Explore Digest

Ghana

Communication

20 ACCESS AND INTERNET USE: 14.1% (2011)

In 2011, only 14.1% of the national population used the Internet in Ghana. When compared to the regional average for all of Sub-Saharan Africa (48 countries), 12.56%, Ghana’s results are slightly above this regional average. Promoting the use of ICTs in all sectors is an objective of the...

Access and Internet use: ()

20 ACCESS AND INTERNET USE: 14.1% (2011)

In 2011, only 14.1% of the national population used the Internet in Ghana. When compared to the regional average for all of Sub-Saharan Africa (48 countries), 12.56%, Ghana’s results are slightly above this regional average. Promoting the use of ICTs in all sectors is an objective of the Ghana Shared Growth and Development Agenda (2010–2013). In 2008, only 4.3% of the population used the Internet, indicating a substantial increase in just 3 years time.

Digital technologies, in particular the Internet, play a key role in boosting the economy and encouraging new forms of access, creation, production, and the dissemination of ideas, information and cultural content. Though growing, Ghana’s result remains rather low and may reflect the need to increase investments in the development of infrastructures, policies and measures that facilitate the use of new technologies in order to further boost the growth of access and use of ICTs. The country may need to address issues such as pricing, bandwidth, skills, public facilities, content and applications targeting low-end users in order to bring more people online.

 

19 FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION: 72/100 (2012)

The freedom of expression is firmly anchored in the Constitution of the Republic of Ghana, which has an entire chapter dedicated to the independence and freedom of the media (Chapter XII).

Ghana’s score of 72/100 indicates that their print, broadcast, and internet-based media...

Freedom of expression: ()

19 FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION: 72/100 (2012)

The freedom of expression is firmly anchored in the Constitution of the Republic of Ghana, which has an entire chapter dedicated to the independence and freedom of the media (Chapter XII).

Ghana’s score of 72/100 indicates that their print, broadcast, and internet-based media is currently ‘free’, falling just above the benchmark of ‘free’ media. This score illustrates the efforts made to support an enabling environment in Ghana for free media to operate and in which freedom of expression is respected and promoted. Such an environment is a condition for fostering the free flow of ideas, knowledge, information and content, for building knowledge societies, and enhancing creativity, innovation and cultural diversity.

In addition to the rights and freedoms secured in the Constitution, other landmark achievements undertaken by the civil society have also contributed to the advancement of media freedoms. For example, the work of advocacy groups like Media Foundation for West Africa have helped to engender an enabling environment for the flourishing of the freedom of speech and a pluralist media regime.

An additional subjective indicator similarly reveals that a majority of 78% of Ghanaians agreed that they are free to say what they think (79% of men and 77% of women), thus reinforcing the assessment that Ghanaians enjoy the freedom of expression.

 

21 DIVERSITY OF FICTIONAL CONTENT ON PUBLIC TELEVISION: 24.7% (2013)

In Ghana, approximately 24.7% of the broadcasting time for television fiction programmes on public free-to-air television is dedicated to domestic fiction programmes.  During the observed period, 87% of all fictional content was aired in the national language-...

Diversity of fictional content on public television: ()

21 DIVERSITY OF FICTIONAL CONTENT ON PUBLIC TELEVISION: 24.7% (2013)

In Ghana, approximately 24.7% of the broadcasting time for television fiction programmes on public free-to-air television is dedicated to domestic fiction programmes.  During the observed period, 87% of all fictional content was aired in the national language- English; no programmes were aired in any of the 11 government supported local or regional languages.

In contrast, the 2004 Cultural Policy aims for 70% of programmes on national television to be of Ghanaian origin and that “television shall be used to project Ghanaian arts, culture and value systems; enhance national consciousness and self-reliance by making its programme content from indigenous resources, [and] making its programme content relevant to Ghanaian realities, history and aspirations” (Chapter VII). Public broadcasting has major implications for the development of the domestic audio-visual industry, as well as for the flourishing of local cultural expressions and creative products.

Results that do not meet the nationally defined objectives may reflect that in spite of the aspirations of the culture sector, low levels of public support for the dissemination of domestic content (including co-productions) produced by local creators and cultural industries may persist. Cross-analysis with the indicators of the Governance, Education and Economy dimensions reveal that though sectoral laws for film and television are in place, there are only limited opportunities to conduct studies in the field of film and image, as well as limited formal employment. Enhancing the effective implementation of existing policies could further facilitate the sector by increasing education opportunities, encouraging co-productions and increasing levels of public support to stimulate local production and the distribution of creative content.

Gender-Equality

18 PERCEPTION OF GENDER EQUALITY: 45.7% (2007)

In 2007, 45.7% of Ghanaians positively perceived gender as a factor for development, according to their responses to questions regarding three key domains that parallel the objective indicator for this dimension- employment, political participation and education. The final result is a...

Perception of gender equality: ()

18 PERCEPTION OF GENDER EQUALITY: 45.7% (2007)

In 2007, 45.7% of Ghanaians positively perceived gender as a factor for development, according to their responses to questions regarding three key domains that parallel the objective indicator for this dimension- employment, political participation and education. The final result is a composite indicator, which suggests that slightly more than half of the population of Ghana continue to view gender as irrelevant or a negative factor for development. Individuals’ perceptions on gender equality are strongly influenced by cultural practices and norms, thus Ghana’s result suggests that gender-biased social and cultural norms remain dominant.

However, the perception of gender equality greatly varied according to the domain of the question asked. When asked if “When jobs are scarce, men should have more right to a job than women,” only 37.4% of respondents did not agree. This means that 62.6% of the population agrees that men have priority in regards to employment. This figure is surprisingly high in comparison to the marginal gap recorded for labour force participation rates between males and females. Unsurprisingly, the most unfavourable perceptions were recorded in regards to political participation. When asked if “Men make better political leaders than women,” only 21.7% of the population responded no. Thus, nearly four-fifths of the population agrees that men are better political leaders. The most favourable perceptions were recorded regarding education. When asked if “University is more important for a boy than for a girl,” 78.1% of respondents did not agree, suggesting that education is a domain in which gender equality is likely to be perceived as a positive factor for development. While the relatively high figure regarding the poor perception of women’s role in political participation correlates with the objective outputs observed, the latter figure on education is inconsistent with the still significant gap regarding men and women’s education.

>> This cross-analysis of the subjective and objective indicators reveals low results overall, both regarding objective outputs and perceptions, as well as inconsistencies in regards to the population’s relatively positive attitudes and values concerning education and the ongoing gaps in actual years of education for men and women. These results suggest a need for both greater advocacy efforts targeting attitudes, as well as improved policies and mechanisms to proactively address key issues such as political participation and education. Since cultural values and attitudes strongly shape perceptions towards gender equality, it is critical to prove that gender equality can compliment and be compatible with cultural values and attitudes, and be an influential factor in the retransmission of cultural values for building inclusive and egalitarian societies, and for the respect of human rights.

Heritage

22 HERITAGE SUSTAINABILITY: 0.53/1 (2013)

Article 39.4 of the 1992 Constitution of the Republic of Ghana declares, “the State shall endeavour to preserve and protect places of historical interest and artifacts.” The 2004 Cultural Policy goes further to proclaim, “through State and private initiative, Ghana shall...

Heritage sustainability: ()

22 HERITAGE SUSTAINABILITY: 0.53/1 (2013)

Article 39.4 of the 1992 Constitution of the Republic of Ghana declares, “the State shall endeavour to preserve and protect places of historical interest and artifacts.” The 2004 Cultural Policy goes further to proclaim, “through State and private initiative, Ghana shall develop its heritage and cultural assets and promote their use and appreciation.” Within this context, Ghana’s result of 0.53/1 is an intermediate result regarding the establishment of a multidimensional framework for the protection, safeguarding and promotion of heritage sustainability. The degree of commitment and action taken by Ghanaian authorities is mixed and varies according to the component of the framework. While many public efforts have been dedicated to raising-awareness and creating a national registry for tangible heritage, persisting gaps call for additional actions to improve the framework regarding the updating of registries, the inventorying of elements of intangible heritage, mechanisms for community involvement, and stimulating support amongst the private sector.

Ghana scored 0.26/1 for registration and inscriptions, indicating that while efforts have resulted in national and international registrations of Ghanaian sites of tangible heritage and protected cultural property, increased focus should be placed on updating national registries and expanding recognition to intangible cultural heritage. While Ghana has a national registry for tangible heritage and an inventory of protected cultural property, no database of stolen cultural objects or inventory of intangible heritage yet exists, and existing registries have not been updated since 1999.

