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Cambodia

Communication

19 FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION: 37/100 (2012) The 1993 Constitution of the Kingdom of Cambodia asserts “Khmer citizens shall have freedom of expression, press, publication and assembly” (Article 41).  Cambodia’s score of 37/100 indicates that their print, broadcast, and internet-based media is currently ‘not free,...
Freedom of expression: ()
19 FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION: 37/100 (2012)
 
The 1993 Constitution of the Kingdom of Cambodia asserts “Khmer citizens shall have freedom of expression, press, publication and assembly” (Article 41). 
 
Cambodia’s score of 37/100 indicates that their print, broadcast, and internet-based media is currently ‘not free,’ falling just below the benchmark of ‘partly free’ media. This score illustrates the efforts made to support an enabling environment in Cambodia for free media to operate and in which freedom of expression is respected and promoted. Such an environment is a condition for fostering the free flow of ideas, knowledge, information and content, for building knowledge societies, and enhancing creativity, innovation and cultural diversity.
 
Room for improvement remains in the economic, political and legal environments of Cambodia. Media ownership is a key economic factor that has been highlighted as an obstacle. In 2011, the Department of Media and Communication (DMC) of the Royal University of Phnom Penh reported that media ownership has a large impact on the freedom and quality of the press, as the majority of media organizations are partly or entirely owned by the state. This restrictive ownership structure induces censorship and self-censorship, hindering freedom of speech and the flow of information. Similarly, political control and influence on content also remain a concern. Finally, insufficient enforcement of legislation also obstructs the full enjoyment of these freedoms. Although the Constitution and the 1995 Press Law guarantee the freedom of expression, there have been several reports of journalists and political activists being threatened or physically attacked for their critical expressions on sensitive issues. While the basis for a strong legal environment is in place, enhanced efforts are necessary for its implementation.

 

20 ACCESS AND INTERNET USE: 3.1% (2011) In 2011, 3.1% of Cambodians used the Internet. While this result is significantly lower than neighboring countries (Laos 9%, Thailand 23.7%, Vietnam 35.1%), Internet use has been and continues to rapidly develop in the country. Cambodia's Internet users have more than doubled in recent years: only 0...
Access and Internet use: ()
20 ACCESS AND INTERNET USE: 3.1% (2011)
 
In 2011, 3.1% of Cambodians used the Internet. While this result is significantly lower than neighboring countries (Laos 9%, Thailand 23.7%, Vietnam 35.1%), Internet use has been and continues to rapidly develop in the country. Cambodia's Internet users have more than doubled in recent years: only 0.5% of the population used the Internet in 2008. 
 
Increased Internet access may be a means to increase media freedom and the freedom of expression. However, such rapid change is sparking new discussions and the Cambodian Centre for Human Rights (CCHR) reported that several bloggers and technology experts fear that Internet freedoms might be curbed by the government’s draft Cyber Law in the near future.
 

In the National Strategic Development Plan (2009-2013), the Royal Government recognizes Internet access as a facilitator of economic growth, and accordingly promotes the use of ICTs, including the Internet, to facilitate business and promote small and medium enterprises. Given the authorities’ acknowledgment of the role the Internet plays in boosting the economy and encouraging new forms of access, creation, production, and the dissemination of ideas, information and cultural content, Cambodia’s currently low result may reflect the immediate need to increase investments in the development of infrastructures, policies and measures to facilitate the use of new technologies. The country may also need to address issues such as pricing, bandwidth, skills, public facilities, content and applications targeting low-end users in order to bring more people online.

 

Fiction_Cambodia
21 DIVERSITY OF FICTIONAL CONTENT ON PUBLIC TELEVISION: 23.7% (2013)  In Cambodia, approximately 23.7% of the broadcasting time of television fiction programmes on public free-to-air television is dedicated to domestic fiction programmes. Programming domestic production, and particularly fictions with a high share of cultural...
Fiction_Cambodia
Diversity of fictional content on public television: ()
21 DIVERSITY OF FICTIONAL CONTENT ON PUBLIC TELEVISION: 23.7% (2013) 
 
In Cambodia, approximately 23.7% of the broadcasting time of television fiction programmes on public free-to-air television is dedicated to domestic fiction programmes.
 
Programming domestic production, and particularly fictions with a high share of cultural content, may increase the population’s level of information on national events and issues, while also helping to build or strengthen identities and promoting cultural diversity. Moreover, public broadcasting has major implications for the development of the domestic audio-visual industry, as well as for the flourishing of local cultural expressions and creative products. During the reference week for this indicator, domestic fiction productions included one Khmer film, one theater production adapted to television, and educational serials produced by NGOs such as Women Media Center. No co-produced fiction programmes were aired. Foreign content accounted for three-fourths of all broadcasting time for fiction programmes and are dominated by Chinese serials and films. Korean and Japanese fiction programmes also have a presence, as well as foreign produced children’s serials. 
 
An additional indicator on the diversity of creative content in public television programming, including both fiction programmes, as well as music programmes on public free-to-air television, reveals that when including Khmer musical productions made for television, the ratio of domestic creative content increases to 31%. 
 
Cambodia’s result is consistent with the average result for test phase countries of the CDIS, which is situated at 25.8%. Nevertheless, while these figures suggest diverse content offerings, the minority of domestic fiction programmes and lack of co-productions may reflect production capacities of the domestic television industry not reaching their full potential, or low levels of public support for local cultural industries and the dissemination of domestic content (including co-productions). Cross-analysis with Economy, Education and Governance dimension indicators shed more light on the issue. The lack of a regulatory framework for the TV sector, the limited opportunities to study film and image, and the marginal levels of formal employment in the sector (0.2% employed in ‘motion picture, video and television programme production, postproduction, distribution, and projection activities’), suggest a need for added public support through regulatory policies, financial schemes, and other incentives to stimulate local television industries.

Gender-Equality

17 GENDER EQUALITY OBJECTIVE OUTPUTS: 0.62/1 (2013) The Constitution of the Kingdom of Cambodia states that “all forms of discrimination against women shall be abolished. The exploitation of women in employment shall be prohibited. Men and women are equal in all fields especially with respect to marriage and family matters…...
Gender equality objectives outputs: ()
17 GENDER EQUALITY OBJECTIVE OUTPUTS: 0.62/1 (2013)
 
The Constitution of the Kingdom of Cambodia states that “all forms of discrimination against women shall be abolished. The exploitation of women in employment shall be prohibited. Men and women are equal in all fields especially with respect to marriage and family matters…” (Article 45). In addition, the Constitution guarantees the respect for citizens’ fundamental rights contained in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international human rights instruments.
 
The result of 0.62/1 reflects a medium degree of objective gender equality and the efforts made by the Cambodian government in order to elaborate and implement laws, policies and measures intended to support the ability of women and men to enjoy equal opportunities and rights. Such a result is consistent with the average result for test phase countries of the CDIS, which is situated at 0.64/1.
 
A detailed analysis of the four areas covered by the indicator, reveals significant gaps where additional investments are needed to improve gender equality basic outputs. Little divergence is recorded for the average number of years of education for men and women aged 25 years and above, or for labour force participation rates of men and women. Yet, progress can still be made regarding political participation and gender equity legislation. Women represent only 20.3% of parliamentarians since the 2008 elections. Nevertheless, this percentage still indicates that the situation has improved greatly since the 1993 elections when only 5.8% of elected representatives were women. Still, 20.3% remains a low result compared to the target of 30% set by the Cambodia Millennium Development Goals (CMDGs) for the year 2015. Currently, no quota system exists to favour women’s political participation. Regarding other gender equity legislation, several legal instruments are already in place to protect against domestic violence and sexual harassment: the reformed Criminal Code; the 2005 Law on the Prevention of Domestic Violence and Protection of Victims, the National Action Plan to Combat Violence Against Women, the 2008 Law on the Suppression of Human Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation and the amended Marriage and Family Law. However, though these laws and measures show that Cambodia is moving in the right direction to create a legislative framework, the implementation of laws on domestic violence is obstructed by inconsistent enforcement and cultural norms that continue to hamper women’s rights. Policies require people, and a further look into the additional subjective indicators below reveals the persistence of negative cultural values, attitudes and practices in Cambodia, which reinforce the subordinate role of women and hamper their full and equal participation in all spheres of life.

