue to view gender as irrelevant or a negative factor for development. Individuals’ perceptions on gender equality are strongly influenced by cultural practices and norms, thus Viet Nam’s result suggests that gender-biased social and cultural norms remain dominant.

However, the perception of gender equality varied according to the domain of the question asked. When asked if “University is more important for a boy than for a girl,” 79.3% of the population responded no, suggesting that education is a domain in which gender equality is more likely to be perceived as positive for development. When asked if “Men make better political leaders than woman,” only 43.3% of respondents did not agree. Both this low appreciation for gender equality in political participation and the higher esteem for women’s education, correlate with the gaps in objective outputs observed. Surprisingly, the most unfavourable perceptions were recorded in regards to employment. When asked if “When jobs are scarce, men should have more right to a job than women,” only 37.7% of respondents did not agree. This means that 62.3% of the population agrees that men have priority in regards to employment, which is surprisingly high in comparison to the gap recorded for labour force participation rates between males and females. Nevertheless, this figure is consistent with the ongoing barriers to equality of wages and equal access to managerial and executive careers.

>> This cross-analysis of the subjective and objective indicators reveals a gap between recent forward-looking national legislation for gender equality and the population’s attitudes and values in this area. These results suggest a need for greater advocacy efforts targeting attitudes. Since cultural values and attitudes strongly shape perceptions towards gender equality, it is critical to prove that gender equality can complement and be compatible with cultural values and attitudes, and be an influential factor in the retransmission of cultural values for building inclusive and egalitarian societies, and for the respect of human rights.

Governance

8 STANDARD-SETTING FRAMEWORK FOR CULTURE: 0.81/1 (2013)

Viet Nam’s result of 0.81/1 indicates that there is already a reasonable standard-setting framework in place and that the country has made many efforts to ratify key international legal instruments affecting cultural development, cultural rights and cultural diversity, as...

Standard-setting framework for culture: ()

8 STANDARD-SETTING FRAMEWORK FOR CULTURE: 0.81/1 (2013)

Viet Nam’s result of 0.81/1 indicates that there is already a reasonable standard-setting framework in place and that the country has made many efforts to ratify key international legal instruments affecting cultural development, cultural rights and cultural diversity, as well as to establish a national framework to recognize and implement these obligations.

Viet Nam scored 0.87/1 at the international level, which demonstrates Viet Nam’s many achievements. Viet Nam has ratified several important conventions such as the 1972 Convention concerning the Protection of World Cultural and Natural Heritage, the 2003 Convention for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage, the 2005 Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions, and the World Trade Organization Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights. However, Viet Nam has yet to ratify select key conventions and international instruments regarding the protection of cultural assets and intellectual property, such as the UNIDROIT Convention on Stolen or Illegally Exported Cultural Objects, the Universal Copyright Convention and the WIPO Copyright Treaty.

At the national level, a score of 0.78/1 indicates that many national efforts have been made to implement international obligations that Viet Nam has agreed to at the country level. However, room for improvement still remains as several key items continue to be missing from the national legislation and regulatory framework. For example, no ‘framework law’ for culture exists though several specific laws are in place; and although there are sectoral laws on heritage, books and publishing, and cinema, there continue to be no sectoral laws on music, television or radio. In lieu of a framework law, Viet Nam has adopted the 1998 Resolution of the 5th Central Committee, which regards building and developing a progressive Vietnamese culture. While significant legislation, this resolution focuses on traditional national identity and does not address the dynamism of culture and the possibility of change. Other key gaps include a lack of regulation dealing with the tax status of culture, such as tax exemptions and incentives designed to encourage investment in the culture sector. Such gaps illustrate deficiencies in the normative system for supporting the emergence of viable domestic cultural industries.

 

9 POLICY AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR CULTURE: 1/1 (2013)

The final result of 1/1 reflects that national authorities have taken great efforts to create a comprehensive policy and institutional framework to promote the culture sector as part of development, by establishing targeted policies and mechanisms and by having an adequate...

