Explore Digest

Burkina Faso

Communication

Internet Burkina
20 ACCESS AND INTERNET USE:  2.64% (2009) In 2009, 2.64% of Burkinabés used the Internet. While this result is approximately 10 percentage points lower than the regional average for all of Sub-Saharan Africa (48 countries) according to the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), 12.56% (2011), Internet use has been and continues to...
Internet Burkina
Access and Internet use: ()
20 ACCESS AND INTERNET USE:  2.64% (2009)
 
In 2009, 2.64% of Burkinabés used the Internet. While this result is approximately 10 percentage points lower than the regional average for all of Sub-Saharan Africa (48 countries) according to the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), 12.56% (2011), Internet use has been and continues to rapidly develop in the country. According to ITU, less than 0.1% of the population used the Internet in 2000. 
 
Significant variations in the number of users can be noted according to age, sex and geographic location. While 3.38% of the population ages 25-34 used the Internet, as little as 1.83% of the population ages 45-54 and 0.86% of the population above the age of 55 used the Internet.  The majority of all Internet users are male (67.7%) not female (32.3%), and they are located in urban environments (91.27%) not rural (8.73%).
 

Digital technologies, in particular the Internet, play a key role in boosting the economy and encouraging new forms of access, creation, production, and the dissemination of ideas, information and cultural content. Though growing, Burkina Faso’s result remains rather low and may reflect the need to increase investments in the development of infrastructures, policies and measures that facilitate the use of new technologies in order to further boost the growth of access and use of ICTs. The country may need to address issues such as pricing, bandwidth, skills, public facilities, content and applications targeting low-end users in order to bring more people online.

 

Freedom Burkina
19 FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION: 58/100 (2012) The freedom of expression, the freedom of the media and the free flow of information are protected by law and guaranteed in the Constitution of Burkina Faso (Art. 8) and the 1993 Code of Information.  Burkina Faso’s score of 58/100 indicates that their print, broadcast, and internet-...
Freedom Burkina Perception_Freedom Burkina
Freedom of expression: ()
19 FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION: 58/100 (2012)
 
The freedom of expression, the freedom of the media and the free flow of information are protected by law and guaranteed in the Constitution of Burkina Faso (Art. 8) and the 1993 Code of Information. 
 
Burkina Faso’s score of 58/100 indicates that their print, broadcast, and internet-based media is currently ‘partly free.’ This score illustrates the efforts made by the authorities to ensure an enabling environment for free media to operate and freedom of expression to be respected and promoted. Through the free flow of ideas, knowledge, information and content, these freedoms are the building blocks for the development of open and participatory societies as well as key enablers for creativity and cultural diversity. 
 
A government appointed body, the High Council of Communication (SCC) regulates the media to assure conformity with ethics and law, as well as issues licenses for broadcasting and publication. To better secure the freedom of expression, room for improvement remains in the economic, political and legal environments of Burkina Faso. Though the number of charges recorded in recent years is limited, libel remains a criminal offence; journalists can still face civil penalties and prison time over complaints, and the burden of proof in such cases is placed on defendants. Media is also forbidden to insult the president. While legislation on the freedom of information is in place, Article 49 of the Code of Information outlines the exceptional cases in which journalists may not have access to government data for reasons of security. Critics claim government bodies abuse reference to this code, hinder access to information. Similarly, though State legislation formally guarantees the freedom of expression, public authorities have been reported to harass journalists when coverage is not favourable, causing journalists to self-censor. State-affiliated media outlets tend to avoid controversial issues and report with a pro-government bias. Privately owned media outlets face less direct censorship and are able to report on a large variety of topics of importance to communities, enhancing the diversity of content. However, although media ownership is a key economic and political factor, it is not always transparent. 
 
An additional subjective indicator similarly reveals that in 2009, 49.7% of Burkinabés agreed that the freedom of expression is fully guaranteed (51.6% of men and 48.1% of women). Significant variations in results exist according to level of education. While 49.2% of individuals with no education and 56% of individuals with only a primary education agree with this statement, the lowest figures were recorded for individuals with upper-secondary (41.6%) and higher education (42.6%), suggesting a general decreasing trend with the level of education obtained. Overall, these results indicate that approximately half of all Burkinabés do not feel that they are free to fully exercise their freedom of expression, thus reinforcing the statement that improvements can still be made.

 

Fiction Burkina
21 DIVERSITY OF FICTIONAL CONTENT ON PUBLIC TELEVISION: 27.3% (2013) In Burkina Faso, approximately 27.3% of the broadcasting time of television fiction programmes on public free-to-air television is dedicated to domestic fiction programmes. During the observed period, 12.7% of all fictional content was produced in other African countries...
Fiction Burkina
Diversity of fictional content on public television: ()
21 DIVERSITY OF FICTIONAL CONTENT ON PUBLIC TELEVISION: 27.3% (2013)
 
In Burkina Faso, approximately 27.3% of the broadcasting time of television fiction programmes on public free-to-air television is dedicated to domestic fiction programmes. During the observed period, 12.7% of all fictional content was produced in other African countries such as Cote d’Ivoire, Benin, Cameroun, and South Africa. The remaining 60% of fictional programmes was from other foreign countries, the largest percentages coming from the USA, the United Kingdom, Mexico and Brazil.  Burkina Faso’s result is slightly above the average result for test phase countries of the CDIS, which is situated at 25.8%, demonstrating the level of public support and commitment of public television providers to promote Burkina Faso’s diverse cultures, values and indigneous knowledge through the audiovisual industry.
 