 

18 PERCEPTION OF GENDER EQUALITY (ADDITIONAL INDICATORS) 94% of married women feel that they have a say in how their own cash earnings are spent, either individually or jointly with their husbands, suggesting that employment is a source of empowerment for Cambodian women. Similarly, 93% of married women felt that they have a role in household...
Perception of gender equality: ()
18 PERCEPTION OF GENDER EQUALITY (ADDITIONAL INDICATORS)
 
94% of married women feel that they have a say in how their own cash earnings are spent, either individually or jointly with their husbands, suggesting that employment is a source of empowerment for Cambodian women. Similarly, 93% of married women felt that they have a role in household decision-making regarding major household purchases, daily necessities and visits to her family. 
 
In contrast with the positive figures, serious negative culturally based perceptions on gender equality and the role of women in the society persist in other key areas like violence against women. Indeed, only 66% of the population believe that a husband is never justified in beating his wife; the other 34% of the population agrees that beating one’s wife can be justified for the following reasons: she burns the food, argues with him, goes out without telling him, neglects the children, refuses to have sexual intercourse with him, or asks him to use a condom. Variation exists across age groups, ranging from 62.1% of the population between the ages of 40-44 to 69.1% of the population aged 20-24 agreeing that domestic violence is never justified.  An astoundingly low figure of 54.3% of women agree that being beaten can never be justified, while 77.6 % of men agree with this statement. This indicates that domestic violence is not only accepted by over one-third of the population, but it is more widely accepted amongst women, nearly half of which believe it is justifiable. 
 
>> This cross-analysis of the subjective and objective indicators reveals that both select gaps in objective outputs remain in Cambodia, as well as inconsistencies between the implementation of forward-looking gender equity legislation and the population’s attitudes and values in this area. Advocacy efforts are needed to target attitudes and women’s perceptions of themselves, as well as the persisting cultural norms that may hinder the equal assurance of basic fundamental rights. The Ministry of Planning’s report on Achieving Cambodia’s Millennium Development Goals (2010) also concluded that challenges remain to address attitudes and behaviors underlying gender-based violence and the stigmatization of victims.

Governance

9 POLICY AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR CULTURE: 0.36/1 (2012) The result of 0.36/1 illustrates a low degree of development of a policy and institutional framework for culture, and that additional efforts by national authorities are needed to establish targeted policies and mechanisms to promote culture and to establish an adequate political...
Policy and institutional framework for culture: ()
9 POLICY AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR CULTURE: 0.36/1 (2012)
 
The result of 0.36/1 illustrates a low degree of development of a policy and institutional framework for culture, and that additional efforts by national authorities are needed to establish targeted policies and mechanisms to promote culture and to establish an adequate political and administrative system to implement the legal instruments seen above. Indeed, Cambodia’s result is significantly below the average result of test phase countries of the CDIS for this indicator, which is 0.79/1. 
 
Cambodia scored 0.27/1 for the Policy Framework sub-indicator, drawing attention to several gaps, most notably the lack of a national policy or strategic framework to promote culture, cultural sectors, creativity and cultural diversity, as well as the absence of culture in national development plans and strategies. Although culture has been indirectly included in development strategies such as the Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers of 2002-2005 and 2006, the main reference is to tourism and not culture in its own right. Other key gaps in the policy framework include the absence of sectoral policies, which currently only exist for heritage and have been developed in recent years in connection with tourism. There are no sectoral policies, strategies or frameworks for books and publishing, music, cinema, radio and television, or other cultural sectors. However, the first national Cultural Policy is currently being elaborated and thus this indicator is likely to change considerably in the near future.
 
Cambodia scored 0.42/1 for the Institutional Framework sub-indicator, which assesses the operationalization of institutional mechanisms and the degree of cultural decentralization. Many crucial institutional bodies are already in place, including the Ministry of Culture, the Culture Committee in Parliament, and decentralized authorities at the provincial level. Yet, significant areas for improvement remain, particularly in regards to funding mechanisms.  Currently, there are no public funding or subsidy mechanisms, or publically funded organizations for the promotion of specific cultural sectors. This coincides with the absence of a regular and stable programme budget for culture. The National Strategic Development Plan (NSDP) indicated that for 2009, only 0.51% of the national budget was allocated to culture and that this was projected to decrease to 0.47% in 2013. In addition, no regulatory authorities for audio-visual media exist and in the last 12 months there have been no training programs for public authorities or administrators working in culture.

 

10 DISTRIBUTION OF CULTURAL INFRASTRUCTURES: 0.15/1 (2012) The Constitution of the Kingdom of Cambodia recognizes the right to participate in cultural life. However, the distribution of cultural infrastructure in Cambodia indicates limited opportunities for the population to enjoy and participate in culture. Although not specific to culture,...
Distribution of cultural infrastructures: ()
10 DISTRIBUTION OF CULTURAL INFRASTRUCTURES: 0.15/1 (2012)
 
The Constitution of the Kingdom of Cambodia recognizes the right to participate in cultural life. However, the distribution of cultural infrastructure in Cambodia indicates limited opportunities for the population to enjoy and participate in culture. Although not specific to culture, the 2008 Rectangular Strategy for Cambodia prioritizes the further development of infrastructure.
 
On a scale from 0 to 1, Cambodia’s result for this indicator is 0.15, 1 representing the situation in which selected cultural infrastructures are available and equally distributed amongst regions according to the relative size of their population. The score of 0.15 thus reflects that very limited cultural infrastructures are available nation-wide and significant inequality in distribution persists.
 
When looking at the figures for the three different categories of infrastructures, the results are 0.18/1 for Museums, 0.13/1 for Exhibition Venues Dedicated to the Performing Arts and 0.13/1 for Libraries and Media Resource Centers. According to available national statistics, only the provinces of Battambang, Siem Riep and the Phnom Penh municipality have access to a variety of infrastructures. Alternatively, no cultural infrastructures of any kind can be found in Kampot, Oddar Meanchey, Pailin, Preah Vihear, Pursat, Ratanakiri or Stung Treng provinces. Likewise, in eight provinces there are no Museums, no public Libraries were registered outside urban centres, and only five provinces have Exhibition Venues for Performing Arts– Battambang, Kampong Chhnang, Siem Riep, Takeo and Phnom Penh. These gaps indicate that a comprehensive system of public cultural infrastructures has yet to be developed. Improving equality of access to cultural infrastructures could increase opportunities to take part in cultural and creative activities, as well as promote the development of the creative industries by providing infrastructure for the production and consumption of cultural goods and services. NGO initiatives to provide mobile cultural infrastructures are one way that the obstacle is currently being addressed, but such projects remain punctual non-governmental actions. Though Cambodia’s results are below average, which is situated at 0.43/1, this is a crucial and common challenge among all countries that have implemented the CDIS.

 

11 CIVIL SOCIETY PARTICIPATION IN CULTURAL GOVERNANCE: 0/1 (2012) The 1993 Constitution of the Kingdom of Cambodia states that “Khmer citizens of either sex shall have the right to participate actively in the political, economic, social and cultural life of the nation" (Article 35). In contrast, the final result of 0/1 for this...
Civil Society participation in cultural Governance: ()
11 CIVIL SOCIETY PARTICIPATION IN CULTURAL GOVERNANCE: 0/1 (2012)
 
The 1993 Constitution of the Kingdom of Cambodia states that “Khmer citizens of either sex shall have the right to participate actively in the political, economic, social and cultural life of the nation" (Article 35). In contrast, the final result of 0/1 for this indicator highlights the absence of opportunities for cultural professionals and minorities to take part in the formulation and implementation of cultural policies, measures and programmes that concern them. 
 
While the draft national Cultural Policy proposes the creation of an Arts Forum for the participation and representation of cultural professionals, no formal mechanisms or structures for the participation of minorities in cultural governance are currently in place or being developed. Meetings, workshops or seminars organized by NGOs or civil society organizations seldom include dialogue with public authorities, and recognized indigenous issues are primarily limited to the recognition of indigenous collective identities and land possession. In the recent past, the Indigenous Rights Active Members (IRAM)’s Forum provided indigenous minorities a milieu for dialogue, and in 2008-2009, monthly forums for dialogue at the provincial level were guaranteed by NGOs. However, IRAM has not yet formalized its association status with national authorities.
 