Policy and institutional framework for culture: ()

9 POLICY AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR CULTURE: 1/1 (2013)

The final result of 1/1 reflects that national authorities have taken great efforts to create a comprehensive policy and institutional framework to promote the culture sector as part of development, by establishing targeted policies and mechanisms and by having an adequate political and administrative system to implement the legal instruments seen above.  

Overall, Viet Nam has an extensive and well-structured cultural policy and institutional framework for the protection and promotion of culture, cultural rights and cultural diversity. At the national level, the Ministry of Culture, Sport and Tourism (MoCST) drives policy, with strategies for culture as well as individual cultural subsectors. In addition, a strategy for the cultural and creative industries is currently under development in Viet Nam, going beyond the components considered for the construction of this CDIS indicator.

However, in spite of this perfect score, enhancement of the framework could still be achieved. In regards to the institutional framework, though key culture institutions exist and responsibilities are decentralized, simplification of the structure of cultural governance could benefit the sector as many sub-departments can make institutions difficult to approach. Concerning the policy framework, although culture has already been included in national development plans and strategy papers, the co-ownership of culture strategies with other ministries would assist in further positioning culture as central to the achievement of development objectives such as inclusive education, innovation and economic growth, social cohesion and gender equality.

 

10 DISTRIBUTION OF CULTURAL INFRASTRUCTURES: 0.66/1 (2013)

Viet Nam’s final result is 0.66/1, 1 representing the situation in which selected infrastructure is equally distributed amongst regions according to the relative size of the population. The score of 0.66 thus reflects that there are many cultural facilities available...

Distribution of cultural infrastructures: ()

10 DISTRIBUTION OF CULTURAL INFRASTRUCTURES: 0.66/1 (2013)

Viet Nam’s final result is 0.66/1, 1 representing the situation in which selected infrastructure is equally distributed amongst regions according to the relative size of the population. The score of 0.66 thus reflects that there are many cultural facilities available across all 6 regions of Viet Nam, but that some inequality persists regarding access to Museums, Exhibition Venues Dedicated to the Performing Arts, and Libraries and Media Resource Centers.

When looking at the figures for the three different categories of infrastructures, Viet Nam scores 0.75/1 for Museums, 0.52/1 for Exhibition Venues and 0.73/1 for Libraries. This suggests that the most equal distribution of access exists for Museums and Libraries, and that the most unequal distribution exists for Exhibition Venues. Only Exhibition Venues with 100 seats or more are taken into consideration for the construction of this indicator. The Central Highlands region has no such facilities. Similarly, while the Mekong River region has 20% of the population, only 5% of Exhibition Venues are located in the area. In contrast, the Red River region is well covered regarding such venues, representing 23% of the population but having 36% of all such facilities. Generally speaking, in most instances cultural infrastructures are near to fairly distributed, though a greater cluster can be found in the Red River Delta and North and South Central regions; and rural areas have more facilities than urban environments in proportion to the population size. Increasing equality of access to cultural infrastructure could increase the people of Viet Nam’s opportunities to take part in cultural and creative activities in order to benefit the country both economically, through the production and consumption of cultural goods and services; and socially, through learning and developing an appreciation for the diverse cultures of Viet Nam. This is a crucial and common challenge among all the countries that have implemented the CDIS until now as the average score for this indicator is only 0.43/1.

In addition to equitable distribution, the National Strategy for Cultural Development (2010-2020) suggests evaluating the quality of current infrastructures, claiming that such facilities as museums are generally outdated, featuring old-fashioned and obsolete equipment for both display and preservation purposes. Furthermore, consideration may be given to ensuring that future development of infrastructures is demand-driven and inclusive of shifts in cultural practice. The indicators of the Social Participation dimension regarding participation in going-out and identity-building cultural activities could facilitate such development strategies.

 

11 CIVIL SOCIETY PARTICIPATION IN CULTURAL GOVERNANCE: 0.95/1 (2013)

The final result of 0.95/1 indicates that comprehensive opportunities exist for dialogue and representation of both cultural professionals and minorities in regards to the formulation and implementation of cultural policies, measures and programmes that concern them...