An additional indicator on the diversity of creative content in public television programming reveals that the ratio of creative content of domestic origin is approximately 31%.  This figure includes fiction programmes, as well as music programmes, documentaries, religious and linguistic diversity programmes, and cartoons broadcast on public free-to-air television.
 
Programming domestic productions, and particularly fictions with a high share of cultural content may help to build or strengthen identities and promote cultural diversity. Moreover, public broadcasting has major implications for the development of the domestic audio-visual industry, as well as for the flourishing of local cultural expressions and creative products. Nevertheless, while these figures suggest diverse content offerings and public support of the Burkinabé audio-visual industry, the lack of co-productions broadcast during the observed period suggests that one possible way to further promote the dissemination of domestic cultural content within Burkina Faso and beyond would be to support such co-ventures, promoting access to new markets and cross-border exchanges and learning amongst creative professionals.

Education

Arts Education: Burkina
6 ARTS EDUCATION: 0% (2013) According to the national required curriculum, arts education is not compulsory and 0% of instructional hours are required to be dedicated to the subject in the first two years of secondary school (grades 5-6). This indicator suggests a low level of public priority given to arts and culture subjects. Furthermore, a...
Arts Education: Burkina
Arts Education: ()
6 ARTS EDUCATION: 0% (2013)
 
According to the national required curriculum, arts education is not compulsory and 0% of instructional hours are required to be dedicated to the subject in the first two years of secondary school (grades 5-6). This indicator suggests a low level of public priority given to arts and culture subjects. Furthermore, a gap in the offerings of arts education over the course of the educational lifetime emerges when looking at the following indicator on tertiary and training programmes that are offered in Burkina Faso. Though some cultural programmes are offered at the higher education level, this gap in arts education during secondary schooling may obstruct developing students’ interest in professional careers in the culture sector, as well as developing students’ appreciation 
 
for the arts and culture in general. Reinforcing a dynamic culture sector calls for both nurturing the public’s enjoyment in culture and the training of cultural professionals throughout their education.
 
It should be noted that the Ministry of Culture and Tourism hopes to improve arts education opportunities in the near future. With the technical assistance of the UNESCO-EU Expert Facility Project, the Ministry has developed a strategy to integrate culture and arts modules in school curriculums by 2020 in order to allow students to develop a stronger appreciation of their own culture and open themselves up to other cultures. Once implemented, this will greatly enhance arts education experiences.

 

Professional Training_Burkina
7 PROFESSIONAL TRAINING IN THE CULTURE SECTOR: 0.7/1 (2013) The National Cultural Policy (2009) recognizes that individual culture sub-sectors lack specific training opportunities that would assist artists and cultural professionals in properly doing their job. Nevertheless, Burkina Faso’s result of 0.7/1 reflects the recent efforts and...
Professional Training_Burkina
Professional Training in the culture sector: ()
7 PROFESSIONAL TRAINING IN THE CULTURE SECTOR: 0.7/1 (2013)
 
The National Cultural Policy (2009) recognizes that individual culture sub-sectors lack specific training opportunities that would assist artists and cultural professionals in properly doing their job. Nevertheless, Burkina Faso’s result of 0.7/1 reflects the recent efforts and investments made by national authorities in order to fill the gaps and permit the pursuit of careers in the culture sector. Indeed, the coverage of public and government-dependent private technical and tertiary education is now rather comprehensive, offering various types of courses and permitting cultural professionals to receive the necessary training to pursue a career.
 
Since 2002, three new paths for higher education in culture have been launched, two at the National School of Administration and Magistracy (ENAM) and the now reputable Arts, Management and Cultural Administration (AGAC) program at the University of Ouagadougou. Of the seven centres for vocational and technical training identified, the Training and Research Center for the Living Arts (CFRAV-Espace Gambidi), the Superior Institute of Image and Sound (ISIS), and the IMAGINE Institute maintain TVET programs in music and sound, applied arts, cultural management, film and image. While the course offering at the national level is now relatively diverse, improvements still remain. For example, no technical training exists in the field of heritage, and no tertiary diploma programmes exist in the fields of music and sound or applied arts. In addition, course offerings remain unequally distributed nation-wide and concentrated in the principal urban areas of Ouagadougou and Bobo-Dioulasso.
 
Other fields worth mentioning but that are not taken into consideration by CDIS methodology are dance and theatre. Five identified establishments offer technical and professional training in these fields. These theatre and dance schools contribute to the creation of a competitive cultural class and emerging new talents in the performing arts and the Burkinabé film industry.
 
By offering an assessment of the variety of training programmes in the area of culture, and by highlighting the fields to be further developed, this indicator assists in monitoring the objective to develop human resources and actors’ potential through specialized professional training, as indicated in the National Cultural Policy (2009). In so doing, it points the way toward courses of action to better structure and reinforce the sector.