The culture sector benefits from broadly based participatory processes to formulate and implement useful and effective policies and measures that meet the needs of the individuals and communities for whom they are intended. The absence of mechanisms for the participation of cultural professionals and minorities is a significant weakness in Cambodia’s cultural governance and an obstacle for fostering a vibrant culture sector.

Heritage

Heritage Cambodia
22 HERITAGE SUSTAINABILITY: 0.71/1 (2014) Cambodia’s result of 0.71/1 is reflective of the high level of priority given to the protection, safeguarding and promotion of heritage sustainability by Cambodian authorities. While many public efforts are dedicated to registrations and inscriptions, conservation and management, capacity-...
Heritage Cambodia Heritage Cambodia
Heritage sustainability: ()
22 HERITAGE SUSTAINABILITY: 0.71/1 (2014)
 
Cambodia’s result of 0.71/1 is reflective of the high level of priority given to the protection, safeguarding and promotion of heritage sustainability by Cambodian authorities. While many public efforts are dedicated to registrations and inscriptions, conservation and management, capacity-building, and raising-awareness; select persisting gaps in community involvement and stimulating support amongst the civil society and private sector call for additional actions to improve this multidimensional framework.
 
Cambodia scored 0.77/1 for registration and inscriptions, indicating that authorities’ efforts have resulted in many up-to-date national and international registrations and inscriptions of Cambodian sites and elements of tangible and intangible heritage. Cambodia has 3490 heritage sites on their national registry, as well as a national inventory of 146 elements of intangible heritage. Government efforts have successfully resulted in 2 heritage sites receiving recognition of being World Heritage – Angkor (1992) and the Temple of Preah Vihear (2008), as well as 2 elements of intangible heritage being included on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity ¬– the Royal Ballet (2008) and the Khmer Shadow Theatre (2008). However, while a national registry is in place comprising over 33,104 items of cultural property and movable heritage, no database of stolen cultural objects yet exists despite the country’s ratification of the UNIDROIT Convention on Stolen or Illegally Exported Cultural Objects (1995) and the Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property (1970).
 
Cambodia scored 0.86/1 for the protection, safeguarding and management of heritage, indicating that there are several well-defined policies and measures, as well as efforts to build capacity, but certain key gaps persist regarding community involvement. Several recent policies and measures have been taken in the last 5 years to assure current registries are in place, structure archaeological excavations, prevent illicit trafficking, and provide updated management plans for registered heritage sites. Though cross-analysis with the Education dimension draws attention to a lack of regular technical and vocational training opportunities in the area of heritage, the results of this indicator highlight the comprehensive coverage of multiple programmes carried out to increase heritage site management staff’s expertise, communities’ knowledge of intangible heritage, and to increase expertise concerning illicit trafficking. However, gaps in the framework can still be identified. To date, no explicit reference to cultural heritage’s role for development is made in national development plans, though the inclusion of heritage in future plans is currently being drafted for proposal. Furthermore, while authorities recognize that local communities are to be included in registry and inventorying processes for tangible and intangible heritage, in the last 2 years, no measures or practices have been adopted to actively involve communities in heritage protection, the fight against illicit trafficking, or to respect customary practices governing access to specific aspects of intangible cultural.
 
Cambodia scored 0.45/1 for the transmission and mobilization of support, which reflects that while many efforts have been made to raise awareness of heritage’s value, much more has yet to be done to gain the support of the civil society and private sector. In addition to signage at heritage sites and differential pricing, visitor centres at major sites, community centres and national public education programmes are used as mediums to spread the message about heritage’s significance. However, heritage has not been included in school programmes in the last 2 years in order to more specifically target a youth audience. Finally, no specific measures have been implemented to involve civil society and/or the private sector in heritage protection, conservation, or transmission. Encouraging the formation of private foundations to assist in the protection of heritage and explicit agreements with tour operators are two means to be explored further.

Social-Participation

15 INTERPERSONAL TRUST: 7.7% (2008)  In 2008, 7.7% of Cambodians agreed that most people can be trusted. This result indicates a low level of trust and solidarity as the average for countries having implemented the CDIS is situated at 19.2% of the population. In contrast, the National Strategic Development Plan (2009-2013) recognizes the...
Interpersonal trust: ()
15 INTERPERSONAL TRUST: 7.7% (2008) 
 
In 2008, 7.7% of Cambodians agreed that most people can be trusted. This result indicates a low level of trust and solidarity as the average for countries having implemented the CDIS is situated at 19.2% of the population. In contrast, the National Strategic Development Plan (2009-2013) recognizes the importance for Cambodia to enhance national identity and solidarity, and to strengthen peace and reconciliation in the country. Analyzing the data further reveals variations between men and women, as well as across age groups. Only 5.2% of women say most people can be trusted, while nearly twice as many men agree (10.2%). The results for different age groups vary from 3.6% of the people aged 17-34 to 11.6% of people 65+, suggesting an increasing trend with age. Such low figures indicate that obstacles continue to hinder trust, solidarity and reconciliation in the country. In the Cambodian context, the years of the Khmer Rouge regime and warfare certainly have had an impact, tearing apart communities and relationships. The purges and ‘re-education’ of the era, as well as the separation of villages, people and families resulted in feelings of insecurity and interpersonal trust became difficult. The end of the regime was followed by years of poverty, instability and guerrilla warfare. These factors may explain residual cultural values, attitudes and norms that thwart an ideal social context.
 
In the same survey, 32.8% of Cambodians agreed that they can ‘trust in other people you interact with’. This additional indicator nuances the analysis of solidarity within Cambodia and suggests a higher degree of trust than the core indicator, assessing trust of others that are interacted with apart from those closest to the individual (i.e. other than relatives or neighbours).
 
While the NSDP has recognized the importance of such issues, progress is not stated as a clear objective and no indicators for monitoring change have been adopted. Furthermore, given the great disparity between the core and additional indicator, it is highly recommended to clearly establish social objectives in national development plans and integrate social questions into regular national surveys to investigate and monitor the topic of trust more thoroughly.

Colombia

Communication

Internet Colombia
20 ACCESS AND INTERNET USE: 40.4% (2011)  In 2011, 40.4% of the population aged 5 and above in Colombia had access and used the Internet. While more than half of the population continued to not have access to the Internet in 2011, when compared to the national average of 2.21% in 2000 and 36.4% in 2010, this result illustrates the rapid...
Internet Colombia Internet Colombia
Access and Internet use: ()
20 ACCESS AND INTERNET USE: 40.4% (2011) 
 
In 2011, 40.4% of the population aged 5 and above in Colombia had access and used the Internet. While more than half of the population continued to not have access to the Internet in 2011, when compared to the national average of 2.21% in 2000 and 36.4% in 2010, this result illustrates the rapid development of the sector. This growth in access and use of the Internet can be attributed to the efforts of the Ministry of Information Technologies and Communications, to promote access, effective use and massive appropriation of ICTs through various official policies and programs. 
 
ICTs are considerably transforming the way people access, create, produce and disseminate cultural content and ideas, influencing people’s opportunities to access and participate in cultural life. Connecting to the Internet can be done from home, work, public areas, or educational facilities. In addition to the use of the Internet as a means of communication, accessing information and learning, 65.7% of the population that used the Internet in 2011 stated that they had used it as a means of entertainment, which included the enjoyment of online cultural content.
 
Access to and use of the Internet continues to be dependent on socio-economic factors. Users are predominantly youths and individuals with higher levels of education. Of the population surveyed in 2011, 83% of the people aged 12-24 responded yes, and 92% of respondents with a post-secondary education used the Internet. However, only 16% of respondents from rural areas had access to and used the Internet, and only 14% of respondents 55 years of age or older similarly responded. These figures demonstrate ongoing challenges for consideration when developing targeted policies to further increase Internet access amongst all Colombians.

 

Freedom Expression Colombia
19 FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION: 45/100 (2012)  The 1991 Constitution of Colombia recognizes freedom of the press, the professional independence of journalists and the freedom on information (Article 20).  Colombia’s score of 45/100 indicates that their print, broadcast, and internet-based media is currently ‘partly free...
Freedom Expression Colombia Freedom Expression Colombia
Freedom of expression: ()
19 FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION: 45/100 (2012) 
 
The 1991 Constitution of Colombia recognizes freedom of the press, the professional independence of journalists and the freedom on information (Article 20). 
 