Civil Society participation in cultural Governance: ()

11 CIVIL SOCIETY PARTICIPATION IN CULTURAL GOVERNANCE: 0.95/1 (2013)

The final result of 0.95/1 indicates that comprehensive opportunities exist for dialogue and representation of both cultural professionals and minorities in regards to the formulation and implementation of cultural policies, measures and programmes that concern them. Such opportunities for participation in cultural governance exist at the national as well as regional and local levels.

Regarding the participation of minorities, the Committee for Ethnic Minority Affairs (CEMA) is a ministerial-level agency responsible for supporting ethnic minority populations. CEMA issues many of its own policies but also coordinates with other ministries regarding all minority issues. More specific to culture, the Department of Ethnic Minority Culture (DEMC) under the Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism (MoCST) is directly responsible for cultural issues regarding ethnic minorities, and the Vietnamese Institute of Culture and Arts Studies (VICAS) is also consulted by the MoCST to inform strategy regarding ethnic cultural issues based on their research. Both CEMA and DEMC have extensive branches at the local level, although the mechanism for the consultative process has not been formally put in place. Ethnic minorities are also represented at the National Assembly during decision-making on legislation though their input is non-binding.

To facilitate the participation of cultural professionals in governance, there are several institutional mechanisms and organic structures that operate at both the national and regional levels such as the Writer’s Association, the Musician’s Association and active social networks for all art mediums. Such associations are sponsored by the government and meet annually. Regulations dictate that as for minorities, the input of such actors is consultative but it is unclear as to what degree of influence they have on policy-making. Additional transparency of the consultative process is needed, and to enhance the local component of such mechanisms, an increase in strong community-based cultural organisations would assist in maintaing a firm attachment to the culture sector.

Social-Participation

12 PARTICIPATION IN GOING-OUT CULTURAL ACTIVITIES (ALTERNATIVE INDICATORS)

In 2011, 8.5% of the people of Viet Nam reported having visited a museum in the last 12 months. This result indicates that Viet Nam is not a country where large numbers of the population visit cultural venues and institutions. This assessment is reinforced by...

Participation in going-out cultural activities: ()

12 PARTICIPATION IN GOING-OUT CULTURAL ACTIVITIES (ALTERNATIVE INDICATORS)

In 2011, 8.5% of the people of Viet Nam reported having visited a museum in the last 12 months. This result indicates that Viet Nam is not a country where large numbers of the population visit cultural venues and institutions. This assessment is reinforced by the reported 0.08% of the population that attended the cinema during the same 12 months. Partaking in activities at cultural venues and institutions is not a practiced cultural tradition as it is in other parts of the world. However, this is not to say that the Vietnamese do not actively participate in culture. There is a significant tradition of partaking in festivals, performing arts and music, with informal and often incidental participation common across the country. However, no data has been systematically collected to reflect this type participation at the national level.

Nevertheless, these results provide significant information in regards to participation practices in going-out cultural activities. The result of 8.5% represents a solid, if small, cultural participation base for Viet Nam. A higher participation rate for museums may be related to its relevance to national priorities such as cultural education activities, festivals, and minority ethnic expression. Further cross-analysis with the Governance dimension also reveals that of the three select categories of cultural infrastructures, museums are the most equally distributed. On the contrary, the provision of cinemas is rather limited and restricted to urban centers. Viewing films is instead often done in the home by watching both legal and pirated DVDs, as well as by viewing films on the increasing number of cable TV channels. Moreover, such low figures may reflect public indifference to cultural institutions in part attributed to the poor quality of services offered, as the National Strategy for Cultural Development (2010-2020) suggests. Evidence derived from the number of visits to the Viet Nam Museum of Ethnology and Women’s Museum in Ha Noi or Museum of War Remnants in Ho Chi Minh City indicates that the practice of visiting cultural institutions changes when continuous efforts are made to update obsolete facilities, improve collections and displays, and organize interactive exhibits and activities that target a broader audience. Thus, increasing the quality of cultural infrastructures may have a positive impact on cultural participation and the consumption of cultural goods and services.