Gender-Equality

Gender Equality_Burkina
17 GENDER EQUALITY OBJECTIVE OUTPUTS: 0.55/1 (2013) The Constitution of Burkina Faso states that all Burkinabés have an equal vocation to enjoy the rights and freedoms guaranteed by the Constitution, and that discrimination of all sorts is prohibited, including according to sex (Art. 1). The result of 0.55/1 reflects a moderate degree of...
Gender Equality_Burkina
Gender equality objectives outputs: ()
17 GENDER EQUALITY OBJECTIVE OUTPUTS: 0.55/1 (2013)
 
The Constitution of Burkina Faso states that all Burkinabés have an equal vocation to enjoy the rights and freedoms guaranteed by the Constitution, and that discrimination of all sorts is prohibited, including according to sex (Art. 1).
 
The result of 0.55/1 reflects a moderate degree of objective gender equality and the efforts made by the government of Burkina Faso in order to elaborate and implement laws, policies and measures intended to support the ability of women and men to enjoy equal opportunities and rights. While this medium result reflects the limited progress made as a result of efforts over the last 10 years to protect and promote Burkinabé women, Burkina Faso’s result is below the average result for test phase countries of the CDIS, which is situated at 0.64/1.
 
A detailed analysis of the four areas covered by the indicator, reveals significant gaps where additional investments are needed to improve gender equality basic outputs. Significant differences in opportunities for men and women can be noted regarding political and labour force participation, gender equity legislation and education. In 2012, women represented only 19% of the elected members of the National Assembly, in spite of the quota law adopted in 2009, which was meant to eliminate barriers and increase women’s representation. Regarding other gender equity legislation, there remains a notable absence regarding domestic violence and sexual harassment legislation and penalties, as well as insufficient legal instruments to protect women against rape. The perception that a woman cannot refuse intercourse with her husband remains not only engrained in individuals’ minds, but is also an obligation inscribed in national family law. As for labour force participation, 86.3% of men are either employed or actively searching for work, versus 61.1% of women. Finally, though the average number of years of education is very low for all Burkinabés aged 25 years and above, men have nearly twice as much education (1.04 years) compared to women (0.64 years). Access to inclusive education for all remains a significant issue, as illustrated by the indicators of the Education dimension.
 
In conclusion, although gender equality has been the subject of national efforts in recent years and limited legislation is now in place, much progress remains to be achieved. However, policies alone are not enough. Policies require people, and a further look at the subjective indicator below suggests not only a need to continue to pursue more effective legislation, policies and mechanisms, but also a need to address deep-set cultural values. Resistance due to embedded cultural values can undermine the feasibility of objectives and the sustainability of performance outcomes.

 

Gender Perception_Burkina
18 PERCEPTION OF GENDER EQUALITY: 45.8% (2007) In 2007, 45.8% of Burkinabés positively perceived gender as a factor for development, according to their responses to questions regarding three key domains that parallel the objective indicator for this dimension- employment, political participation and education. The final result is a composite...
Gender Perception_Burkina
Perception of gender equality: ()
18 PERCEPTION OF GENDER EQUALITY: 45.8% (2007)
 
In 2007, 45.8% of Burkinabés positively perceived gender as a factor for development, according to their responses to questions regarding three key domains that parallel the objective indicator for this dimension- employment, political participation and education. The final result is a composite indicator, which suggests that slightly more than half of the population of Burkina Faso continues to view gender as irrelevant or a negative factor for development. Individuals’ perceptions on gender equality are strongly influenced by cultural practices and norms, thus Burkina Faso’s result suggests that gender-biased social and cultural norms remain dominant.
 
However, the perception of gender equality greatly varied according to the domain of the question asked. The most unfavourable perceptions were recorded in regards to employment. When asked if “When jobs are scarce, men should have more right to a job than women,” only 34.8% of respondents did not agree. This means that 65.2% of the population agreed that men have priority in regards to employment. When asked if “Men make better political leaders than women,” only 37.4% of the population responded no. Thus, oven three-fifths of the population agreed that men are better political leaders. The most favourable perceptions were recorded regarding education. When asked if “University is more important for a boy than for a girl,” 65.2% of respondents did not agree, suggesting that education is a domain in which gender equality and education for all is likely to be perceived as a positive factor for development. 
 
>> This cross-analysis of the subjective and objective indicators reveals low results overall, both regarding objective outputs and perceptions. These results suggest a need for both greater advocacy efforts targeting attitudes, as well as improved policies and mechanisms to proactively address key issues such as political participation and education. Since cultural values and attitudes strongly shape perceptions towards gender equality, it is critical to prove that gender equality can compliment and be compatible with cultural values and attitudes, and be an influential factor in the retransmission of cultural values for building inclusive and egalitarian societies, and for the respect of human rights.

Governance

Standard-setting_Burkina
8 STANDARD-SETTING FRAMEWORK FOR CULTURE: 0.95/1 (2013) Burkina Faso’s result of 0.95/1 indicates that there is already a significant standard-setting framework for culture in place and that the national authorities have made many efforts to ratify key international legal instruments affecting cultural development, cultural rights and...
Standard-setting_Burkina
Standard-setting framework for culture: ()
8 STANDARD-SETTING FRAMEWORK FOR CULTURE: 0.95/1 (2013)
 
Burkina Faso’s result of 0.95/1 indicates that there is already a significant standard-setting framework for culture in place and that the national authorities have made many efforts to ratify key international legal instruments affecting cultural development, cultural rights and cultural diversity, as well as to establish a national framework to recognize and implement these obligations. 
 