Ghana scored 0.59/1 for the protection, safeguarding and management of heritage, indicating that there are several policies and measures in place to prevent illicit-trafficking, regulate archeological excavations and prepare for disaster management, but that no recent concrete policies or measures have been adopted for protecting tangible or intangible heritage, or to involve communities in the processes of identification, registration or inventorying.  Though actions taken to prevent illicit-trafficking, such as the delivery of certificates for export, are to be applauded as Ghana has yet to ratify the 1970 UNESCO Convention or the 1995 UNIDROIT Convention, there continues to be no specialized police unit to enforce the prevention of illicit-trafficking of cultural objects or efforts to involve communities in these actions. Other gaps include the publication of regularly updated management plans for major heritage sites and the inclusion of heritage in national development plans.

Ghana scored 0.73/1 for the transmission and mobilization of support, which reflects the recent efforts taken to raise awareness of heritage’s value and its threats amongst the population. In addition to signage at heritage sites and differential pricing, awareness-raising measures have included workshops for teachers and school programmes, as well as media campaigns led by the Ghana Museums and Monuments Board. While much has been done to educate the public, little has been done to gain the support of the civil society and private sector. Additional efforts to involve the civil society in heritage protection, conservation, and transmission, as well as explicit agreements with tour operators are two means to be further explored.

Montenegro

Communication

Internet Access Montenegro
20 ACCESS AND INTERNET USE: 66.3% (2014) In 2014, 66.3% of the national population aged from 16 and 74 used the Internet in Montenegro. 63.9% of respondents replied that they had used the Internet “within the last 3 months” and the remaining 2.4% said that they had used it “more than 3 months” ago but within the year...
Internet Access Montenegro Internet Access Montenegro
Access and Internet use: ()
20 ACCESS AND INTERNET USE: 66.3% (2014)
 
In 2014, 66.3% of the national population aged from 16 and 74 used the Internet in Montenegro. 63.9% of respondents replied that they had used the Internet “within the last 3 months” and the remaining 2.4% said that they had used it “more than 3 months” ago but within the year.  Montenegrins access the Internet via various mediums such as public and personal computers, mobile phones and other electronic devices. When compared to the national average in 2011, 48.5%, this result indicates rapid development of the sector and that nearly an additional 20% of the population gained access. Nevertheless, access to and use of the Internet continues to be dependent on socio-economic factors. Higher averages can be noted across youth. 89.9% of respondents ages 16-24 reported using the Internet every or almost every day, while only 39% of the population 65-74 years of age reported likewise.
 
The development of information technologies, and in particular the Internet, is significantly transforming the way people access, create, produce and disseminate cultural content and ideas, influencing people’s opportunities to access and participate in cultural life. The increase in access and use of the Internet can be attributed to government efforts and initiatives that demonstrate the priority given to new technologies. The Montenegro Development Directions (2013-2016) propose a set of measures aimed at the development of the information society, electronic communications and broadband infrastructure, arguing the direct impact on socio-economic development and the need to target different social groups.

 

Fiction Montenegro
21 DIVERSITY OF FICTIONAL CONTENT ON PUBLIC TELEVISION: 4.14% (2014) In 2014, 4.14% of the broadcasting time for television fiction programmes on public free-to-air television in Montenegro was dedicated to domestic fiction programmes. 9.42% of this time was dedicated to uniquely Montenegrin productions while the other 90.58% was spent airing...
Fiction Montenegro
Diversity of fictional content on public television: ()
21 DIVERSITY OF FICTIONAL CONTENT ON PUBLIC TELEVISION: 4.14% (2014)
 
In 2014, 4.14% of the broadcasting time for television fiction programmes on public free-to-air television in Montenegro was dedicated to domestic fiction programmes. 9.42% of this time was dedicated to uniquely Montenegrin productions while the other 90.58% was spent airing co-productions between Montenegrin and foreign producers. The majority of the time allotted for the airing of fiction programmes is spent broadcasting foreign productions (95.86%). These results reveal a low percentage of domestic fiction productions within public broadcasting, well below the average result for all countries having implemented the CDIS to date, which is situated at 23.41%. Such results may indirectly reflect limited opportunities and a need for greater public support to create a favorable environment for the flourishing of the sector and the dissemination of domestic content produced by local creators and cultural industries.
 
Cross-analysis with other indicators and dimensions further points to a need for greater support to create a favorable environment. While the Governance dimension indicators show that sectoral laws and policies for film and television exist, the indicators of the Education dimension show that no technical training programmes in film are offered and the Economy dimension indicators reveal that there is only limited formal employment.
 
A need for enhanced support has been recognized, and authorities have adopted a new Law of Cinematography (2015) which is expected to create preconditions for the further development of domestic production and co-production, and therefore the diversity of television content at the public service- Radio and Television of Montenegro (RTCG). Namely, the new law defines 3 key improvements: the establishment of the Film Center, the forming of a film fund for co-financing new productions, and the introduction of incentives in the form of rebates to producers for funds spent in Montenegro. In addition, RTCG has taken further action to drive the sector to expand through providing new sources of funding. While much of the initial funding for Montenegrin movies or co-productions is provided through the annual competition of the Ministry of Culture, in recent years RTCG has been directly involved in the pre-production of films and series by purchasing the rights to broadcast films and series that are produced in Montenegro or regional co-productions. Therefore in the coming years, RTCG will contribute, for the first time after more than a decade, to the production of two series (sitcom and drama).

 

Freedom of expression Montenegro
19 FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION: 61/100 (2014) The Constitution of Montenegro, adopted in 2007, states that “everyone shall have the right to the freedom of expression by speech, writing, picture, or in some other manner” (Article 47). The importance of the freedom of expression has been further underlined by the National Program for the...
Freedom of expression Montenegro Freedom of expression Montenegro
Freedom of expression: ()
19 FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION: 61/100 (2014)
 
The Constitution of Montenegro, adopted in 2007, states that “everyone shall have the right to the freedom of expression by speech, writing, picture, or in some other manner” (Article 47). The importance of the freedom of expression has been further underlined by the National Program for the Development of Culture (2011-2015), in which it is recognized as a founding principle of cultural development.
 
Montenegro’s score of 61/100 indicates that their print, broadcast, and internet-based media is currently ‘partly free’. This score illustrates the efforts made by the authorities to ensure an enabling environment for free media to operate and in which the freedom of expression is respected and promoted. Through the free flow of ideas, knowledge, information and content, these freedoms are the building blocks for the development of open and participatory societies as well as key enablers for creativity and cultural diversity. While areas of specific improvement remain, Montenegro has a leading result in 2014 when compared with other countries of the South East Europe region, preceded only by Serbia.
 
Based on data collected by the Centre for Democracy and Human Rights, an additional subjective indicator provides supplementary elements to better assess Montenegrins’ perception of the guarantee of the freedom of expression in their country. In 2012, when asked about media freedoms, 19.4% of Montenegrins surveyed believed that media freedoms are fully guaranteed in their country, or "at a very high level." Media freedoms were defined by the survey to include pressure on the media, issues of transparency, etc. While only one in five citizens believe that media freedoms are at a very high level, 54.5% of citizens perceive media freedoms in Montenegro as positive overall. 35.1% perceive media freedoms as being “mostly at the high level.” In addition, the Citizens’ Views on Media Freedoms report also indicates that those who perceive media freedoms as being at a high level watch and read more media contents and have more trust in institutions as well as the media.
 
However, both the core and additional indicator reveal select gaps where room for improvement remain. One area that has been recognized for its importance in strategic documents is the effective implementation and guarantee of the freedom of information. The National Strategy for Sustainable Development (2007-2012) has recognized a need to raise awareness about access to information, and has acknowledged as an important challenge the contribution that media may give to access free information, and to promote the concept of sustainable development.

Economy

GDP Montenegro
1 CONTRIBUTION OF CULTURAL ACTIVITIES TO GDP: 4.62% (2013) In 2013, cultural activities contributed to 4.62% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in Montenegro, which indicates that culture is responsible for an important part of national production, and that it helps generate income and sustain the livelihoods of its citizens. 14.4% of this...
GDP Montenegro GDP Montenegro
Contribution of cultural activities to GDP: ()
1 CONTRIBUTION OF CULTURAL ACTIVITIES TO GDP: 4.62% (2013)
 
In 2013, cultural activities contributed to 4.62% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in Montenegro, which indicates that culture is responsible for an important part of national production, and that it helps generate income and sustain the livelihoods of its citizens. 14.4% of this contribution can be attributed to central cultural activities and 85.6% can be attributed to equipment/supporting activities. Under the later category, the largest share of culture’s contribution falls under telecommunications (81.83%), while in the category of central cultural activities the largest contribution can be attributed to publishing activities (5.04%). The significance of culture’s overall contribution to the national economy is emphasized when compared to the contribution to GDP of important industrial activities such as Real estate (6.83%); Accommodation and food services (6.54%), Manufacturing (4.12%); Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply (4.12%); and Transportation and storage (3.78%).
 