Colombia’s score of 45/100 indicates that their print, broadcast, and internet-based media is currently ‘partly free’. A relatively stable environment of independence from the government during the past 50 years has resulted in incremental progress; in 2012, Colombia had a score of 39.5/100. However, these results illustrate that additional efforts are still needed to support an enabling environment for free media to operate and in which freedom of expression is fully respected and promoted. Such an environment is a condition for fostering the free flow of ideas, knowledge, information and content, for building knowledge societies, and enhancing creativity, innovation and cultural diversity.
 
Room for improvement remains in the economic, political and legal environments of Colombia. One of the most significant political obstacles is self-censorship that is particularly frequent during election periods. In regards to the economic environment, media is predominantly privately owned in Colombia. The Ministry of Information Technologies and Communications is responsible for the licensing of radio stations and the National Television Authority (ANTV) regulates television independently. Unfortunately, many decisions to grant licenses are still mediated by political motivations.  Finally, while the legal environment presents satisfactory conditions, controversial court rulings on libel and slander have occurred and can have a negative impact on the effective freedom of expression. 
 
An additional subjective indicator reveals that in 2009, only 26.9% of Colombians agreed that freedom of expression was fully guaranteed. The remaining 73.1% of the population did not feel that they were entirely free, though 33.9% did feel that freedom of expression was ‘fairly guaranteed.’ This additional subjective indicator provides complimentary information on the assessment of the freedom of expression by evaluating to what degree individuals feel that they have the right to exercise this freedom at all times.

Economy

Employment Colombia
2 CULTURAL EMPLOYMENT:  2.1% (2012) In 2012, 2.1% of the employed population in Colombia had occupations in cultural establishments (430,000 people). 72% of these individuals held occupations in central cultural activities, while 28% held occupations in equipment/supporting related activities. While already significant, the global...
Employment Colombia
Cultural Employment: ()
2 CULTURAL EMPLOYMENT:  2.1% (2012)
 
In 2012, 2.1% of the employed population in Colombia had occupations in cultural establishments (430,000 people). 72% of these individuals held occupations in central cultural activities, while 28% held occupations in equipment/supporting related activities.
 
While already significant, the global contribution of the culture sector to employment is underestimated in this indicator since it does not cover cultural occupations performed in non-cultural establishments or induced occupations with a strong link to culture. In addition, this figure likely does not cover all informal employment in the culture sector due to the reluctance of some participants to convey such occupations during official surveys. Informal employment is likely a significant share of the labour market, and in many cases informality is explained by the difficulty for artists to provide sustainability to their projects, entrepreneurship or cultural enterprises. Nevertheless, this result highlights culture’s important role as an employer in Colombia, showing how cultural and creative enterprises contribute to the generation of income and the material wellbeing of a significant percentage of the population.

 

 

GDP Colombia
1 CONTRIBUTION OF CULTURAL ACTIVITIES TO GDP: 3.41% (2008) In 2008, cultural activities contributed to 3.41% of the Colombian Gross Domestic Product (GDP), which indicates that culture is responsible for a significant part of national production, and that it helps generate income and sustain the livelihoods of its citizens. 49% of this...
GDP Colombia
Contribution of cultural activities to GDP: ()
1 CONTRIBUTION OF CULTURAL ACTIVITIES TO GDP: 3.41% (2008)
 
In 2008, cultural activities contributed to 3.41% of the Colombian Gross Domestic Product (GDP), which indicates that culture is responsible for a significant part of national production, and that it helps generate income and sustain the livelihoods of its citizens. 49% of this contribution is the result of central cultural activities, and 51% of equipment/supporting cultural activities. Culture’s overall contribution to the national economy is non-negligeable when compared to that of important industries such as land transportation (3.21%) and construction (3.20%).
 
While already indicating a vibrant sector, culture’s contribution to GDP is underestimated by this indicator as it only takes into consideration private and formal cultural activities. Cultural activities that take place in the informal economy and non-market establishments, as well as the indirect and induced impacts of the culture sector are not incorporated in the calculations but may be significant. 
 
Nevertheless, this indicator offers valuable new information on the profits generated by cultural activities at the national level. Furthermore, the recently created Satellite Account for Culture offers accurate data to analyze the evolution of culture’s contribution to the GDP between the years 2005 and 2008. The central cultural activities that contributed the most to national GDP are television, radio and advertising, accounting for 20.25% of culture’s entire contribution to GDP in 2008. Theatrical and musical performances and other artistic activities had a growth of 68.75% during the period from 2005-2008.  Similarly, while art, design and publishing services accounted for only 0.87% of culture’s total contribution to GDP in 2008, the profits of this sub-sector grew by over 241% during the same period. The largest contributors in the category of equipment/supporting activities include telecommunication activities and printing, accounting for 40.2% and 7.29% of culture’s total contribution in 2008, respectively, and having profits that grew by 67.85% and 54.98% since 2005.
 
Such growth across the many culture sub-sectors illustrates the emergence of dynamic enterprises and underlines the need for more policies like the recent 2011 Entertainment Act to further stimulate the on-going growth of the cultural and creative industries. Such policies can have a substantial impact, as demonstrated by a cross-analysis with the CDIS indicators of the Communication and Governance dimensions, which highlight recent policies to promote the production and distribution of national films and fiction through national support mechanisms, incentives and regulations. Illustrating the potential impact of strengthened public support, the profits of the production and distribution of films grew by 91.61% between 2005 and 2008 and generated an added value of 131 million Colombian pesos in 2008.

 

Household expenditures Colombia
3 HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURE ON CULTURE: 2.75% (2007) In Colombia, 2.75% of household consumption expenditures were devoted to cultural activities, goods and services in the year 2007. 65% of household cultural consumption expenditures was spent on central cultural goods and services, and 35% on equipment/supporting goods and services. The...
Household expenditures Colombia
Household expenditures on culture: ()
3 HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURE ON CULTURE: 2.75% (2007)
 
In Colombia, 2.75% of household consumption expenditures were devoted to cultural activities, goods and services in the year 2007. 65% of household cultural consumption expenditures was spent on central cultural goods and services, and 35% on equipment/supporting goods and services. The purchase of technical books and school supplies (29.4%), cable TV services (26.6%), entry fees to cinemas (4.5%) and live shows (3.5%) were responsible for the largest shares of central cultural goods and services. In the category of support and equipment, significant shares were spent on computers (17.3%), conventional televisions (17.1%) and Internet subscriptions fees (16.5%).
 
Though already indicative of a real demand for cultural goods, this final result of 2.9% is a sub-estimation of the total actual consumption of households. It does not account for the value of cultural goods and services acquired by households and provided by non-profit institutions at prices that are not economically significant (e.g. in-kind transfers). Similarly, spending on cultural products that are not directly financed by households, such as design services and advertisements, are not taken into consideration. 
 
Nevertheless, this indicator offers valuable new information on cultural consumption practices and a further look at consumption according to income quintiles reveals that the consumption of cultural goods and services varies greatly with the level of household income. More than half of total annual cultural expenditures (54%) were carried out by households in the highest quintile, while only 5% were carried out by the lowest quintile. Furthermore, a significant difference between consumption in urban (1.14%) and rural (0.30%) households can be noted. In addition, less than half of all households surveyed actually consumed cultural goods and services, highlighting access inequities. When only considering households that have consumed cultural goods, 2.6% of average monthly expenditures are spent on central cultural goods and services alone; while in the category of equipment/supporting goods and services, these households spent 3.7% of all expenditures on televisions and cameras and 4.7% on new technologies such as Internet subscription services. Such inequities and the dominance of equipment/supporting expenditures merit consideration when formulating and implementing policies and measures to promote more inclusive access to cultural life.