Burkina Faso scored 0.93/1 at the international level, highlighting the degree of priority given to culture and Burkinabé authorities’ high level of commitment to international norms on cultural development, cultural rights and cultural diversity. Burkina Faso has ratified many recommended international conventions, declarations and recommendations, such as the 1972 Convention concerning the Protection of World Cultural and Natural Heritage, the 2003 Convention for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage, the 2005 Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, as well as its optional Protocol. However, Burkina Faso has yet to ratify select international instruments such as the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples and the Universal Copyright Convention, though the protection of the intellectual property of literary and artistic works is guaranteed by national legislation.
 
At the national level, a score of 0.96/1 indicates that a great deal of effort has been made to implement many of the international obligations that Burkina Faso has committed to at the country level, a necessary step for the active implementation of these obligations. Principles relating to Burkinabés’ cultural rights and freedoms, as well as cultural diversity, are established in the Constitution. In addition, Burkina Faso has many sectorial laws to regulate and structure heritage, books and publishing, cinema, television and radio, music and fine arts. Legislation is also in place regarding public subsidies, cultural patronage and the tax status of culture, meant to facilitate investment in the sector. However, no ‘framework law’ for culture exists to unify and harmonize cultural legislation.

 

Policy: Burkina
9 POLICY AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR CULTURE:  1/1 (2013) The final result of 1/1 reflects that Burkinabé authorities have taken great efforts to create a comprehensive policy and institutional framework to promote the culture sector as part of development, by establishing targeted policies and mechanisms and by having an adequate...
Policy: Burkina
Policy and institutional framework for culture: ()
9 POLICY AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR CULTURE:  1/1 (2013)
 
The final result of 1/1 reflects that Burkinabé authorities have taken great efforts to create a comprehensive policy and institutional framework to promote the culture sector as part of development, by establishing targeted policies and mechanisms and by having an adequate political and administrative system to implement the legal instruments seen above.  
 
Overall, Burkina Faso has an extensive cultural policy and institutional framework for the protection and promotion of culture, cultural rights and cultural diversity. At the national level, the Ministry of Culture and Tourism represents the interest of culture. In addition, a Cultural and Social Affairs Commission provides for the consideration of culture within the national parliament, and various decentralized regional and municipal authorities ensure the promotion of the sector at the local levels. The National Culture Policy of 2009 and its action plans provide an overall strategy for the effective promotion of culture, in addition to specific sectorial policies and strategies such as the National Strategy for the Development of Books and the National Communication Policy. 
 
Culture has also been integrated in the Strategy for Accelerated Growth and Sustainable Development (2010-2015), and the culture sector has been highlighted as a priority and pillar for sustainable growth amongst technical partners.

 

Infrastructure_Burkina
10 DISTRIBUTION OF CULTURAL INFRASTRUCTURES: 0.55/1 (2013)  One of Burkina Faso’s objectives outlined in the National Cultural Policy (2009) is to encourage Burkinabés to participate in cultural and creative activities and different art forms, allowing  them to share their different understandings of life, release their...
Infrastructure_Burkina Infrastructure_Burkina
Distribution of cultural infrastructures: ()
10 DISTRIBUTION OF CULTURAL INFRASTRUCTURES: 0.55/1 (2013) 
 
One of Burkina Faso’s objectives outlined in the National Cultural Policy (2009) is to encourage Burkinabés to participate in cultural and creative activities and different art forms, allowing 
 
them to share their different understandings of life, release their creative potential and contribute to economic development. However, the distribution of cultural infrastructure in Burkina Faso, which would facilitate such participation, paints a picture of challenges to be faced.
 
On a scale from 0 to 1, Burkina Faso’s result for this indicator is 0.55, 1 representing the situation in which selected cultural infrastructures are equally distributed amongst regions according to the relative size of their population. The score of 0.55 thus reflects that across the 13 regions of Burkina Faso, there is an unequal distribution of cultural facilities. 
 
When looking at the figures for the three different categories of infrastructures, Burkina Faso scores 0.34/1 for Museums, 0.62/1 for Exhibition Venues Dedicated to the Performing Arts and 0.68/1 for Libraries and Media Resource Centers. This suggests that the most equal distribution of access across Burkina Faso exists for Libraries and the most unequal distribution of infrastructures exists for Museums. While the regions of Boucle du Mouhoun, Plateau Central, and Sud Ouest benefit from a higher concentration of cultural infrastructures, other regions such as Centre, Est, and Centre Nord have rather low coverage. Similarly, while the significant increase in the number of museums in the last 10 years is to be commended, such establishments still remain inaccessible for a large portion of the population with 4 regions having no such infrastructures (Cascades, Centre Est, Centre Sud and Nord). Building cultural infrastructures and increasing equality of access across all 13 regions could increase Burkinabés’ opportunities to take part in cultural and creative activities, release their creative potential and participate in economic development through the production and consumption of cultural goods and services. This is a crucial and common challenge among all the countries that have implemented the CDIS until now, as the average score for this indicator is only 0.43/1.