 

14 TOLERANCE OF OTHER CULTURES: 57.13% (2006)

In 2006, 57.13% of the people of Viet Nam agreed that they do not find people of a different culture as undesirable neighbours. This indicator provides an assessment of the degree of tolerance and openness to diversity, thus providing insight into the levels of interconnectedness within a...

Tolerance of other cultures: ()

14 TOLERANCE OF OTHER CULTURES: 57.13% (2006)

In 2006, 57.13% of the people of Viet Nam agreed that they do not find people of a different culture as undesirable neighbours. This indicator provides an assessment of the degree of tolerance and openness to diversity, thus providing insight into the levels of interconnectedness within a given society. It is a composite result of respondents’ replies regarding neighbours falling under 3 categories: people of a different race, immigrants/foreign workers, and people of a different religion.

A result of 57.13% indicates that the values, attitudes and convictions of slightly more than half of Vietnamese favor the acceptance of other cultures; inversely, 42.87% of the population show signs of intolerance towards diversity. Such figures suggest a low level of tolerance overall as the average final result of the countries having implemented the CDIS is situated at 81.97%. Slight variations in the results appear across age groups. The lowest level of tolerance was recorded for respondents between the ages 15-29—54.73%, while respondents ages 30-49 and 50 and above responded 57.63% and 59.13% respectively.

These results could be interpreted as reflecting a cultural context and system of values that does not thrive on or promote difference and diversity, or encouragement in an interest for new or different traditions or beliefs, factors that contribute to a favourable social environment for development. Cross-analyzed with the result of the Education dimension, these results highlight the importance for continuing opportunities in multilingual, art and culture education in schools, which may assist in fostering greater appreciation and understanding of cultural diversity.

 

15 INTERPERSONAL TRUST: 52.1% (2006)

In 2006, 52.1% of Vietnamese agreed that most people can be trusted. This indicator assesses the level of trust and sense of solidarity and cooperation in Viet Nam, providing further insight into its social capital. A result of 52.1% indicates a relatively high level of trust and solidarity as the...

Interpersonal trust: ()

15 INTERPERSONAL TRUST: 52.1% (2006)

In 2006, 52.1% of Vietnamese agreed that most people can be trusted. This indicator assesses the level of trust and sense of solidarity and cooperation in Viet Nam, providing further insight into its social capital. A result of 52.1% indicates a relatively high level of trust and solidarity as the average of the countries having implemented the CDIS is situated at 19.2%. Though nearly half of the population shows signs of trust, there are variations across age groups. Only 47.9% of respondents ages 15-29 agree that most people can be trusted compared to 50.6 % of those ages 30-49, and 59.2% of those 50 and above. There is a difference of approximately 11% between the youngest and oldest respondents, suggesting an increasing trend with age.

While Viet Nam’s result is relatively high on average, significant room for improvement in Viet Nam still remains as a large minority, 47.9%, of the population does not agree that most people can be trusted. Cross-analysis with the other indicators of this dimension illustrates the distinctive approach to community and identity in Viet Nam. There is a strong emphasis on the family and local community amongst the Vietnamese, but a more guarded approach to those that are unfamiliar. A challenge going forward in the rapidly changing environment of modern Viet Nam will be to ensure that local and familial trust persists but not at the expense of solidarity amongst a wider society, including minorities and foreign nationals who contribute to a rich fabric of diversity and Viet Nam’s cultural assets and resources. Membership in social, cultural or political organizations can be a channel for fostering a sense of community and interconnectedness in society, but the majority of Vietnamese do not take part in such organizations. An additional possible means to reduce stigmatization and encourage mutual trust and understanding in Viet Nam could be the growth of civil society and NGOs, which work to enhance community cohesion and build confidence.