While already indicating a vibrant sector, culture’s contribution to GDP is underestimated by this indicator as it only takes into consideration private and formal cultural activities and excludes the indirect and induced impacts of the culture sector. As an example of the latter, culture’s contribution to related economic sectors such as tourism and hospitality services is not included in the final result. Furthermore, because the raw data in Montenegro is only available to the two-digit level of international standard classifications, several categories of activities are not taken into account. As such, this indicator only provides a basic snapshot of culture’s contribution to the economy, which can serve to guide further research.
 
Nevertheless, this indicator offers valuable new information on the profits generated by the culture sector. Although the largest contribution to GDP is made by telecommunications activities and other equipment/supporting activities, 0.67% of GDP can be attributed to central cultural activities alone. Apart from publishing, the central activities that contributed the most to Montenegro’s GDP include specialized design and photographic activities amongst other professional, scientific and technical activities.
 
The Montenegro Development Directions (2013-2016) states, “we must observe culture in the context of sustainable development and promote its resources as investment-prone areas,” thus recognizing culture’s potential for economic growth, the latter being a priority reiterated in the National Strategy for Sustainable Development (2007-2012). The Montenegro Development Directives put particular emphasis on the importance of culture for the economy through tourism and the need for cooperation in this area to provide a unique tourism offer. Though similarly recognizing culture’s role in economic growth through tourism, the National Program for the Development of Culture (2011-2015) also goes beyond tourism to recognize culture's larger role as part of a global strategy for sustainable development. However, the existing Strategy for Enhancement of Competitiveness at the Micro Level (2011-2015) recognizes neither the culture sector nor the creative industries' importance as drivers of the economy. Improved and regularly collected data could increase the understanding of the sector’s significance.

 

Household expenditures Montenegro
3 HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURES ON CULTURE: 2.29% (2013) In Montenegro, 2.29% of average monthly household expenditures were devoted to cultural goods and services in the year 2013. State-wide this represents a monthly average of 2,494,868 Euros spent on culture, out of an average of 108,837,512 Euros total monthly household consumption. An...
Household expenditures Montenegro Household expenditures Montenegro
Household expenditures on culture: ()
3 HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURES ON CULTURE: 2.29% (2013)
 
In Montenegro, 2.29% of average monthly household expenditures were devoted to cultural goods and services in the year 2013. State-wide this represents a monthly average of 2,494,868 Euros spent on culture, out of an average of 108,837,512 Euros total monthly household consumption. An estimation based on the number of households in Montenegro suggests that this represents an average of 13 Euros per month spent on culture per household. 83.67% of expenditures on culture were spent on central cultural goods and services, and 16.33% on equipment/supporting goods and services. In the category of central cultural goods and services consumed, the consumption of newspapers and magazines was the largest contributor (32.75%), followed by the purchasing of books (29.96%). The buying of equipment for the reception, recording and reproduction of sounds and pictures was the largest contributor in the category of equipment/supporting goods and services (8.77%).
 
Though already significant and illustrating a non-negligible demand for cultural goods, this final result of 2.29% is a sub-estimation of the total actual consumption of cultural goods and services. It does not account for the value of cultural goods and services acquired by households and provided by non-profit institutions at prices that are not economically significant (e.g. in-kind transfers). For example, it does not include museum and public library services and free public cultural events.
According to the Montenegro Development Directions (2013-2016), household consumption increased from 77% of GDP in 2006 to 91% in 2008, thanks to high household revenues from real estate sales and increases in salaries, but this was followed by a severe downfall in 2010. With an expected increase in GDP for the period 2013-3016, purchasing power may increase, potentially creating the conditions for an increase in demand for leisure goods and household expenditures on culture.
 
>>The Economy indicators suggest that culture is already making a significant contribution in the economy, having relatively high results that are above average for both GDP and employment compared to the average for all countries having so far participated in the CDIS (GDP- 4.08%, cultural employment- 2.41%). However, though non-negligible, Montenegro’s result for household expenditures is slightly below the CDIS average of 2.50%. Combined, this may in part reflect consumption at insignificant prices, or alternatively it may suggest domestic production does not target domestic consumption of cultural goods and services, instead targeting a foreign audience. More research regarding cultural participation practices is necessary to understand more about the potential of the domestic market.
It should also be noted that cross-analysis with the governance dimension reveals that select leading contributors to the cultural economy, such as books & publishing, lack a specific sectoral policy or strategy. The National Program for the Development of Culture (2011-2015) recognized the need for new institutions, standards, policies and strategies in this sector to resolve stagnation and allow for further growth.

 

Cultural employment_Montenegro
2 CULTURAL EMPLOYMENT: 3.12% (2011) In 2011, 3.12% of the employed population in Montenegro had cultural occupations (5469 people), 49.66% of which were women and 50.34% men.88.85% of these individuals held central cultural occupations, while 11.15% held occupations in supporting or equipment related fields. In the category of central...
Cultural employment_Montenegro Cultural employment_Montenegro
Cultural Employment: ()
2 CULTURAL EMPLOYMENT: 3.12% (2011)
 
In 2011, 3.12% of the employed population in Montenegro had cultural occupations (5469 people), 49.66% of which were women and 50.34% men.88.85% of these individuals held central cultural occupations, while 11.15% held occupations in supporting or equipment related fields. In the category of central cultural occupations, the sub-sectors that contributed the most to cultural employment include journalists (17.68%); translators, interpreters, other linguists (8.56%); architects (7.9%); and library clerks (4.7%). In the category of supporting and equipment occupations, the largest contributors include pre-press technicians (4.62%) and broadcasting and audio-visual technicians and expert associates (1.87%).
 
Though this result already emphasizes culture’s importance as a provider of employment and wellbeing in the country, the global contribution of the culture sector to employment is underestimated in this indicator due to the difficulty of obtaining and correlating all the relevant data. This figure does not cover informal employment in the culture sector, induced occupations with a strong link to culture or non-cultural occupations performed in cultural establishments. 
 
Nevertheless, in regards to the latter constraint, an additional indicator illustrates that 5.27% of the total employed population worked in cultural establishments in 2011 (8979 people), of which 48.98% were women and 51.02% men. This result further highlights the importance of the sector as an employer, both regarding jobs related to cultural creation as well as not. When analyzing culture’s role in employment according to the activities of the establishments, the most significant contributing sub-sectors include television programming and broadcasting activities (13.42%); wired and wireless telecommunication (10.52% and 5.99%); the sale of newspapers and stationary (7.32%); engineering activities and related technical consultancy (6.91%); and the operation of arts facilities (6.01%).
 
Unemployment and job creation are key priorities in the National Strategy for Sustainable Development (2007 – 2012) and the Montenegro Development Directions (2013-2016), and particular emphasis is put on targeting vulnerable groups including across genders. Given the consideration awarded to unemployment, culture’s significant role as an employer merits further recognition, as well as an employer of men and women in near equal parts. The National Program for the Development of Culture (2011-2015) pushes for the recognition of cultural industries as a provider of a growing number of jobs. The NPDC also recognizes the sector's significance for employment across Europe, as well as calls attention to the strengthening of human resources and a need for measures to improve the structure of employees in culture. However, the National Strategy for Employment and Human Resources (2012-2015) does not yet include culture as a priority sector. The systematic collection and distribution of data on cultural employment may assist to better integrate culture as a priority in key strategic documents.

Education

Inclusive Education Montenegro
4 INCLUSIVE EDUCATION: 0.99/1 (2011) The National Strategy for Sustainable Development (2007-2012) recognizes that Montenegro inherited a relatively well-developed education system from the post 1990s crisis, which could serve as a good basis for economic recovery and development. The NSSD places quality education for all as a priority...
Inclusive Education Montenegro
Inclusive education: ()
4 INCLUSIVE EDUCATION: 0.99/1 (2011)
 
The National Strategy for Sustainable Development (2007-2012) recognizes that Montenegro inherited a relatively well-developed education system from the post 1990s crisis, which could serve as a good basis for economic recovery and development. The NSSD places quality education for all as a priority objective. Within this context, the result of 0.99/1 reflects the success of authorities in guaranteeing this fundamental cultural right in a complete, fair and inclusive manner. This result shows that on average, the target population aged 17-22 has 10.26 years of schooling, which is superior to the targeted 10 years. In addition, only a very small minority of 1.25% of the target population lives in education deprivation, having less than 4 years of schooling. This result shows that nearly all Montenegrins have access to and complete more than 10 years of education, which is consistent with the NSSD and the education policy and standards of the Ministry of Education of Montenegro, as well as in line with the fundamental cultural rights of every Montenegrin citizen to participate equally in the formal education system.