 

Civil_Society_Burkina
11 CIVIL SOCIETY PARTICIPATION IN CULTURAL GOVERNANCE: 0.96/1 (2014) The final result of 0.96/1 indicates that comprehensive opportunities exist for dialogue and representation of both cultural professionals and minorities in regards to the formulation and implementation of cultural policies, measures and programmes that concern them. Such...
Civil_Society_Burkina
Civil Society participation in cultural Governance: ()
11 CIVIL SOCIETY PARTICIPATION IN CULTURAL GOVERNANCE: 0.96/1 (2014)
 
The final result of 0.96/1 indicates that comprehensive opportunities exist for dialogue and representation of both cultural professionals and minorities in regards to the formulation and implementation of cultural policies, measures and programmes that concern them. Such opportunities for participation in cultural governance exist at the national as well as regional and local levels.
 
Regarding the participation of minorities, for the purpose of constructing this core CDIS indicator in Burkina Faso, flexibility was adopted regarding the definition of ‘minorities’ as there are no recognized minorities as such in Burkina Faso but rather the Burkinabé population is considered to be of diverse ethnicities and cultures. Thus, focus was instead placed on inclusive participation more generally and the access of individuals from all ethnicities, cultures and groups to participate in the decision-making process regarding cultural policies, measures and programmes that affect them. Applying this flexibility, mechanisms for the participation of minorities can be observed at both the national and local levels. At the national level, several regular events and mechanisms permit broad participation and consultation in decision-making processes, including in regards to culture topics. The annual National Decentralization Conference (CONAD), the National Week of Culture (SNC), the National Women’s Forum, the National Youth Forum, and the National Day of the Peasant are all examples of events and mechanisms that call for broad-based consultation treating a variety of issues, including culture. At the regional and local levels, the annual Regional Decentralization Conference and monthly Village Development Councils provide opportunities for all to partake in decision-making processes. Decisions taken at the Village Development Councils are binding for municipal authorities.
 
To facilitate the participation of cultural professionals in governance, at the national level the Burkinabé authorities institutionalized by decree in 2013 an annual encounter between public administrators responsible for culture, civil society and the private sector. The resolutions and outcomes of these encounters are formally consultative, though the government authorities have committed to translating them into legislation and action. At the regional and local levels, when culture issues are discussed at the annual Regional Decentralization Conference and monthly Village Development Councils, cultural professionals are invited to take part in the debates and decision-making process. The recommendations on culture issues resulting from discussions at the Regional Decentralization Conference are likewise consultative, not binding.

Heritage

Heritage Burkina
22 HERITAGE SUSTAINABILITY:  0.61/1 (2013) Burkina Faso’s result of 0.61/1 is an intermediate result regarding the establishment of a multidimensional framework for the protection, safeguarding and promotion of heritage sustainability. The degree of commitment and action taken by Burkinabé authorities is mixed and varies according...
Heritage Burkina Heritage Burkina
Heritage sustainability: ()
22 HERITAGE SUSTAINABILITY:  0.61/1 (2013)
 
Burkina Faso’s result of 0.61/1 is an intermediate result regarding the establishment of a multidimensional framework for the protection, safeguarding and promotion of heritage sustainability. The degree of commitment and action taken by Burkinabé authorities is mixed and varies according to the component of the framework. While many public efforts are dedicated to raising-awareness, community involvement and stimulating support, persisting gaps regarding national level registrations and inscriptions, as well as mechanisms for conservation, management, knowledge and capacity-building, call for additional actions to improve the framework.
 
Burkina Faso scored 0.49/1 for registration and inscriptions indicating that while efforts have resulted in national and international registrations and inscriptions of Burkinabé sites and elements of tangible and intangible heritage, increased focus should be placed on expanding and updating registries. Burkina Faso has 241 heritage sites on their national registry, 1 of which has already received the recognition of being World Heritage - the Ruins of Loropéni (2009). In addition, forty-five elements of intangible heritage have already been documented at the national level, and 1 element has been inscribed in UNESCO's Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage - the Cultural practices and expressions linked to the Balafon of the Senufo communities of Mali, Burkina Faso and Côte d'Ivoire (2012). Such recent efforts to receive international recognition suggest that the authorities of Burkina Faso remain committed to promoting their heritage. However, no list or inventory of cultural property or 
 
database of stolen cultural objects yet exists, and increased efforts could be made to update the national intangible heritage inventory, which has not been updated in the last five years. 
 
Burkina Faso scored 0.52/1 for the protection, safeguarding and management of heritage, indicating that there are several well-defined policies and measures, as well as efforts to build capacity and involve communities. Burkinabe authorities use various means to assure community involvement in the conservation and safeguarding of heritage. However, notable gaps in the framework can still be identified. While the Heritage Law of 2007 protects cultural and natural heritage, the law has not been modified or updated since its adoption. Other exclusions include the existence of a specialized police unit for illicit trafficking of cultural objects and the publication of regularly updated management plans for major heritage sites. Concerning training and capacity building, while the training efforts of police and customs officials against illicit trafficking are to be applauded, gaps persist concerning concrete mechanisms to combat against illicit trafficking and involve communities’ in the process. Similarly, increased efforts are needed to build capacities amongst the armed forces regarding the protection of cultural property in the case of armed conflict, as well as to build the knowledge of heritage site management staff and communities’ understanding of the safeguarding of intangible heritage. Finally, additional gaps concerning community involvement pertain to the lack of mechanisms to actively involve communities in the identification and labelling processes for tangible and intangible heritage.
 