Education

Multilingual Education Colombia

5 MULTILINGUAL EDUCATION (ADDITIONAL INDICATOR)

 The General Law of Education (1994) states that the teaching of foreign languages is mandatory in Colombia. The promotion of linguistic diversity and the learning of a second language is seen as essential to increase employment opportunities and career development but also to facilitate...
Multilingual Education Colombia
Multilingual Education: ()

5 MULTILINGUAL EDUCATION (ADDITIONAL INDICATOR)

 
The General Law of Education (1994) states that the teaching of foreign languages is mandatory in Colombia. The promotion of linguistic diversity and the learning of a second language is seen as essential to increase employment opportunities and career development but also to facilitate access to a wider range of information, knowledge, cultural expressions and to promote multiculturalism. However, the educational system in Colombia is autonomous and the Institutional Educational Projects (PEI) are very diverse in schools, influencing the actual teaching of foreign languages. In many cases students resolve to use extracurricular hours to progress in the learning of a second language. 
 
However, international linguistic diversity and foreign languages are not the only ones to be valued. In a country like Colombia, actions are also necessary to promote domestic linguistic diversity and ensure the preservation and teaching of native languages among communities, guaranteeing the sustainability of national intangible cultural heritage. Yet, in 2012, only 1.7% of public and private basic secondary schools offered ethno-education programmes. However, the majority of these programmes were carried out in public schools (96%). Similarly, while there are 7,530 ethno-education teachers in public schools, only 127 such teachers work in private schools. These figures indicate the valorization of authorities of this type of teaching. The remaining challenges are to increase these courses in urban areas where ethnic groups have settled, as well as to increase the opportunities for all students nation-wide to learn local and regional languages in order to further foster an appreciation for cultural diversity. Most (80%) ethno-education programmes are offered in rural areas.

 

Arts Education Colombia

6 ARTS EDUCATION (ALTERNATIVE INDICATOR): 6.2% (2012) 

Arts education is a mandatory component of infant, primary and secondary school curriculums according to the 1994 General Education Law (Article 23). Arts education nurtures creativity and innovation, empowers creative and artistic talents and provides a basis for the enjoyment of...
Arts Education Colombia
Arts Education: ()

6 ARTS EDUCATION (ALTERNATIVE INDICATOR): 6.2% (2012) 

Arts education is a mandatory component of infant, primary and secondary school curriculums according to the 1994 General Education Law (Article 23). Arts education nurtures creativity and innovation, empowers creative and artistic talents and provides a basis for the enjoyment of cultural expressions and cultural diversity, forming an educated audience and broadening horizons for personal development and cultural participation.  
 
In 2012, 6.2% of all basic secondary school teachers were arts teachers, of which 53.0% were women and 47.0% men. However, the weight given to arts education as illustrated by the percentage of teachers varies according to the type of school and geographic location. There is a higher percentage of arts teachers in private schools (7.7%) than in public schools (5.7%), and a greater presence in urban areas (6.7%) compared to rural areas (4.9%).

 

Professional Training Colombia
7 PROFESSIONAL TRAINING IN THE CULTURE SECTOR: 1/1 (2012)  Colombia’s result of 1/1 indicates that the national authorities have manifested a clear interest and willingness to invest in the training of cultural professionals. The coverage of the national public and government-dependent private technical and tertiary education is...
Professional Training Colombia
Professional Training in the culture sector: ()
7 PROFESSIONAL TRAINING IN THE CULTURE SECTOR: 1/1 (2012) 
 
Colombia’s result of 1/1 indicates that the national authorities have manifested a clear interest and willingness to invest in the training of cultural professionals. The coverage of the national public and government-dependent private technical and tertiary education is comprehensive and complete. The result of 1/1 indicates that at the national level at least one course is offered in all technical and tertiary fields considered by the indicator. Dominant areas of study are music, heritage, and visual arts.
 
Nevertheless, while this indicator reflects complete coverage, improvement remains regarding increasing diversification of courses, and distribution of access to these opportunities nation-wide.  While there are many Masters and Doctorate programs on the topics of museums, history, architecture and music, there are still insufficient courses for drama, dance, and film. Many students opt to leave Colombia to achieve such specialized diplomas. In addition, very few cultural management undergraduate and graduate programs exist, though it is an essential field of study for the development of a sustainable national cultural economy and dynamic cultural enterprises. Regarding the location of these courses, while there are TVET and university programs throughout the country, most opportunities are available in one of seven major cities (Bogota, Cali, Medellin, Barranquilla, Cartagena, Santa Marta and Bucaramanga). For example, most cultural management programs are offered in large cities. Though the demand for cultural training is higher in major cities, there continues to be a deficit of both technical and tertiary programmes outside of these areas.
 
Finally, recent initiatives like Colombia Creativa aim to resolve some outstanding obstacles for professional development of artists by allowing the validation of university credits for recognized artists without university studies to achieve a degree through the recognition of their knowledge and experience. This proposal is expected to ensure a greater number of graduate artists since the lack of degrees is often a barrier for many to access further training, answer calls for grants and the development of productive activities.   Additionally, a university degree is often required for artists’ skills and experience to be recognized in order to establish a service contract with the State.

 

Inclusive Education Colombia
4 INCLUSIVE EDUCATION: 0.94/1 (2011) The result of 0.94/1 reflects the success of national authorities in guaranteeing the fundamental cultural right to an education in a complete, fair and inclusive manner. This result shows that on average, the target population aged 17-22 has 9.8 years of schooling, which is only slightly below the...
Inclusive Education Colombia
Inclusive education: ()
4 INCLUSIVE EDUCATION: 0.94/1 (2011)
 
The result of 0.94/1 reflects the success of national authorities in guaranteeing the fundamental cultural right to an education in a complete, fair and inclusive manner. This result shows that on average, the target population aged 17-22 has 9.8 years of schooling, which is only slightly below the targeted average of 10 years. This result shows that public authorities’ efforts have been overwhelmingly successful in assuring that citizens enjoy the cultural right to an education, and participate in the construction and transmission of values, attitudes and cultural skills throughout school, as well as benefit from the personal and social empowerment of learning. However, in spite of this achievement, 4% of the Colombian population aged 17 to 22 years lives in education deprivation, having less than 4 years of schooling to acquire the basics skills of reading, writing and arithmetic. 
 
According to the National Statistics Institute (DANE), the illiteracy rate of the population aged 15 and over represented 5.8% of the total population in 2011, a rate that is higher in rural environments.  Indeed, ongoing barriers to education are present mainly in the rural areas of Colombia, where many teachers have difficulties accessing isolated locations and many children must leave school to work with their families. Another major challenge is to reach areas where illegal armed groups are present and children risk being victims of forced recruitment, excluding them from education and other personal development projects. To further enhance equality and education, targeted policies may still be necessary to address these issues and ensure an education for all Colombians.

Gender-Equality

Gender Equality Outputs Colombia
17 GENDER EQUALITY OBJECTIVE OUTPUTS: 0.64 /1 (2013) Since the early twentieth century when women’s movements were fighting for suffrage in Europe and North America, Colombian women have also been claiming their civil rights. Important milestones include the recognition of equal rights in 1932, which freed women from forced marriage...
Gender Equality Outputs Colombia
Gender equality objectives outputs: ()
17 GENDER EQUALITY OBJECTIVE OUTPUTS: 0.64 /1 (2013)
 
Since the early twentieth century when women’s movements were fighting for suffrage in Europe and North America, Colombian women have also been claiming their civil rights. Important milestones include the recognition of equal rights in 1932, which freed women from forced marriage bonds, and the obtainment of citizenship status and the right to vote in 1958. In the second half of the century, the Colombian government participated in key international conferences for women’s rights and ratified international instruments such as the Convention of Belém do Pará (1994) to prevent, punish and eradicate violence against women. In 1990, the Presidential Council for Youth, Women and Family was established as a response to Colombia’s adoption of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. Since 2010, this government body has been called the Presidential Office for Equality for Women and is to ensure the comprehensive and interdependent human rights of women and gender equality and to strengthen the issue of women and gender in State institutions at national and local levels. More recently yet, in 2013 the Colombian government approved the National Policy for Gender Equality for Women and an Indicative Action Plan 2013-2016 (CONPES 161), which includes a comprehensive plan to guarantee women a violence free life. As part of this new policy, the Colombian government is to invest 3.5 billion pesos in 6 substantial aspects of gender equality anchored in peace building and cultural transformation.
 
Within this context, the result of 0.64/1 reflects a medium degree of gender equality objective outputs and public efforts made to effectively elaborate and implement laws, policies and measures intended to support the ability of women and men to enjoy equal opportunities and rights. Colombia’s result suggests that the governments’ actions are similar to those of other countries as the average result for test phase countries of the CDIS is situated at 0.64/1. 
 