 

Multilingual Education Montenegro
5 MULTILINGUAL EDUCATION: 91.11% (2014) The Montenegro Development Directions (2013-2016) acknowledge the role of education in reaching long-term sustainability, as well as social inclusion of marginalized groups and social cohesion. Furthermore, the National Strategy for Sustainable Development (2007-2012) underlines the importance of...
Multilingual Education Montenegro
Multilingual Education: ()
5 MULTILINGUAL EDUCATION: 91.11% (2014)
 
The Montenegro Development Directions (2013-2016) acknowledge the role of education in reaching long-term sustainability, as well as social inclusion of marginalized groups and social cohesion. Furthermore, the National Strategy for Sustainable Development (2007-2012) underlines the importance of cultural diversity as a contributor to development, the obstacles that persist for marginalized groups to receive an education, and calls for the implementation of new curricula and the development of new syllabi for optional courses. Language is a part of cultural diversity and intangible heritage. According to the Constitution of Montenegro (2007), “in Montenegro, Montenegrin shall be the language in official use… Serbian, Bosnian, Albanian and Croatian languages shall also be in official use” (Article 13). Culturally sensitive multilingual curricula promote diversity, as well as favor tolerance and intercultural dialogue.
 
According to the 2014 curricula requirements for Gymnasiums reported by the Ministry of Education, an average of 44.44% of the required time dedicated to languages in the first two years of secondary schools is to be dedicated to the teaching of one of the five officially used languages. The remaining 55.56% of the time is to be dedicated to the teaching of international languages; 33.34% is to be dedicated to teaching of a first international language, and 22.24% to a second. These results indicate that an average of 91.11% of the total time dedicated to teaching languages is spent promoting multilingualism in the first two years of secondary school. No local or regional languages are recognized in Montenegro or required to be taught in the first two years of secondary school. The Roma language, spoken by Roma in Montenegro, is neither a standardized language nor a native language of the country. However, the importance of the integration of Roma in the education system is recognized by the NSSD.
 
While curricula of Gymnasiums reflects the average standard for secondary education in Montenegro, additional indicators reflect the variation in authorities’ promotion of cultural diversity and multilingualism in specialized schools. In Albanian Gymnasium, both official and international languages are equally allocated 50% of the total time spent teaching languages, indicating a lower percentage of time allotted for international languages. In contrast, in 4 Year Vocational Schools, 60% of the time spent teaching languages in the first two years of secondary education are dedicated to foreign languages, representing a relatively higher proportion of the time allotted.

 

Arts Education Montenegro
6 ARTS EDUCATION: 3.03% (2014) In Montenegro in 2014, an average of 3.03% of all instructional hours in the first two years of secondary school in Gymnasium are to be dedicated to arts education, reflecting a relatively low level of priority given to the arts. The most common, often standardized, art courses offered in Gymnasiums include...
Arts Education Montenegro
Arts Education: ()
6 ARTS EDUCATION: 3.03% (2014)
 
In Montenegro in 2014, an average of 3.03% of all instructional hours in the first two years of secondary school in Gymnasium are to be dedicated to arts education, reflecting a relatively low level of priority given to the arts. The most common, often standardized, art courses offered in Gymnasiums include music, fine and visual arts. The valorization of arts education in national curricula emphasizes the need to promote and stimulate artistic and creative capacities of young people. While curricula requirements of Gymnasiums reflects the average standard for secondary education in Montenegro and thus the importance given to the arts and culture as a formative subject for all, students who already have a conviction to study the arts may opt to attend specialized schools where extensive additional opportunities are available. 
 
Additional indicators reflect the variation in authorities’ promotion of arts education at both schools specialized in Fine Arts and Music, as well as at 4 Year Vocational Schools. While the former are given significant opportunities to study the arts and culture as their specializations suggests - 64.52% of total instructional hours in the first two years of secondary school, students in their first two years of a secondary level vocational program only are required to spend 0.98% of all instructional hours on the arts according to curriculum data shared for the year 2014 by the Ministry of Education and the Center for Vocational Education and Training.
 
Montenegro’s core result of 3.03% is below the average result across all countries having participated in the CDIS to date, which is situated at 4.69%. In contrast, the National Program for the Development of Culture (2011-2015) recognizes the necessary joint approach for education and culture. A generalized gap in education in arts and culture may obstruct the culture sector from realizing its' full development potential by not giving all students adequate opportunities to develop their creativity or an interest in a professional career in the sector during key formative years, or to develop an interest in the sector for personal consumption, enjoyment and expression.

 

Professional Training Montenegro
7 PROFESSIONAL TRAINING IN THE CULTURE SECTOR: 0.7/1 (2014) The National Program for the Development of Culture (2011-2015) not only recognizes the need for a joint approach in culture and education, but also the need for qualified individuals in all institutions of culture, making the strengthening of capacity a priority. Within this context...
Professional Training Montenegro
Professional Training in the culture sector: ()
7 PROFESSIONAL TRAINING IN THE CULTURE SECTOR: 0.7/1 (2014)
 
The National Program for the Development of Culture (2011-2015) not only recognizes the need for a joint approach in culture and education, but also the need for qualified individuals in all institutions of culture, making the strengthening of capacity a priority. Within this context, Montenegro’s result of 0.7/1 indicates that though complete coverage of cultural fields in technical and tertiary education does not yet exist in the country, the national authorities have manifested an interest and willingness to invest in the training of cultural professionals.
 
Indeed, the coverage of public and government-dependent private technical and tertiary education is rather comprehensive in Montenegro, offering various types of courses and permitting cultural professionals to receive the necessary training to pursue a career in the culture sector.
 
The Montenegro Development Directions (2013-2016) states “in modern industrialized societies, education and science are the main drivers of development, with particular focus placed on the development of higher education, which should be a response to labor market needs.” Cross-analysis with the Economy dimension indicates the already non-negligible role of the culture sector as an employer, though culture is not yet a priority in employment strategies and policies. While the results for this indicator on professional training do suggest that the collection of culture programs on offer is fairly inclusive, it is not complete. While there are tertiary level opportunities to study all five categories of culture programs examined by this indicator – heritage; music; fine, visual and applied arts; cultural management; film and image, technical and vocational opportunities are more limited. Technical and vocational programs are only offered in the areas of music and the fine arts, and those opportunities themselves are limited. No technical training exists in film, cultural management or heritage. In contrast, the National Program for the Development of Culture (2011-2015) recognizes a need for technical staff regarding heritage, and the National Strategy for Sustainable Development (2007-2012) and the Montenegro Development Directions (2013-2016) both recognize the need for trained staff in support of the tourism offer of the country. It should also be noted that while cultural management programs do exist at the tertiary level, these opportunities are limited to architectural subjects and do not extend to more general areas of cultural management and cultural policy. While some additional non-public or government dependent opportunities are available in Montenegro, these key gaps remain notable.
 
Though Montenegro’s result overall positively reflects public efforts to invest in professional training in culture, the range of professional training and educational opportunities could be further improved by addressing the identified gaps. A broad and coherent framework for technical and tertiary educational in the field of culture is one of the key factors for a productive, rich and diverse cultural sector.

Gender-Equality

Gender Perception Montenegro
18 PERCEPTION OF GENDER EQUALITY: 48.67% (2012) In 2012, 48.67% of Montenegrins positively perceived gender as a factor for development, according to their responses to questions regarding three key domains that parallel the objective indicator for this dimension–employment, political participation and education. The final result is a...
Gender Perception Montenegro
Perception of gender equality: ()
18 PERCEPTION OF GENDER EQUALITY: 48.67% (2012)
 
In 2012, 48.67% of Montenegrins positively perceived gender as a factor for development, according to their responses to questions regarding three key domains that parallel the objective indicator for this dimension–employment, political participation and education. The final result is a composite indicator, which suggests that slightly less than half of the population of Montenegro view gender as a positive factor for development, while the other half still consider it as an irrelevant or a negative factor. Montenegro’s result is below the average result for all countries having implemented the CDIS to date, which is situated at 59.59%. Individuals’ perceptions on gender equality are strongly influenced by cultural practices and norms, thus Montenegro’s result suggests that gender-based social and cultural norms persist.
 
However, the perception of gender equality greatly varied according to the domain of the question asked. As was the case for the objective outputs observed, the most positive perceptions of gender equality were recorded for education. When asked if “University education is more important for boys than girls,” 68% of respondents did not agree, suggesting that education is a domain in which gender equality is likely to be perceived as a positive factor for development by over two-thirds of Montenegrins. Significantly less appreciation for gender equality was observed regarding opinions on employment and political participation. When asked “If an employer has to dismiss workers, it is better to dismiss a woman with a husband than a man,” only 43% of respondents did not agree, suggesting that 57% of the population agrees that men have priority in regards to employment. When asked if “Generally, men are better political leaders than women,” 35%of respondents did not agree, indicating that the remaining 65% of the population either agree or strongly agree with this statement. 
 