Burkina Faso scored 0.85/1 for the transmission and mobilization of support, which reflects the efforts of national authorities to involve the civil society and the private sector, as well as to raise-awareness amongst the public. To raise awareness amongst youth, programs like ‘Ecole au musee,’ jointly supported by UNICEF, are carried out, and International World Heritage Day is observed to raise awareness amongst the greater public. However, although differential pricing at heritage sites exists to help promote access amongst the population, increased awareness of the meaning of heritage could be enhance by increasing signage at nationally and internationally recognized heritage sites. In addition, media campaigns could be explored as an additional means to promote heritage for development.

Social-Participation

Tolerance_Burkina
14 TOLERANCE OF OTHER CULTURES: 88.7% (2007) In 2007, 88.7% of the people of Burkina Faso agreed that they do not find people of a different culture as undesirable neighbours. This indicator provides an assessment of the degree of tolerance and openness to diversity, thus providing insight into the levels of interconnectedness within a given...
Tolerance_Burkina
Tolerance of other cultures: ()
14 TOLERANCE OF OTHER CULTURES: 88.7% (2007)
 
In 2007, 88.7% of the people of Burkina Faso agreed that they do not find people of a different culture as undesirable neighbours. This indicator provides an assessment of the degree of tolerance and openness to diversity, thus providing insight into the levels of interconnectedness within a given society. It is a composite result of respondents’ replies regarding neighbours falling under 3 categories: people of a different race, immigrants/foreign workers, and people of a different religion. This result indicates a fairly high level of tolerance towards diversity, which is consistent with the great cultural diversity of the country (composed of over 60 ethnic groups) and the recognition of this diversity as a source of national wealth in the National Cultural Policy (2009). This policy further specifies that when properly mobilized, Burkina Faso’s cultural mosaic can act as a source of dynamic innovation and wealth, but when improperly managed can to the contrary be a source of ethnic and religious conflict. The objective to obtain mutual understanding and tolerance of all cultures was reaffirmed in the National Development Plan 3 (2007-2012). 
 
Within this context, the result of 88.7% for this indicator suggests that the values, attitudes and convictions of nearly 9 out of 10 Burkinabés favour the acceptance of other cultures. This result further suggests a cultural system of values is in place that thrives on diversity, fosters tolerance, and encourages an interest in new or different traditions, thus creating a social environment favourable to development.

 

Interpersonal Trust_Burkina
15 INTERPERSONAL TRUST: 14.7% (2007)  In 2007, 14.7% of Burkinabés agreed that most people can be trusted. Within the context described above, this indicator further assesses the level of trust and sense of solidarity and cooperation in Burkina Faso, providing insight into its social capital. A result of 14.7% indicates a low level of...
Interpersonal Trust_Burkina
Interpersonal trust: ()
15 INTERPERSONAL TRUST: 14.7% (2007) 
 
In 2007, 14.7% of Burkinabés agreed that most people can be trusted. Within the context described above, this indicator further assesses the level of trust and sense of solidarity and cooperation in Burkina Faso, providing insight into its social capital. A result of 14.7% indicates a low level of trust and solidarity as the average of the countries having implemented the CDIS is situated at 19.2%. Furthermore, though all groups of the population show low levels of trust, there are significant variations in the results for men and women and across age groups. Women seem to be more trusting than men as nearly 17% of all women agree that most people can be trusted, compared to only 13% of men. Little more than 14% of all people under the age of 50 agree that most people can be trusted (13.5% for people ages 15-29, and 14.4% for people ages 30-49), while nearly 21% of all people ages 50 and over agree with this statement, suggesting a degradation of trust amongst new generations. Regardless, all of these figures remain rather low and indicate that there remains an obstruction to fostering a united and trusting society. This indicates that building on culture’s potential to further reinforce the feelings of mutual cooperation and solidarity amongst Burkinabés, and as a consequence, nurture social capital, deserves to be considered as a priority in Burkina Faso through the development of targeted measures and programmes.  
 
The conflicting results between tolerance and trust for this dimension suggest that much work still remains in this area, to not only accentuate social priorities in national development plans, but also to integrate relevant cultural and social questions into regular national surveys in order to establish consistent statistics and monitor progress throughout the implementation of the National Cultural Policy (2009).

 

Selfdetermination_Burkina
16 FREEDOM OF SELF-DETERMINATION: 4.91/10 (2007) Burkina Faso’s final result is 4.91/10, 10 representing the situation in which individuals believe that there is ‘a great deal of freedom of choice and control’ and 1 being ‘no freedom of choice and control.’ The score of 4.91/10 indicates that the population feels...
Selfdetermination_Burkina
Freedom of self-determination: ()
16 FREEDOM OF SELF-DETERMINATION: 4.91/10 (2007)
 
Burkina Faso’s final result is 4.91/10, 10 representing the situation in which individuals believe that there is ‘a great deal of freedom of choice and control’ and 1 being ‘no freedom of choice and control.’ The score of 4.91/10 indicates that the population feels that they have a low-medium degree of control over their lives and are free to live the life they choose, according to their own values and beliefs. By assessing this freedom, this indicator evaluates the sense of empowerment and enablement of individuals for deciding and orienting their development.
 