A detailed analysis of the four areas covered by the indicator reveals select persisting gaps where additional investment could further improve gender equality outputs. Little significant divergence can be noted in the areas of gender equity legislation or education. Yet, progress can still be made regarding labour force and political participation. In 2012, 42.7% of women were either employed or actively searching for work, compared to 57.3% of men. Progress also remains regarding the attainment of nationally determined objectives for women in politics. Despite the adoption of Act 581, or the ‘Quota Law,’ in 2000, which aims for 30% of high-level public positions to be held by women; in 2010, women only represented 12% of the elected members of the House of Representatives. Nevertheless, many women’s organizations advocate to raise the targets of the Quota Law to increase beyond 30% for public positions in the executive, legislative and judicial branches of the Colombian government.  
 
In Conclusion, while Colombia has made progress in select areas of gender equality, progress remains to be achieved in others. Policies require people, and a further look at the subjective indicator below suggests that Colombians are supportive of gender equality, as reflected by their cultural values and perceptions.

 

Perception Gender Equality Colombia

18 PERCEPTION OF GENDER EQUALITY (ALTERNATIVE INDICATOR): 80.5% (2005)  

 In 2005, 80.5% of Colombians positively perceived gender as a factor for development, according to their responses to questions regarding 2 domains that parallel the objective indicator for this dimension - political participation and education. The final...
Perception Gender Equality Colombia
Perception of gender equality: ()

18 PERCEPTION OF GENDER EQUALITY (ALTERNATIVE INDICATOR): 80.5% (2005)  

 
In 2005, 80.5% of Colombians positively perceived gender as a factor for development, according to their responses to questions regarding 2 domains that parallel the objective indicator for this dimension - political participation and education. The final result is a composite indicator, which suggests that more than three-fourths of the population of Colombia view gender as a significant factor for development. Individuals’ perceptions on gender equality are strongly influenced by cultural practices and norms, and Colombia’s high results reveal a social commitment to gender equality. This positive perception is higher for women (85.6%) than men (75.5%) and for younger populations with higher levels of education.
 
However, the perception of gender equality varied according to the domain of the question asked. Unsurprisingly, the most favourable perceptions were recorded in regards to education. When asked if “University is more important for a boy than for a girl,” an overwhelming majority of 90.2% of the population disagreed, suggesting that education is a domain in which gender equality is very likely to be perceived as positive for development. When asked if “Men make better political leaders than woman,” a slightly lower but still dominant majority of 70.7% of respondents did not agree, highlighting that still a third of the population either agree or strongly agree with this statement. The Political Culture Survey indicates that in 2011, 45.3% of the voting age population in Colombia had already voted for a woman. According to the same survey, 63.8% of the population recognized that the participation of women in political life is insufficient. While all figures are relatively high, and the esteem for women’s education is consistent with the objective outputs observed, the positive perceptions of the majority of the population who favorably perceive women in politics are not reflected by the low percentage of women in the House of Representatives.
 
>> This cross analysis of the objective and subjective indicators reveals that while attitudes and values of gender equality are reflected in education objective outputs, the majority’s positive perception of women in politics is not translated into tangible outcomes. These results suggest a need for more appropriate measures, programmes and investments to realize objective gender equality in politics and the public sector. Recent forward-looking instruments like the National Policy for Gender Equality for Women and the Indicative Plan of Action 2013-2016 (CONPES 161) are hoped to address these challenges.

Governance

Standard-setting framework Colombia
8 STANDARD-SETTING FRAMEWORK FOR CULTURE: 0.96/1 (2013) Colombia’s result of 0.96/1 indicates that there is already a significant standard-setting framework for culture in place and that the national authorities have made many efforts to ratify key international legal instruments affecting cultural development, cultural rights and...
Standard-setting framework Colombia
Standard-setting framework for culture: ()
8 STANDARD-SETTING FRAMEWORK FOR CULTURE: 0.96/1 (2013)
 
Colombia’s result of 0.96/1 indicates that there is already a significant standard-setting framework for culture in place and that the national authorities have made many efforts to ratify key international legal instruments affecting cultural development, cultural rights and cultural diversity, as well as to establish a national framework to recognize and implement these obligations.
 
Colombia scored 0.96/1 at the international level, highlighting the degree of priority given to culture and the country’s high level of commitment to international norms on cultural development, cultural rights and cultural diversity. Colombia has ratified many recommended international conventions, declarations and recommendations, such as the 1972 Convention concerning the Protection of World Cultural and Natural Heritage, the 2003 Convention for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage, the 2005 Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions, and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. However, Colombia has yet to ratify select international instruments such as the Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and the 2001 Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage, concluding that the latter goes against the country’s national interests.
 
At the national level, a score of 0.96/1 indicates that a great deal of effort has been made to implement many of the international obligations that Colombia has committed to, a vital step for the active implementation of these obligations. Principles relating to cultural rights and freedoms are established in the 1991 Constitution of Colombia, which is the main tool to ensure the preservation of cultural diversity and the basis for the development of cultural legislation. In addition, Colombia has a framework law for culture and a comprehensive legislative framework for the promotion of heritage, publishing, cinema, copyright, live cultural performances, television and radio. However, one omission to be noted in Colombia’s national-level standard-setting framework is the absence of laws, regulations or decrees promoting cultural patronage and sponsorship, which would help facilitate the private sector’s support of culture.  The proposed alternative in Colombia is the creation of mixed funds for culture, as outlined in the General Law on Culture (1997) including public and private actors. One successful example of these mechanisms is the Proimágenes en Movimiento Fund, which has played a major role in the development of the film industry in recent years.

 

Policy Colombia
9 POLICY AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR CULTURE: 0.95/1 (2013) The final result of 0.95/1 reflects that Colombian authorities have taken great efforts to create a comprehensive policy and institutional framework to promote the culture sector as part of development, by establishing targeted policies and mechanisms and by having an adequate...
Policy Colombia
Policy and institutional framework for culture: ()
9 POLICY AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR CULTURE: 0.95/1 (2013)
 
The final result of 0.95/1 reflects that Colombian authorities have taken great efforts to create a comprehensive policy and institutional framework to promote the culture sector as part of development, by establishing targeted policies and mechanisms and by having an adequate political and administrative system to implement the legal instruments seen above.  Colombia’s results are above the average result of test phase countries of the CDIS, which is 0.79/1.
 
Colombia scored 1/1 for the Policy Framework sub-indicator, indicating that a comprehensive body of well-defined culture and sectoral policies and strategies have been put in place to promote culture in the country. The Ministry of Culture’s 2010 Compendium of Cultural Policies collects the vast range of cultural policies present in Colombia, covering topics such as cultural diversity, ethnolinguistic diversity, arts education, indigenous and immigrants’ diversity and rights, and policies relevant to specific culture sub-sectors (heritage, museums, archives, literature, cinema, music, television, radio, visual arts, dance, theatre etc.). The aim of the Compendium is to summarize the historical evolution of policies and to present current challenges, making it a tool for public debate and the critical renewal of cultural policies. Programs like the National Incentives Program and the National Coordination Program have also been developed to further promote the arts and culture throughout the country.  In addition to extensive policies and strategies, culture has been explicitly integrated in the municipal development plans of 516 municipalities, the strengthening of the cultural industries is an objective in the National Development Plan (2010-2014), and documents of the National Council for Social and Economic Policy include specific targets for the promotion of culture.
 
Colombia scored 0.92/1 for the Institutional Framework sub-indicator, which assesses the operationalization of institutional mechanisms and the degree of cultural decentralization. Many positive factors account for such a result. Growing from the 1994-1995 National Plan for Culture and the 1991 Constitution, the Ministry of Culture of Colombia was created in 1997. The 1997 General Law of Culture was drafted with the participation of approximately 25,000 citizens, establishing the regulatory framework for the Ministry.
 
This new institutional framework implied culture’s presence in the decisions of the State, with its own Ministry and place within the Council of Ministers. The new plan also called for the decentralization of responsibilities, creating municipal, district and departmental institutions for the carrying-out of cultural policies and activities, and calling for civil society’s participation in decision processes. All 32 Departments have institutions responsible for culture, as do over half of all municipalities. However, while many decentralized institutions with specific budgets exist to assure effective cultural governance, one significant omission in Colombia’s framework is a of lack training programmes for officials and/or workers in the public administration of culture. No such trainings have been conducted in the last year.