Additional data presented in the Women in Politics (2012) joint report of the Ministry of Human and Minority Rights, UNDP, and the European Delegation, further indicates significant fluctuations in perceptions of the value of gender equality regarding various fields of activities. While a majority of Montenegrins perceive that security and defense, prevention of drug trafficking, and political reform are amongst the fields best suited for men; women and men are thought to be equally suited for positions in fields such as international relations, economy recovery, tourism, inter-ethnic relations, religious issues, education, environment and health; and women are thought to be better suited to excel in areas such as social care for vulnerable groups, prevention of domestic violence and youth. These variances further illustrate ongoing beliefs in the validity of gender differences.
 
>>This cross-analysis of the subjective and objective indicators reveals that while some attitudes and values are reflected in persisting gaps in objective outputs in areas such as labor force and political participation, the majority’s positive perception of gender equality and education is mirrored in progress in this area. These results suggest a need for greater advocacy efforts targeting attitudes in regards to key domains. Cultural values and attitudes strongly shape perceptions towards gender equality, it is thus critical to demonstrate that gender equality can complement and be compatible with cultural beliefs, and be an influential factor in the retransmission of cultural values for building inclusive and egalitarian societies, and for the respect of human rights.

 

Gender Equality Montenegro

17GENDER EQUALITY OBJECTIVE OUTPUTS (ALTERNATIVE INDICATORS)

 The Law on Gender Equality (2007) has been a significant milestone to create a protective framework against discrimination and in promotion of gender equality in Montenegro. This framework has been further enhanced by the Law on Prohibition of Discrimination (2010), as well...
Gender Equality Montenegro
Gender equality objectives outputs: ()

17GENDER EQUALITY OBJECTIVE OUTPUTS (ALTERNATIVE INDICATORS)

 
The Law on Gender Equality (2007) has been a significant milestone to create a protective framework against discrimination and in promotion of gender equality in Montenegro. This framework has been further enhanced by the Law on Prohibition of Discrimination (2010), as well as by making gender equality a priority objective of the National Strategy for Sustainable Development (2007 – 2012). The latter emphasizes a need for a balance of gender perspectives regarding decision-making and the economy, and targets women’s enrollment in higher education, women’s employment and women’s participation in parliament as key progress indicators in its Action Plan. However, while gender legislation exists and significant progress in equality can be observed in areas like education, a series of alternative indicators reveal persisting gaps where additional investment is needed to improve gender equality outputs.
 
Though slight disparity still exists between men and women regarding education, on average both men and women receive a level of education beyond the targeted minimum of 10 years for the construction of this indicator. Men aged 25 years and over have an average of 11.7 years of education, compared to 10.4 years for women in the same age range. In addition, according to a MONSTAT report on Women and Men in Montenegro (2014), a rising number of young women have been enrolled in programs of higher education in recent years, illustrating the progress being made in this area.
 
More prominent gaps can be seen regarding labor force and political participation. Although 56.8% of men are either employed or actively searching for work, only 43.6% of women participate in the labor force. Additionally, the most significant gap is observed regarding the outcomes of political participation where a major imbalance persists. In 2014, women only represented 17.3% of parliamentarians in Montenegro, demonstrating that women’s participation in political life remains significantly lower than men’s despite national development priorities in this area.
 
In Conclusion, Montenegro has established the necessary legal framework to promote gender equality, and has made progress in select areas. Nevertheless, progress remains to be achieved or enhanced in others. Policies require people, and a further look at the subjective indicator below suggests that certain cultural values and perceptions may be behind ongoing gaps in outputs in areas such as labor force and political participation. Embedded cultural values can undermine the feasibility of objectives and the sustainability of performance outcomes.

Governance

Infrastructure Montenegro
10 DISTRIBUTION OF CULTURAL INFRASTRUCTURES: 0.31/1 (2015) The National Program for the Development of Culture (2011-2015) recognizes infrastructure as a condition for the access, practice, and exercise of culture and creative activities. The NPDC further emphasizes that at the municipal level, cultural centres act as hubs for all kinds of...
Infrastructure Montenegro Infrastructure Montenegro
Distribution of cultural infrastructures: ()
10 DISTRIBUTION OF CULTURAL INFRASTRUCTURES: 0.31/1 (2015)
 
The National Program for the Development of Culture (2011-2015) recognizes infrastructure as a condition for the access, practice, and exercise of culture and creative activities. The NPDC further emphasizes that at the municipal level, cultural centres act as hubs for all kinds of activities, but that an inadequate organizational framework contributes to the continued unequal development of activities at the municipal level. The National Strategy for Sustainable Development (2007-2012) similarly points to the ongoing insufficient presentation of cultural heritage and artistic creations, which may indirectly indicate the need to improve infrastructure for such presentation.
 
On a scale from 0 to 1, Montenegro’s result for this indicator is 0.31, 1 representing the situation in which selected cultural infrastructures are equally distributed amongst regions according to the relative size of their population. The score of 0.31/1 thus reflects that across the 23 municipalities of Montenegro, there is an unequal distribution of cultural facilities. 
 
When looking at the figures for the three different categories of infrastructures, Montenegro scores 0.21/1 for Museums, 0.41/1 for Exhibition Venues Dedicated to the Performing Arts and 0.30/1 for Libraries and Media Resource Centers. This suggests that the most equal distribution of access exists for Exhibition Venues, and that the most unequal distribution is for Museums. While all municipalities have access to at least one Exhibition Venue, not all municipalities have access to Museums or Libraries and the concentration of facilities relative to population size varies greatly. For example, while the lower populated municipalities of Gusinje and Petnjica have access to Exhibition Venues, they have neither access to Museums nor Libraries, and apart from Podgorica and Cetinje (which have 4 and 2 public libraries), all other municipalities have 1 library irrespective of population size or land distribution. Thus, for certain municipalities such as Nikšić, Bar and Bijelo Polje, which are home to approximately 12%, 7% and 7% of the population respectively, access to 1 library each does not reflect equal distribution relative to population size as each library is equal to 4% of the total State-wide. Furthermore, 9 of the 23 municipalities in the northern region of Montenegro have no museums. The capital city of Podgorica, while representing 30% of the population, has 15% of all Museums, 17% of all Exhibition Venues and 16% of all Libraries, but due to the significantly higher population density in the capital compared to other municipalities, these figures must be contextualized and only conditionally seen as indicating disadvantages for the city’s inhabitants. To the contrary, other municipalities have access to more cultural facilities than is proportional to population size. This is the case of Budva, Cetinje and Kotor, which are characterized by significant flows of tourists and excursionists. While each has approximately between 3-4% of total inhabitants, Budva and Cetinje have 8% and 10% of all Exhibition Venues respectively and 19% of all museums. The Natural and Cultural-Historical Region of Kotor hosts 11% of all museums. While additional facilities in these municipalities contribute to the development of cultural industries and the cultural economy for foreign consumption, increasing the equality of access across all 23 municipalities could increase opportunities for Montenegrins to take part in cultural activities, promote the development of the cultural and creative industries for domestic consumption and enjoyment, and provide an enabling environment for cultural professionals and businesses to create, produce, promote and disseminate their work. 
 
Thus, although infrastructure networks are in place, led by institutions like the National Museum and the National Library, and laws exist to promote cultural spaces, there are still obstacles to the equitable distribution of all cultural facilities. This is a crucial and common challenge to all countries having implemented the CDIS to date as the average for this indicator is 0.46/1.

 

Civil Society Montenegro
11 CIVIL SOCIETY PARTICIPATION IN CULTURAL GOVERNANCE: 0.65/1 (2015) The National Strategy for Sustainable Development (2007-2012) recognizes participation of all actors in decision-making as key for sustainable development. In the same vein, the National Program for the Development of Culture (2011-2015) recognizes democratization and...
Civil Society Montenegro
Civil Society participation in cultural Governance: ()
11 CIVIL SOCIETY PARTICIPATION IN CULTURAL GOVERNANCE: 0.65/1 (2015)
 
The National Strategy for Sustainable Development (2007-2012) recognizes participation of all actors in decision-making as key for sustainable development. In the same vein, the National Program for the Development of Culture (2011-2015) recognizes democratization and decentralization as important for culture and cultural policy. The NSSD furthermore calls for the harmonization of decision-making methods between central, local authorities and other stakeholders. Within this context, the final result of 0.65/1 indicates that opportunities exist at the national and municipal levels for dialogue and representation of cultural professionals and minorities in regards to the formulation and implementation of cultural policies, measures and programmes that concern them, but that increased opportunities for the participation of cultural professionals at the local level can still be achieved.
 
Regarding the participation of minorities, at the national level there are several institutions that provide opportunities for minorities to participate in cultural governance: the Center for the Preservation and Development of Minority Cultures, the Fund for Minorities - Parliament of Montenegro, and the Councils of Minority Peoples in Montenegro. All bodies can be considered active, permanent and their resolutions regarding dialogue and national cultural policies are consultative. No such institutional mechanisms or organic structures to facilitate the participation of minorities exist at the municipal level.
 