While the median response for the population is 4.91, slight variations can be seen across sexes and according age. The median response was 4.85 for women and 4.95 for men, and respondents ages 50 and over had a median result of 4.85, while the younger population groups had a median result of 4.93. These results merit consideration when cross-analysing with the indicators of Gender Equality dimension.
 
These results suggest that level of individual agency in Burkina Faso is below the average results for all countries having implemented the CDIS, which is situated at 6.7/10. This indicates that the necessary components are only in part provided for an enabling political, economic, social and cultural context that fosters individual well-being and life satisfaction and builds common values, norms and beliefs, which succeed in empowering them to live the life they wish.

Cambodia

Communication

19 FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION: 37/100 (2012) The 1993 Constitution of the Kingdom of Cambodia asserts “Khmer citizens shall have freedom of expression, press, publication and assembly” (Article 41).  Cambodia’s score of 37/100 indicates that their print, broadcast, and internet-based media is currently ‘not free,...
Freedom of expression: ()
19 FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION: 37/100 (2012)
 
The 1993 Constitution of the Kingdom of Cambodia asserts “Khmer citizens shall have freedom of expression, press, publication and assembly” (Article 41). 
 
Cambodia’s score of 37/100 indicates that their print, broadcast, and internet-based media is currently ‘not free,’ falling just below the benchmark of ‘partly free’ media. This score illustrates the efforts made to support an enabling environment in Cambodia for free media to operate and in which freedom of expression is respected and promoted. Such an environment is a condition for fostering the free flow of ideas, knowledge, information and content, for building knowledge societies, and enhancing creativity, innovation and cultural diversity.
 
Room for improvement remains in the economic, political and legal environments of Cambodia. Media ownership is a key economic factor that has been highlighted as an obstacle. In 2011, the Department of Media and Communication (DMC) of the Royal University of Phnom Penh reported that media ownership has a large impact on the freedom and quality of the press, as the majority of media organizations are partly or entirely owned by the state. This restrictive ownership structure induces censorship and self-censorship, hindering freedom of speech and the flow of information. Similarly, political control and influence on content also remain a concern. Finally, insufficient enforcement of legislation also obstructs the full enjoyment of these freedoms. Although the Constitution and the 1995 Press Law guarantee the freedom of expression, there have been several reports of journalists and political activists being threatened or physically attacked for their critical expressions on sensitive issues. While the basis for a strong legal environment is in place, enhanced efforts are necessary for its implementation.

Economy

1 CONTRIBUTION OF CULTURAL ACTIVITIES TO GDP: 1.53% (2011) In 2011, cultural activities contributed to 1.53% of the Cambodian Gross Domestic Product (GDP). 91.4% of this contribution is the result of central cultural activities, and 8.6% of equipment/supporting cultural activities. While already significant, the contribution of cultural...
Contribution of cultural activities to GDP: ()
1 CONTRIBUTION OF CULTURAL ACTIVITIES TO GDP: 1.53% (2011)
 
In 2011, cultural activities contributed to 1.53% of the Cambodian Gross Domestic Product (GDP). 91.4% of this contribution is the result of central cultural activities, and 8.6% of equipment/supporting cultural activities.
 
While already significant, the contribution of cultural activities is underestimated as it only takes into consideration private and formal cultural activities. Cultural activities that take place in the informal economy and non-market establishments, as well as the indirect and induced impacts of the culture sector are not incorporated in the calculations but may be significant in Cambodia. As an example of the latter, culture’s contribution to other economic sectors with considerable turnover -such as tourism, accommodation and food service activities- is not included in the final result.
 
Moreover, implementation of the CDIS methodology revealed that ticket sales from major heritage sites such as the Angkor site were not reflected in the current national statistics. Improving national figures to include these revenues would more than double the final result. Thus, 1.53% represents only a small fragment of culture’s real contribution to GDP and should be understood as a first appraisal that requires further investment in national information systems for improvement.
 
Nevertheless, this indicator offers valuable new information on the profits generated by cultural activities at the national level. The central cultural activities that contributed the most to national GDP include the manufacture of jewelry and related articles (USD 4.8 million); the retail sale of books, newspapers and stationary (USD 3.2 million); television programming and broadcasting activities (USD 2.6 million); photographic activities (USD 2 million); and creative, arts and entertainment activities (USD 7 million). The largest contributors in the category of equipment/supporting activities include printing (USD 3,5 million); the retail sale of audio and video equipment (USD 6.7 million), and wired telecommunications activities (USD 11.3 million). 
 
Although textiles production is traditionally an important economic and cultural activity in Southeast Asia and Cambodia, it is not included in the core CDIS indicator. An additional indicator including the cultural activities related to the preparation, spinning, weaving and finishing of textiles increases the contribution of cultural activities to GDP to 1.68%. The textiles sub-sector had a profit of USD 2.6 million in 2011. 
 
The approximate national budget that has been allocated to culture in recent years has been less than 1% (0.51% in 2009). Thus, though an underestimation, these results already reveal a vibrant cultural sector where investment is met with significant returns.