 

16  FREEDOM OF SELF-DETERMINATION: 6.7/10 (2006)

Viet Nam’s final result is 6.7/10, 10 representing the situation in which individuals believe that there is ‘a great deal of freedom of choice and control’ and 1 being ‘no freedom of choice and control.’ The score of 6.7/10 indicates that two thirds...

Freedom of self-determination: ()

16  FREEDOM OF SELF-DETERMINATION: 6.7/10 (2006)

Viet Nam’s final result is 6.7/10, 10 representing the situation in which individuals believe that there is ‘a great deal of freedom of choice and control’ and 1 being ‘no freedom of choice and control.’ The score of 6.7/10 indicates that two thirds of Vietnamese feel that they have control over their lives and are free to live the life they choose, according to their own values and beliefs. By assessing this freedom, this indicator evaluates the sense of empowerment and enablement of individuals for deciding and orienting their development.

While the median response for the population is 6.7, variations can be seen according to sex and age. The median response was 6.95 for men and 6.38 for women, and while respondents ages 50 and over showed a lower level of self-determination with a median result of 6.39, the younger population ages 15-49 showed that they were more confident in their capacity to express their identity and orientate their development, with a median result of 6.8.

These results suggest a level of individual agency in Viet Nam in line with the average results for all countries having implemented the CDIS, which is also situated at 6.7/10. This indicates that for the majority of citizens, Viet Nam provides the necessary enabling political, economic, social and cultural context for individual well-being and life satisfaction and builds common values, norms and beliefs which succeed in empowering them to live the life they wish. Contributing factors that may continue to serve as barriers to a sense of self-determination amongst the remaining third of the population include such issues as censorship and imbalances in employment opportunities between sexes as illustrated by the Communication and Gender Equality indicators.

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Economy

1 CONTRIBUTION OF CULTURAL ACTIVITIES TO GDP: 5.72% (2011) In 2011, cultural activities contributed to 5.72% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in Bosnia and Herzegovina, which indicates that culture is responsible for an important part of national production, and that it helps generate income and sustain the livelihoods...
Contribution of cultural activities to GDP: ()
1 CONTRIBUTION OF CULTURAL ACTIVITIES TO GDP: 5.72% (2011)
 
In 2011, cultural activities contributed to 5.72% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in Bosnia and Herzegovina, which indicates that culture is responsible for an important part of national production, and that it helps generate income and sustain the livelihoods of its citizens. 32% of this contribution can be attributed to central cultural activities and 68% can be attributed to equipment/supporting activities. 
 
While already indicating a vibrant sector, culture’s contribution to GDP is underestimated by this indicator as it only takes into consideration private and formal cultural activities and excludes the indirect and induced impacts of the culture sector. Nevertheless, this indicator offers valuable new information on the profits generated by the culture sector. Although the largest contribution (64%) to GDP is made by wired and wireless telecommunications activities, falling under the category of equipment/supporting activities, 1.83% of GDP can be attributed to central cultural activities alone. The central activities that contributed the most to Bosnia and Herzegovina’s GDP include engineering, television programming and broadcasting activities, architectural activities, advertising, and the publishing of newspapers. Given the weakened State economy in the post-war context, the strength of the sector’s impact on GDP is remarkable.
 
The Strategy for Cultural Policy of Bosnia and Herzegovina (2008) states, “In the post-war period in our country, with a large number of industrial potential destroyed, it is the cultural industries that can have a significant impact on overall development. It is a field of activity which can provide many jobs and achieve social profit,” and identifies culture and the cultural industries as an “area of investment and personal development.” However, no concrete measures have yet been taken to ensure the prioritization of culture for economic development or to permit regularly tracing the trade flows of cultural products and services in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Regularly collected data could increase the visibility of the sector’s significance as well as assist in monitoring the defined objectives outlined in policies. 