The National Council for Culture provides key opportunities for the participation of cultural professionals in decision-making at the national level. According to the Law on Culture (2008), members of the National Council are appointed by the Government, from the ranks of artists and experts in culture with high reputation, originating from Montenegro and abroad. The National Council for Culture is permanent (mandate for 4 years) and can be considered active, meeting at least once every year. The Council can submit its views, opinions and suggestions to the Government of Montenegro, which remain consultative. At the local level, the Law on Culture prescribes the appointment of Municipal Councils for Culture, whose members should be affirmed artists or experts in culture. However, in this regard, the law is not implemented to the full extent, and so far only 4 of the 23 municipalities in Montenegro have established such a council. In addition to the above, it should be noted that the participation of civil society in decision making processes more generally is defined through the Decree on the Procedure for Cooperation Between State Authorities and Non-governmental Organizations (2011) and the Decree on the Procedure and Manner of Conducting Public Hearings in the Preparation of Laws (2012).

 

Policy Montenegro
9 POLICY AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR CULTURE: 0.82/1 (2015) The final result of 0.82/1 reflects the many efforts of national authorities to establish targeted policies and mechanisms to promote the culture sector and implement the obligations and priorities found in national and international legislation, while revealing the remaining...
Policy Montenegro
Policy and institutional framework for culture: ()
9 POLICY AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR CULTURE: 0.82/1 (2015)
 
The final result of 0.82/1 reflects the many efforts of national authorities to establish targeted policies and mechanisms to promote the culture sector and implement the obligations and priorities found in national and international legislation, while revealing the remaining improvements necessary in the policy framework and administrative system.
 
Montenegro scored 0.55/1 for the Policy Framework sub-indicator indicating that a considerable body of well-defined culture and sectoral policies and strategies has been put in place in recent years to promote culture in the country, while identifying remaining gaps in policy to better promote and structure the sectors, and to meet defined objectives in standard-setting instruments. Great strides forward have been taken at the policy level with the adoption of the first National Program for the Development of Culture (2011-2015), a comprehensive document which analyses the current situation, as well as the objectives and priorities of development. Targeted sectoral policies also address specific action to be taken in the areas of heritage, cinema, television and radio. However, to further encourage the obtaining of objectives outlined in the adopted standard-setting framework, additional targeted policies should be adopted to fill gaps in the areas of publishing, music, visual arts, performing arts, the promotion of cultural diversity, and the promotion of cultural development and creativity, including arts education. Regarding the latter, cross-analysis with the indicators of the Education dimension reveal areas for improvement in secondary and higher level education, and although the NPDC recognizes the necessary joint approach for education and culture, no specific policy for action is yet in place.
 
Culture is included in national development strategy documents such as the National Strategy for Sustainable Development (2007-2012), the draft outline for the NSSD for the period 2014-2020, and the Montenegro Development Directions (2013-2016). However, current plans largely emphasize culture’s role in development in relationship to tourism; more efforts are needed to address culture in its entirety as an integral component of development, recognizing the sector’s full potential. A first example of progress towards a more integral approach can be found in the MDD, which states “cultural policy must be directed towards a dialogue, since progress in this area can be achieved only through cooperation of culture and education, science, tourism, construction and architecture.” 
 
Montenegro scored 1/1 for the Institutional Framework sub-indicator, indicating that a coherent administrative and institutional framework exists, as well as a high degree of cultural decentralization, and mechanisms to create favorable environments for the emergence of dynamic cultural sectors and the promotion of cultural vitality. Key achievements that account for this result include the existence of a Ministry of Culture; a culture committee in the Parliament; a public system of subsidies; mechanisms for monitoring, evaluating and reviewing cultural policy, and organizations dedicated to the promotion of one or more cultural sectors, such the Association of Fine Artists of Montenegro (NGO AFAM), the Montenegrin Society of Independent writers (NGO), the Association of Composers (NGO), the Association of Film producers (NGO),  and the Association of Dramatic Artists (NGO). In addition, a number of cultural responsibilities are decentralized to municipal authorities. However, in spite of Montenegro’s perfect score for this sub-indicator, enhancement of the framework can still be achieved. According to the Ministry of Culture’s Report on Implementation of the Law on Culture on Local Level (2014), pointed out that there were no local development programs for culture and that important segments of the Law on Culture are not implemented at the municipal level, or are being implemented selectively. This primarily relates to the rules concerning the reorganization of local cultural institutions, redefining the program profile, professional and competent management of institutions, and the appointment of Municipal Councils for Culture. The National Program for the Development of Culture (2011-2015) also emphasizes that each municipality is to adopt their own annual action plan in line with the Law on Culture and that improvements at the municipal level are dependent on such action.

 

Standard-setting Montenegro
8 STANDARD-SETTING FRAMEWORK FOR CULTURE: 0.88/1 (2015) Montenegro’s result of 0.88/1 indicates that there is already a significant standard-setting framework for culture in place and that the national authorities have made many efforts to ratify key international legal instruments affecting cultural development, cultural rights and...
Standard-setting Montenegro
Standard-setting framework for culture: ()
8 STANDARD-SETTING FRAMEWORK FOR CULTURE: 0.88/1 (2015)
 
Montenegro’s result of 0.88/1 indicates that there is already a significant standard-setting framework for culture in place and that the national authorities have made many efforts to ratify key international legal instruments affecting cultural development, cultural rights and cultural diversity, as well as to establish a national framework to recognize and implement these obligations. 
 
Montenegro scored 0.91/1 at the international level, highlighting the degree of priority given to culture and the country’s high level of commitment to international norms on cultural development, cultural rights and cultural diversity. Montenegro has ratified the majority of recommended international conventions, declarations and recommendations, with the exceptions of the Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (2008), the UNIDROIT Convention on Stolen or Illegally Exported Cultural Objects (1995, the Declaration on the Right to Development (1986), the Stockholm Action Plan on Cultural Policies for Development (1998), the Intergovernmental Conference on Cultural Policies for Development) (1998), and the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (2007).
 
At the national level, a score of 0.87/1 indicates that a great deal of effort has been made to implement many of the international obligations that Montenegro has committed to, a vital step for the active implementation of these obligations. Principles relating to cultural rights and freedoms are established in the 2007 Constitution of Montenegro. It should be noted that certain cultural rights, which according to CDIS Methodology are to be recognized in the constitution, are rather incorporated in Montenegro’s relevant sectoral laws as basic development principles of those areas of culture. These rights include: the right to benefit from scientific progress and its applications; choice of and respect for cultural identities; access to cultural heritage; free and pluralistic information and communication; and cultural cooperation. In addition, Montenegro has a framework Law on Culture (2008) and a comprehensive legislative framework for the protection of heritage, publishing, cinematography, copyright, television and radio. However, one omission to be noted in Montenegro’s national-level standard-setting framework is the absence of additional sectoral laws dealing with music, visual arts, or performing arts.

Heritage

Heritage Montenegro
22 HERITAGE SUSTAINABILITY: 0.71/1 (2015) Montenegro’s result of 0.71/1 is reflective of the high level of priority given to the protection, safeguarding and promotion of heritage sustainability by Montenegrin authorities. While many public efforts are dedicated to national registrations and inscriptions, conservation, valorization and...
Heritage Montenegro Heritage Montenegro
Heritage sustainability: ()
22 HERITAGE SUSTAINABILITY: 0.71/1 (2015)
 
Montenegro’s result of 0.71/1 is reflective of the high level of priority given to the protection, safeguarding and promotion of heritage sustainability by Montenegrin authorities. While many public efforts are dedicated to national registrations and inscriptions, conservation, valorization and management, raising-awareness, and community involvement; select persisting gaps in knowledge and capacity-building, and stimulating support amongst the private sector call for additional actions to improve this multidimensional framework.
 
Montenegro scored 0.70/1 for registrations and inscriptions, indicating that authorities’ efforts have resulted in many up-to-date national registrations and inscriptions of Montenegrin sites and elements of tangible and intangible heritage. Montenegro has approximately 2,000 protected cultural properties (movable, immovable and intangible) registered in the Montenegrin Registry of Protected Cultural Property. Six intangible heritage sites have a protected status in Montenegro, and more than 200 additional elements of intangible cultural heritage have been recognized as having potential for protected status under the Protection of Cultural Property Act (2010). Government efforts have successfully resulted in 2 natural and culturo-historical regions receiving recognition of being World Heritage – Kotor and Durmitor National Park. However, no element of intangible cultural heritage has yet received international recognition, and no database of stolen cultural objects yet exists. Cross-analysis with the Governance dimension indicators confirms this gap, revealing that Montenegro has also yet to ratify the UNIDROIT Convention on Stolen or Illegally Exported Cultural Objects (1995), though the overall legal framework in the field of heritage is well developed.
 