 

Cultural Infrastructures Colombia
10 DISTRIBUTION OF CULTURAL INFRASTRUCTURES: 0.48/1 (2013) Colombia’s final result is 0.48/1, 1 representing the situation in which selected infrastructure are equally distributed amongst Departments according to the relative size of the population. The score of 0.48/1 thus reflects that across the 32 Departments of Colombia, there is...
Cultural Infrastructures Colombia Cultural Infrastructures Colombia
Distribution of cultural infrastructures: ()
10 DISTRIBUTION OF CULTURAL INFRASTRUCTURES: 0.48/1 (2013)
 
Colombia’s final result is 0.48/1, 1 representing the situation in which selected infrastructure are equally distributed amongst Departments according to the relative size of the population. The score of 0.48/1 thus reflects that across the 32 Departments of Colombia, there is an unequal distribution of cultural facilities.
 
When looking at the figures for the three different categories of infrastructures, Colombia scores 0.39/1 for Museums, 0.46/1 for Exhibition Venues Dedicated to the Performing Arts and 0.58/1 for Libraries and Media Resource Centers. This suggests that the most equal distribution of access exists for Libraries and Media Resource Centers, and that the most unequal distribution for Museums. While all Departments have access to at least one Library, not all Departments have access to Museums or Exhibition Venues and the concentration of facilities relative to population size varies greatly. For example, while the little populated Departments of Vaupés and Guainía have access to Libraries (4 and 2, respectively), they have no other cultural facilities. On the contrary, the Department of Bogotá is home to 16% of the population and has a total of 57 Museums (13%), 117 Exhibition Venues (28%), but the Department is underequipped in public Library facilities relative to the population, having only 2% of all such facilities nation-wide (22 Libraries). Generally speaking, the majority of all facilities are located in the capital and neighbouring Departments, as well as populated areas that draw significant tourism. Indeed more than half of all Museums and Exhibition Venues (52% and 56%, respectively) in the country are found in just 4 Departments – Antioquia, Bogotá, Boyacá and Valle del Cauca-  that collectively account for 42% of the population. However, these same 4 Departments only account for 28% of all public Libraries. Thus, although infrastructure networks are in place, led by institutions like the National Library and the National Museum, and laws and policies exist to promote cultural spaces, there are still obstacles to the equitable distribution of cultural facilities. This is a crucial and common challenge to all countries having implemented the CDIS as the average for this indicator is 0.43/1

 

Civil Society Colombia
11 CIVIL SOCIETY PARTICIPATION IN CULTURAL GOVERNANCE: 0.95/1 (2013) The final result of 0.95/1 indicates that many opportunities exist for dialogue and representation of both cultural professionals and minorities in regards to the formulation and implementation of cultural policies, measures and programmes that concern them. Such...
Civil Society Colombia
Civil Society participation in cultural Governance: ()
11 CIVIL SOCIETY PARTICIPATION IN CULTURAL GOVERNANCE: 0.95/1 (2013)
 
The final result of 0.95/1 indicates that many opportunities exist for dialogue and representation of both cultural professionals and minorities in regards to the formulation and implementation of cultural policies, measures and programmes that concern them. Such opportunities for participation in cultural governance exist at the national as well as regional and local levels.
 
The General Law of Culture 397 (1997) not only established the Ministry of Culture, but also the National Cultural System, which articulates the different public and private actors involved in the management and development of culture in Colombia, including municipal, district, departmental and national Councils for the Arts and Culture. The Ministry describes the System as a "set of closely linked instances, opportunities for participation and processes of institutional development, planning, financing, training, and information that enable cultural development and community access to cultural goods and services" in accordance with the principles of decentralization, diversity, participation and autonomy. Within this system at the national level, the National Culture Council acts as an advisory body to the Ministry regarding policy development and the monitoring of its implementation. In addition there are 11 active National Councils that address the specific areas of cinema, literature, heritage, native languages, visual arts, dance, music, theater and media. At sub-State levels there are 32 Departmental Culture Councils, of which 23 (72%) are active, having organized meetings over the past 24 months. 944 of all 1,102 municipalities (85.7%) have Municipal Culture Councils, of which 283 are currently active (30%). Culture Councils at all levels of the government present opportunities for delegates of cultural organizations, managers, artists and other actors of civil society to dialogue and discuss the political and normative developments for culture.
 

Regarding the participation of minorities within the National Culture System, Colombia has developed a set of scenarios where different civil society actors may participate. Indigenous and ethnic groups do not have individual institutions within the National Culture System. However, in some departments and municipalities inhabited by these ethnic groups, representation in the Culture Councils exists and opportunities for involvement are the same as for the rest of the population. At the State level, to ensure the presence and participation of minorities in the dialogue on cultural policies that concern them, delegations for minorities have been created for the National Culture Council, as well as for key thematic councils that concern minority groups, such as the National Advisory Council for Native Languages and the National Council for Community and Citizens Media.

Social-Participation

Going-Out Colombia
12 PARTICIPATION IN GOING-OUT CULTURAL ACTIVITIES: 65.9% (2010) In Colombia, 65.9% of the population 12 years or older participated at least once in a going-out cultural activity in 2010. Going-out cultural activities include visits to cultural venues, such as cinemas, theatres, concerts, music festivals, galleries, museums, libraries,...
Going-Out Colombia Going-Out Colombia
Participation in going-out cultural activities: ()
12 PARTICIPATION IN GOING-OUT CULTURAL ACTIVITIES: 65.9% (2010)
 
In Colombia, 65.9% of the population 12 years or older participated at least once in a going-out cultural activity in 2010. Going-out cultural activities include visits to cultural venues, such as cinemas, theatres, concerts, music festivals, galleries, museums, libraries, historical and archaeological monuments. Such activities require people actively choosing to attend a particular cultural activity, thus providing insight into the degree of cultural vitality and appreciation of culture. They also imply physical places for encounters to occur between audiences and artists, as well as among audiences, and thus insight into the degree of social interaction and connectivity. A result of 65.9% suggests a relatively high degree of participation in going-out activities overall and a steady base for a domestic cultural audience; the average for countries participating in the CDIS is situated at 46.1%.
 
While there is little divergence in the percentage of men (66.2%) and women (65.6%) that participated in going-out cultural activities, more significant variations according to age, income quintiles, geographical location and levels of education can be noted. While a large majority (78.9%) of individuals 12-25 years of age took part in going-out cultural activities, this percentage progressively decreases with age and only 33.3% of individuals 65 and above took part in such activities. Significant variations can also be noted according to income quintile. The highest participation rate was observed for the wealthiest quintile (89.2%) while the second poorest quintile observed the lowest rate (57.5%). The first income quintile had a slightly higher percentage (62.3%). One remarkable gap in participation between the first and fifth quintiles concerned cinema attendance (43.6 percentage points), an activity that is rarely free. To the contrary, a much smaller gap (10.1 percentage points) between the first and fifth income quintiles can be noted for attendance at concerts, recitals and music performances in open and closed spaces, activities that are more likely to be enjoyed without paying. 45.8% of the fifth quintile partook in concerts and music performances compared to 33.2% of the first quintile and 29.7% of the second quintile. A divide can also be confirmed when looking at participation according to geographic region, varying from 61.9% for the Central region to 73.6% of the population of Amazonía/Orinoquia. Finally, significant variations also correspond to levels of education. While 90.5% of the population with a university education took part in a going-out cultural activity in the past 12 months, only 47.9% of those with only an elementary school education did the same.
 
The above results merit cross-analysis with the indicators of the Economy, Education and Governance dimensions, which help to further assess issues of access to cultural participation regarding socio-economic factors such as income quintiles, education, urbanization and geographic location. Combined, these indicators suggest that increasing equitable access to infrastructures may have a positive impact on cultural participation, as well as the development of targeted policies and mechanisms to resolve the gaps in access between particular groups of the population. Such efforts could help to boost social connectivity and the consumption of cultural goods and services across all socio-economic groups.