 

2 CULTURAL EMPLOYMENT: 4.7% (2011) In 2011, 4.7% of the employed population in Bosnia and Herzegovina worked in cultural establishments(28,983 people). 65% of these individuals held occupations in central cultural activities, while 35% held occupations in equipment/supporting activities.  Though this result already emphasizes...
Cultural Employment: ()
2 CULTURAL EMPLOYMENT: 4.7% (2011)
 
In 2011, 4.7% of the employed population in Bosnia and Herzegovina worked in cultural establishments(28,983 people). 65% of these individuals held occupations in central cultural activities, while 35% held occupations in equipment/supporting activities. 
 
Though this result already emphasizes culture’s important role as an employer in the country, the global contribution of the culture sector to employment is underestimated by this indicator due to the difficulty of obtaining and correlating all the relevant data. This figure does not cover cultural occupations performed in non-cultural establishments or induced occupations with a strong link to culture. 
 
When cross-analyzing this indicator with the results for the Contribution of Cultural Activities to GDP, it is noted that the same sub-sectors with the highest added value also employ the largest number of people. Paradoxically, the ratio of the contribution of central to equipment/supporting activities is reversed:  32:68 for the Contribution of Cultural Activities to GDP versus 65:35 for Cultural Employment. 
 
Cultural employment in Bosnia and Herzegovina is not as strong as in the pre-war period. As a result of the destruction in the 1990s, there was a large migration of the population, destruction of cultural resources, as well as the outflow of skilled staff. Nevertheless, the result of 4.7%shows culture’s steadfast role as a significant employer, especially for a creative workforce. In April 2013, the Labour and Employment Agency of Bosnia and Herzegovina estimated that 648,656 individuals had paid employment while 549,567 were unemployed. Given this strained economic situation, the culture sector’s steady source of employment is all the more significant. To further increase employment, the Strategy for Cultural Policy of Bosnia and Herzegovina (2008) suggests the creation of prerequisites and standards as part of appropriate strategies for job creation in the culture sector.

 

3 HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURES ON CULTURE: 2.43% (2007) In Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2.43% of average monthly household expenditures were devoted to cultural goods and services in the year 2007 (37.41 BAM or 19.13 EUR). 77% was spent on central cultural goods and services, and 23% on equipment/supporting goods and services. The...
Household expenditures on culture: ()
3 HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURES ON CULTURE: 2.43% (2007)
 
In Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2.43% of average monthly household expenditures were devoted to cultural goods and services in the year 2007 (37.41 BAM or 19.13 EUR). 77% was spent on central cultural goods and services, and 23% on equipment/supporting goods and services. The consumption of books was responsible for the largest share of central goods and services consumed, and the repair of audio-visual, photographic and information processing equipment was responsible for the largest share of equipment/supporting goods and services.
 
This result suggests a significant demand for cultural goods, though significant variations in the consumption of cultural goods and services can be noted across the different entities of Bosnia and Herzegovina. While residents of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina spent 42.04 BAM on cultural goods and services, the Republika Srpska and Brčko District spent 30.09 BAM and 22.74 BAM respectively. Cross-analyzing these results with the indicators of the Governance dimension suggests that the notably lower levels of consumption of the residents of the Brčko District may in part be contributed to a lack of cultural infrastructures. 
 
Though already significant, this final result of 2.43% is a sub-estimation of the total actual consumption of households. It does not account for the value of cultural goods and services acquired by households and provided by non-profit institutions at prices that are not economically significant (e.g. in-kind transfers). For example, it does not include museum and public library services and free public cultural events. 
 
>> While the Economy indicators suggest that there is a non-negligible demand for the consumption of cultural goods, services and activities, they also indicate that this result reflecting the demand side of the domestic market is significantly less than the final results that measure the production side (GDP and employment). Combined, this may in part reflect consumption at insignificant prices, or alternatively it may suggest domestic production does not target domestic consumption of cultural goods and services, instead targeting a foreign audience. More research regarding cultural participation practices is necessary to understand more about the potential of the domestic market.

CDIS Methodology was developed thanks to the financial support of
Government of Spain

Contact us

UNESCO

Section for the Diversity of Cultural Expressions (CLT/CRE/DCE)

7 place Fontenoy, 75352 Paris 07 SP - France

email: cdis@unesco.org