Montenegro scored 0.74/1 for the protection, safeguarding and management of heritage, indicating that there are several well-defined policies and measures in place, but select gaps persist regarding knowledge and capacity-building. The National Strategy for Sustainable Development (2007–2012) recognizes the preservation of cultural identity and cultural heritage as significant challenges in the transition period post-independence, and highlights the protection of natural and cultural landscapes as priority objectives in its Action Plan. Similarly, the Montenegro Development Directions (2013-2016) explicitly recognizes the role of culture and heritage in the economic growth of the country, and the National Program of Cultural Development (2011-2015) further recognizes heritage's importance for society's wellbeing. Demonstrating public commitment to these goals, in 2014, 2,825,079.19 Euros were allocated for the identification, protection, safeguarding, conservation and management of heritage. This figure includes funds for the Annual Program for the protection and Preservation of Cultural Goods of the Directorate for Heritage, funds for individual projects and studies of the national heritage institutions, capital investments in significant objects and heritage institutions, and donations. Other efforts taken regarding conservation, valorization and management include the updating of heritage site management plans, the establishment of documentation centers and disaster risk management plans, and the existence of specialized police units to combat illicit trafficking of cultural objects.
 
Cross-analysis with the Education dimension indicates that while opportunities exist in the area of heritage at the tertiary level, a lack remains for regular technical and vocational heritage training opportunities. Additional gaps regarding capacity-building include the lack of an operational centre for capacity-building for heritage professionals, as well as no specific capacity building and training programmes in the last 3 years for the armed forces concerning the protection of cultural property in the event of armed conflict, or for police forces, customs agents, or museum staff regarding the fight against illicit trafficking. However, trainings and round tables have been carried out for heritage site management staff and to increase the involvement of communities in the safeguarding of intangible heritage. Authorities have recognized the need for enhanced education and training opportunities, and thus in 2011, the Government adopted the Study on the Establishment of the Regional Centre for Management Development of Cultural Heritage, as a precondition for the founding of such an institution.
 
Finally, Montenegro scored 0.66/1 for the transmission and mobilization of support, which reflects efforts taken to raise awareness of heritage’s value and its threats amongst citizens, though more can still be achieved to further include the private sector in the safeguarding of heritage. Many tools are already used to alert the population of heritage’s values and the threats it faces, such as signage at heritage sites, the establishment of visitor centres at the most visited sites, and awareness-raising programmes using various mediums, as well as through schools. Additional measures to enhance the framework could include heritage training specific for teachers. Similarly, while efforts have already resulted in the active involvement of the civil society in heritage protection, another area that could be further enhanced is the inclusion of the private sector and foundations in the management of heritage and its contribution to sustainable development. For example, the establishment and involvement of private foundations dedicated to heritage advocacy and funding, and the signing of agreements with tour providers, could stimulate broader support. The involvement of all parties is crucial in Montenegro given the emphasis placed on the role of heritage and culture as a means to increase tourism and thus Montenegro’s economic development.

 

No indicators were able to be constructed for the Social Participation dimension in Montenegro.  RECOMMENDATIONS FOR IMPROVING CULTURAL STATISTICS In order to improve the assessment of the connection between culture and social participation in Montenegro, regular statistics and raw data need to be made available. PARTICIPATION...
Social Pqrticipation: ()
No indicators were able to be constructed for the Social Participation dimension in Montenegro. 
 
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR IMPROVING CULTURAL STATISTICS
 
In order to improve the assessment of the connection between culture and social participation in Montenegro, regular statistics and raw data need to be made available.
 
PARTICIPATION IN GOING-OUT CULTURAL ACTIVITIES
The core indicator on participation in going-out cultural activities could not be constructed due to a lack of necessary data. The Statistical Office of Montenegro (MONSTAT) follows the cultural vitality of Montenegro by calculating ad hoc data for ticket sales and participation in specific cultural activities. No data is systematically collected on overall participation in going-out cultural activities in Montenegro, as is necessary according to CDIS Methodology.
 
PARTICIPATION IN IDENTITY-BUILDING CULTURAL ACTIVITIES
 
TOLERANCE OF OTHER CULTURES
 
INTERPERSONAL TRUST
 
FREEDOM OF SELF-DETERMINATION
The core indicators on participation in identity-building cultural activities, tolerance of other cultures, interpersonal trust and freedom of self-determination could not be constructed due to a lack of necessary data.
 
There is no formal institution that is engaged in regularly following and monitoring culture and social issues in Montenegro. A first step to improve cultural statistics would be to identify an institution to be tasked with such observations and data collection, or to regularly engage an independent research agency to be responsible for the production and analysis of such data for the monitoring of culture, social progress and development.

Namibia

Economy

Employment Namibia

2 CULTURAL EMPLOYMENT: 0.65% (2008)

In 2008, 0.65% of the employed population in Namibia had cultural occupations (4447 people: 29% male and 71% female). 88% of these individuals held occupations in central cultural activities, while 12% held occupations in supporting or equipment related activities.

While already significant,...

Employment Namibia Employment Namibia
Cultural Employment: ()

2 CULTURAL EMPLOYMENT: 0.65% (2008)

In 2008, 0.65% of the employed population in Namibia had cultural occupations (4447 people: 29% male and 71% female). 88% of these individuals held occupations in central cultural activities, while 12% held occupations in supporting or equipment related activities.

While already significant, the global contribution of the culture sector to employment is underestimated in this indicator due to the difficulty of obtaining and correlating all the relevant data. This figure is only the tip of the iceberg since it does not cover non-cultural occupations performed in cultural establishments or induced occupations with a strong link to culture, such as employees of hospitality services located in or close to heritage sites. In addition, this does not account for employment in the informal culture sector, which is likely to be significant in Namibia. Furthermore, because the raw data in Namibia is only available to the three-digit level of international standard classifications, certain central cultural occupations are not taken into account.

Regardless, this figure highlights low levels of formal cultural employment in Namibia, suggesting that levels of domestic cultural production in the formal sector are also rather low. The relevance of the priorities set aside in the 2001 Policy on Arts and Culture and the former National Development Plan 3 (2007-2012), oriented to increase production and optimize the economic contribution of the culture sector, is thus underlined.

 

Household expenditures Namibia

3 HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURES ON CULTURE: 9.09% (2009/2010)

In Namibia, 9% of household consumption expenditures were devoted to cultural activities, goods and services in the year of 2009/2010 (1400.26 NAD).  It is likely that this final result is an over-estimation of the actual percentage of household consumption expenditures spent on...

Household expenditures Namibia Household expenditures Namibia
Household expenditures on culture: ()

3 HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURES ON CULTURE: 9.09% (2009/2010)

In Namibia, 9% of household consumption expenditures were devoted to cultural activities, goods and services in the year of 2009/2010 (1400.26 NAD).  It is likely that this final result is an over-estimation of the actual percentage of household consumption expenditures spent on culture due to the current limitations of national data systems which are not exhaustive but rather based on sample groups. As Namibia remains a country of significant divides, often the most isolated groups of the population are not accurately reflected in such data sets due to inaccessibility. The average across all test phase countries of the CDIS is 2.43%, which also suggests that Namibian figures may be overestimated.

Despite the underlined methodological challenges, the national result obtained suggests that there is a real and significant demand from Namibian households for the consumption of foreign and domestic cultural goods, services and activities, and of this 55% is spent on central cultural goods and services, 45% being left to supporting activities and equipment. On average nation-wide, in the category of central cultural goods and services, the most was spent on daily and weekly newspapers (139.45 NAD), watches and personal jewelry (156.90 NAD), and subscription television (292.16 NAD). In the category of support and equipment, a significant share was spent on television sets, decoders, DVD players, and video players (169.95 NAD); and personal computers and laptops (213.16 NAD).

The share of consumption expenditures varies greatly from one region to another in Namibia, from 12.7% and 12.6% in Otjozondzupa and Khomas to 5.9% and 4.2% in Ohangwena and Omusati.

>> While the Economy indicators suggest that there is a significant potential demand for the consumption of cultural goods, services and activities, they also suggest that there is a low level of domestic production in the formal sector, illustrated by the low levels of employment. This is reinforced when cross-analyzing the dimension with other CDIS indicators such as the Diversity of Fictional Content on Public TV, which also suggests low levels of domestic content supply in public broadcasting. High demand and low domestic production would indicate that the full economic potential of the culture sector in Namibia is not being realized.