 

Identity Building Colombia
13 PARTICIPATION IN IDENTITY-BUILDING CULTURAL ACTIVITIES: 44.1% (2010) In 2010, 44.1% of the population 12 years or older participated at least once in an identity-building cultural activity. Participation in identity-building cultural activities includes partaking in amateur cultural practices, popular culture, ethnic culture, community...
Identity Building Colombia Identity Building Colombia
Participation in identity-building cultural activities: ()
13 PARTICIPATION IN IDENTITY-BUILDING CULTURAL ACTIVITIES: 44.1% (2010)
 
In 2010, 44.1% of the population 12 years or older participated at least once in an identity-building cultural activity. Participation in identity-building cultural activities includes partaking in amateur cultural practices, popular culture, ethnic culture, community practices and youth culture. For the purpose of this indicator, such activities include carnivals, as well as municipal, department and national festivals. This figure does not include participation in identity-building activities such as ceremonies, rituals or community events (e.g., births, marriages, funerals, rites of passage) as no such data is collected at the national level.
 
Identity-building activities are often at the core of social connectivity and the intangible cultural heritage of a society or group. The government of Colombia has made the sustainability of intangible heritage a priority, as indicated by the Governance and Heritage dimension indicators. Thanks to public support and promotion of elements of intangible heritage, four carnivals and festivals that take place in Colombia are included in UNESCO’s Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. Within this context, the result of 44.1% suggests a relatively low degree of participation in identity-building cultural activities as less than half of the population participated.
 
A small divergence in the percentage of men (46.9%) and women (41.5%) that participated in identity-building cultural activities can be noted, while more significant variations are recorded according to income quintiles, age, geographical location and levels of education. While the wealthiest quintile did not record the highest percentage of participation but rather the fourth quintile (55.5%), the lowest percentage of participation was recorded for the second quintile (42.8%). There is a decreasing trend in participation with age as 51.9% of individuals 12-25 years took part in identity-building cultural activities, compared to 22.6% of individuals 65 and above. A divide can also be confirmed when looking at participation according to geographic region, though this variation does not correspond to that of participation in going-out cultural activities, the latter implying a need for cultural infrastructures. The results vary from 24.4% for the Bogotá region to 70.4% of the population of Amazonía/Orinoquia. Finally, significant variations also correspond to levels of education. While 53.6% of the population with a university education took part in an identity-building activity in the past 12 months, only 37.3% of those with only an elementary school education did the same. While these results should be considered to promote sustainable intangible heritage and assist public authorities in the development of targeted policies and mechanisms to promote participation in identity-building cultural activities amongst all groups, it should be noted that overall access and participation in identity-building activities is more equal than participation in going-out cultural activities as the listed divergences are less polarized.

 

14 TOLERANCE OF OTHER CULTURES: 93.17% (2005)  In 2005, 93.17% of Colombians agreed that they do not find people of a different culture as undesirable neighbours. This indicator provides an assessment of the degree of tolerance and openness to diversity, thus providing insight into the levels of interconnectedness within a given society...
Tolerance of other cultures: ()
14 TOLERANCE OF OTHER CULTURES: 93.17% (2005) 
 
In 2005, 93.17% of Colombians agreed that they do not find people of a different culture as undesirable neighbours. This indicator provides an assessment of the degree of tolerance and openness to diversity, thus providing insight into the levels of interconnectedness within a given society. It is a composite result of respondents’ replies regarding neighbours falling under 3 categories: people of a different race, people of a different religion and indigenous groups. Variations in the results appear across age groups and levels of education. The lowest level of tolerance was recorded for respondents aged 50 and above—89.97%, while respondents aged 15-29 and 30-49 scored 93.9% and 94.07% respectively. A clear upward trend in tolerance corresponds to levels of education obtained ranging from a score of 87.33% for those with no formal education to 97.13% of those with a university education.
 
A more recent alternative indicator supports these largely positive findings. In 2010, 88.93% of Colombians agreed that they do not find immigrants or people of indigenous or African descent as undesirable neighbours. These results could be interpreted as reflecting a cultural context and system of values that is in place that thrives on diversity, fosters tolerance, and encourages an interest in new or different traditions, thus creating a social environment favorable to development. 
 

However, although the overwhelming majority of the population expresses basic tolerance towards these populations, challenges still remain to mitigate existing discriminations and exclusions, and to ensure that the potential added value of the cultural, symbolic, economic and social attributes of these groups be actively incorporated into development processes. According to a study carried out from 2004 to 2006 by the Center for International Development and Conflict Management in which Colombia took part, minorities still suffer from high levels of poverty, under-representation in economic activity, low levels of social care and social exclusion by the dominant majority group.

 

15 INTERPERSONAL TRUST: 20.5% (2010) In 2010, only 20.5% of the Colombian population agreed that most people can be trusted. This indicator assesses the level of trust and sense of solidarity and cooperation in Colombia, providing insight into its social capital. A result of 20.5% indicates a relatively low level of trust and solidarity, as...
Interpersonal trust: ()
15 INTERPERSONAL TRUST: 20.5% (2010)
 
In 2010, only 20.5% of the Colombian population agreed that most people can be trusted. This indicator assesses the level of trust and sense of solidarity and cooperation in Colombia, providing insight into its social capital. A result of 20.5% indicates a relatively low level of trust and solidarity, as only one-fifth of the population responded favourably. Only minimal variations in the results can be seen across gender and age. While 22% of women agreed that most people can be trusted, only 19.1% of men agreed. Variation across age groups ranges from 20% of people aged 15-25 and 26-40 to 21.5% for people aged 61 and older. Slightly more polarized variations are recorded according to levels of education. Colombians with a higher education showed the highest levels of trust (26.4%.) when compared to those with basic (19.9%) and secondary level educations (17.1%). Nurturing interpersonal trust is a common obstacle for countries having implemented the CDIS, as the average for all countries is situated at 19.2%. 
 
Cross-analysis with the other indicators of this dimension suggests that there remains an obstruction to transforming widespread feelings of tolerance and openness into sentiments of trust and solidarity. Obstacles to interpersonal trust in Colombia may also be related to the perception of corruption and social inequality, and the persistent environment of political conflict. Additional public efforts merit consideration to improve access and rates of engagement, enhancing the potential of cultural participation to reinforce feelings of mutual understanding, solidarity and cooperation amongst the diverse people of Colombia.

 

16 FREEDOM OF SELF-DETERMINATION: 8.13/10 (2005) Colombia’s final result is 8.13/10, 10 representing the situation in which individuals believe that there is ‘a great deal of freedom of choice and control’ and 1 being ‘no freedom of choice and control.’ The score of 8.13/10 indicates that the majority of...
Freedom of self-determination: ()
16 FREEDOM OF SELF-DETERMINATION: 8.13/10 (2005)
 
Colombia’s final result is 8.13/10, 10 representing the situation in which individuals believe that there is ‘a great deal of freedom of choice and control’ and 1 being ‘no freedom of choice and control.’ The score of 8.13/10 indicates that the majority of Colombians feel that they have a relatively high degree of control over their lives and are free to live the life they choose, according to their own values and beliefs. Article 18, of the Constitution of Colombia (1991) guarantees the freedom of conscience and that an individual should not be forced to act against his/her convictions or beliefs. By assessing the freedom of self-determination, this indicator evaluates the sense of empowerment and enablement of individuals for deciding and orienting their development. 
 
While the median response for the population is 8.13, variations can be seen according to sex, age and level of education. The median response was 8.13 for men and 8.08 for women, and while respondents aged 50 and above showed a higher level of self-determination with a median result of 8.31, the younger population aged 15-49 showed that they were less confident in their capacity to orientate their development, with a median result of 7.81. Variations also can be noted according to education levels. While the 5% of the surveyed population that has no formal education has the most confidence in their freedom of self-determination (8.34), amongst those with formal education there is a clear upward trend in the perception of self-determination corresponding to the level of education obtained. Those with only a basic education have a median score of 7.99 while those with a secondary or university education have median scores of 8.07 and 8.21 respectively.
 
These results suggest a rather high level of individual agency in Colombia overall, above the average results for all countries having implemented the CDIS, which is situated at 6.7/10. This indicates that for the majority of citizens, Colombia provides the necessary enabling political, economic, social and cultural context for individual well-being and life satisfaction and builds common values, norms and beliefs which succeed in empowering them to live the life they wish.

CDIS Methodology was developed thanks to the financial support of
Government of Spain

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