Education

4 INCLUSIVE EDUCATION: 0.77/1 (2007) The Constitution of the Republic of Namibia, adopted in 1990, states that "All persons shall have the right to an education" (Article 20.1). Within this context, the result of 0.77/1 reflects the efforts made by Namibian authorities to guarantee this fundamental cultural right and pursue measures...
Inclusive education: ()
4 INCLUSIVE EDUCATION: 0.77/1 (2007)
 
The Constitution of the Republic of Namibia, adopted in 1990, states that "All persons shall have the right to an education" (Article 20.1). Within this context, the result of 0.77/1 reflects the efforts made by Namibian authorities to guarantee this fundamental cultural right and pursue measures to assure that this right is secured in a complete, fair and inclusive manner. This result shows that the average years of schooling of the target population aged 17 to 22 is 8.4 years. Therefore, though below the targeted average of 10 years of schooling, the majority of Namibian citizens can enjoy the right to an education and participate in the construction and transmission of values, attitudes and cultural skills, as well as personal and social empowerment throughout primary and secondary school. However, 9% of the target population in Namibia is still living in education deprivation, meaning that they have fewer than 4 years of schooling. This 9% highlights the persistence of inequality in the enjoyment of this fundamental cultural right. Namibia is committed to a number of international agreements and conventions targeting marginalized groups in order to mitigate the inequality gap in the post-apartheid and post-independence era and to achieve a fully inclusive education system.

 

Multilingual Education Namibia
5 MULTILINGUAL EDUCATION: 44.4% (2010) 

Article 19 of the Constitution of the Republic of Namibia states that “every person is entitled to enjoy, practice, profess, maintain and promote any culture, language, tradition or religion” so long as it does not impinge upon the rights of others. Furthermore, the 2001 Policy on Arts and...

Multilingual Education Namibia
Multilingual Education: ()
5 MULTILINGUAL EDUCATION: 44.4% (2010)
 

Article 19 of the Constitution of the Republic of Namibia states that “every person is entitled to enjoy, practice, profess, maintain and promote any culture, language, tradition or religion” so long as it does not impinge upon the rights of others. Furthermore, the 2001 Policy on Arts and Culture states that the government has the mission and goal to uphold unity in diversity so that all Namibians feel free to practice any culture, recognizing that such “unity is maintained by mutual understanding, respect and tolerance.” As part of promoting this unity in diversity, the 2001 Policy also states that it is the goal of the Namibian government to safeguard and promote linguistic heritage and acknowledges the role of education in the promotion of cultural diversity. Though not reiterated in the National Development Plan 4 (2013-2017), the National Development Plan 3 (2007-2012) recognized that “language is an essential carrier of culture” and that the biggest challenge post-independence was to heal the wounds of inequality and racism and recognize the wealth of Namibia’s multiculturalism.

According to the national curriculum for education, updated in 2010, 55.6% of the hours to be dedicated to languages in the first two years of secondary school is to be dedicated to the teaching of the official national language- English. The remaining 44.4% of the time is to be dedicated to the teaching of local and regional languages. Although, the fact that 0% of the required national curriculum is dedicated to additional international languages, such as French or German, these results still indicate that the national curriculum is designed to promote linguistic diversity in Namibia, particularly regarding the promotion of local languages and mother tongues. It should be noted that learners have the option of taking additional international languages such as French or German as one of the prevocational subjects of their choosing.

However, in spite of the promotion of diversity, of the 11 nationally recognized local and regional languages, only 9 are taught in schools. Otjizemba and Ju!hoansi are the only remaining nationally recognized local languages that are not promoted in the education system.

 

6 ARTS EDUCATION: 2.4% (2010)

The 2001 Policy on Arts and Culture’s stance on “unity in diversity” recognizes that Namibians see themselves as a united nation celebrating the diversity of their artistic and cultural expressions and declares as a goal that the status of the arts should be improved through education and...

Arts Education: ()

6 ARTS EDUCATION: 2.4% (2010)

The 2001 Policy on Arts and Culture’s stance on “unity in diversity” recognizes that Namibians see themselves as a united nation celebrating the diversity of their artistic and cultural expressions and declares as a goal that the status of the arts should be improved through education and that arts subjects should therefore be part of the new curriculum. The policy goes on to state that in such an environment “learners are sure to acquire many skills and self-confidence through exploring their own creative abilities” and that it is “necessary to reverse an alarming trend for the downgrading of the arts and culture.”  National Development Plan 3 (2007-2012) also recognized that arts education was necessary for the realization of the country’s creative potential and that a priority should be to “establish a solid foundation of education in the arts and culture.”

Contrasting with the policy statements, the results for this indicator reflect a rather low level of promotion of arts education. According to the updated curriculum of 2010, only 2.4% of the total number of instructional hours is to be dedicated to arts education in the two first years of secondary school (covered by one subject entitled ‘Arts-in-culture’).  It should be noted, however, that in addition to the required hours to be dedicated to the arts, learners have the option of taking one additional course entitled ‘Visual and integrated performing arts’ as one of the prevocational courses of their choosing. Nevertheless, this result indicates that instructional hours dedicated to arts education in secondary school remains low, especially when taking into account the average across all test phase countries of the CDIS, which is around 4.84%.

Furthermore, a gap in the offerings of arts education over the course of the educational lifetime emerges. On average, 6.2% of all educational hours are to be dedicated to arts education in primary education. This is nearly three times what is required during secondary education. Moreover, when looking at the following indicator on tertiary and training programmes that are offered in Namibia in the field of culture, it can be noted that the coverage is fairly complete. This gap in arts education during secondary schooling may obstruct both students’ interest in developing a professional career in the culture sector and also concrete opportunities in accessing existing specialized programmes.

 

7 PROFESSIONAL TRAINING IN THE CULTURE SECTOR: 0.7/1 (2012)

In the 2001 Policy on Arts and Culture, a key goal was defined to improve the status of the artist “through education and training, and by exploring the economic potential” of the culture sector. The essential link between education, training and employment was made....

Professional Training in the culture sector: ()

7 PROFESSIONAL TRAINING IN THE CULTURE SECTOR: 0.7/1 (2012)

In the 2001 Policy on Arts and Culture, a key goal was defined to improve the status of the artist “through education and training, and by exploring the economic potential” of the culture sector. The essential link between education, training and employment was made. Namibia’s result of 0.7/1 indicates that though complete coverage of cultural fields in technical and tertiary education does not exist in the country, the national authorities have manifested an interest and willingness to invest in the training of cultural professionals. Indeed, the coverage of national public and government-dependent private technical and tertiary education is rather comprehensive in Namibia, offering various types of courses and permitting cultural professionals to receive the necessary education to pursue a career in the culture sector.

Tertiary education is offered by the University of Namibia in the fields of heritage, music, visual and applied arts, and film and image. The College of the Arts also offers technical training in the fields of music, visual and applied arts, and film and image. In addition, the Namibian Training Authority offers one training program in garment making, which falls under the category of visual and applied arts. Although this collection of offerings is fairly inclusive, it is not complete. For instance, no regular technical training programmes exist in the field of heritage, and no technical or tertiary education programmes exist in the field of cultural management, a key area for fostering the emergence of domestic cultural enterprises and industries.

 

Governance

8 STANDARD-SETTING FRAMEWORK FOR CULTURE: 0.70/1 (2013)

Namibia’s result of 0.70/1 indicates that the country is on the right track and has made many efforts to ratify key international legal instruments affecting cultural development, cultural rights and cultural diversity, as well as to establish a national framework to recognize...

Standard-setting framework for culture: ()

8 STANDARD-SETTING FRAMEWORK FOR CULTURE: 0.70/1 (2013)

Namibia’s result of 0.70/1 indicates that the country is on the right track and has made many efforts to ratify key international legal instruments affecting cultural development, cultural rights and cultural diversity, as well as to establish a national framework to recognize and implement these obligations.

Namibia scored 0.59/1 at the international level, which shows movement in the right direction. Namibia has ratified several important conventions such as the 1972 Convention concerning the Protection of World Cultural and Natural Heritage, the 2003 Convention for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage and the 2005 Convention of the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions, all of which are particularly important to the Namibian cultural context. Namibia is still working towards the ratification of certain key international instruments for the protection of cultural assets, such as the 1970 Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property, the 1995 UNIDROIT Convention on Stolen or Illegally Exported Cultural Objects, and the 1954 Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict.

At the national level, a score of 0.75/1 indicates that national efforts have been made to implement many of the international obligations that Namibia has agreed to at the country level. However, similar to the international level, room for improvement still remains as several key items continue to be missing from the national legislation and regulatory frameworks. For example, no ‘framework law’ for culture exists, and although a sectoral law exists for television and radio, no such laws exist for other sub-sectors such as heritage, books, cinema or music. In the same vein, the lack of regulations dealing with the tax status of culture, such as tax exemptions and incentives designed to benefit the culture sector specifically, also reveals some deficiencies in the establishment of a coherent normative system for supporting the emergence of viable domestic cultural industries that could respond to the proven demand.

CDIS Methodology was developed thanks to the financial support of
Government of Spain

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email: cdis@unesco.org