 

2 CULTURAL EMPLOYMENT: 0.54% (2011) In 2011, 0.54% of the employed population in Cambodia had occupations in cultural establishments (41,543 people: 58.3% male and 41.7% female). 59.6% of these individuals held occupations in central cultural activities, while 40.4% held occupations in equipment/supporting related activities.  While...
Cultural Employment: ()
2 CULTURAL EMPLOYMENT: 0.54% (2011)
 
In 2011, 0.54% of the employed population in Cambodia had occupations in cultural establishments (41,543 people: 58.3% male and 41.7% female). 59.6% of these individuals held occupations in central cultural activities, while 40.4% held occupations in equipment/supporting related activities. 
 
While already significant, the global contribution of the culture sector to employment is underestimated in this indicator due to the difficulty of obtaining and correlating all the relevant data. This figure does not cover cultural occupations performed in non-cultural establishments or induced occupations with a strong link to culture, such as employees of hospitality services located in or close to heritage sites. In addition, it does not account for informal employment, which in Cambodia accounts for a significant share of the labor market. According to the ILO (2012), the percentage of informal employment in Cambodia was estimated at 83% for the year 2008. Although the size of the informal economy has slowly declined in recent years, its contribution to the economy remains considerable. 
 
Nevertheless, this indicator already exposes a great deal of new data on cultural employment in Cambodia, which can be utilized to better understand culture’s role as an employer in light of national development priorities. The central cultural activities that contributed the most to cultural employment include the creative, arts and entertainment activities (9,714 people); photographic activities (2,275 people); and manufacture of jewelry and related articles (3,555 people). Wireless telecommunications activities (10,145 people) contributed greatly to employment in the category of equipment/supporting activities. The results of these sub-sectors highlight the potential of culture as an ‘employer’ at the national level, in line with the national objective of job creation stated in the Rectangular Strategy (2008) as well as the priority set by the Ministry of Commerce in regards to making Cambodia the leading gem and jewelry market supplier in Southeast Asia. For example, 23.4% of the people formally employed in cultural activities work in creative, arts and entertainment activities and 8.6% work in the manufacture of jewelry and related articles. 
 
Again, textiles production is not included in the core CDIS indicator. An additional indicator including employment in the preparation, spinning, weaving and finishing of textiles doubles the final result and indicates that 1.02% of the Cambodian population were formally employed in cultural establishments in 2011. 36,542 people were employed in textiles production, 82% of which were women (30,004 women and 6,538 men).
 
However, while already significant, Cambodia’s results indicate that formal cultural employment remains rather low compared to the average result for all test phase countries of the CDIS, which is more than double the final results for Cambodia. This suggests that there is great potential to increase formal cultural employment in the country. Improving the limited opportunities in arts education may be one barrier to overcome to increase the level of skilled, formal cultural employment in Cambodia.

 

3 HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURES ON CULTURE: 0.3% (2010)  In Cambodia, 0.3% of household consumption expenditures were devoted to cultural activities, goods and services in the year 2010. 77.8% of household consumption was spent on central cultural goods and services, and 22.2% on equipment/supporting goods and services.  This result...
Household expenditures on culture: ()
3 HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURES ON CULTURE: 0.3% (2010) 
 
In Cambodia, 0.3% of household consumption expenditures were devoted to cultural activities, goods and services in the year 2010. 77.8% of household consumption was spent on central cultural goods and services, and 22.2% on equipment/supporting goods and services. 
 
This result suggests a relatively low level of demand for cultural goods and services. The average for all test phase countries of the CDIS is situated at 2.43%. Cross-analyzing Cambodia’s result with the indicators of the Education and Governance dimensions suggests that low demand may in part be due to low levels of appreciation for the arts and culture, fostered through arts education; and/or limited access to cultural infrastructures. Additionally, generalized low-income levels may play a significant role in consumption patterns. Further disaggregation of data by socio-economic factors should be explored to better analyze these relationships.
 
While valuable information, this indicator underestimates the household consumption of cultural goods and services due to methodological constraints and gaps in data available at the national level. It does not account for the value of cultural goods and services acquired by households and provided by non-profit institutions at prices that are not economically significant (e.g. in-kind transfers). Similarly, spending on cultural products that are not directly financed by households, such as design services and advertisements, are not taken into consideration. Furthermore, the current national survey data poses significant limitations due to scarce observations for certain categories of goods and services, decreasing reliability. Despite these methodological challenges, the result obtained offers a preliminary assessment of how households value foreign and domestic cultural goods and services through market transactions, which requires further investment in national statistics for improvement.
 
>> While the Economy indicators suggest that culture is a vibrant sector where investment is already resulting in a non-negligible contribution to the Cambodian economy, they also indicate that obstacles to realizing culture’s employment and consumption potential remain. In light of both the 2009-2013 National Strategic Development Plan and the 2008 Rectangular Strategy’s prioritization of diversifying the Cambodian economy, the contribution of the culture sector and its great potential for growth is central to the country’s development objectives.

Education

4 INCLUSIVE EDUCATION: 0.44/1 (2006) The 1993 Constitution of the Kingdom of Cambodia asserts "The State shall provide free primary and secondary education to all citizens in public schools. Citizens shall receive education for at least 9 years" (Article 68). Within this context, the result of 0.44/1 reflects the considerable...
Inclusive education: ()
4 INCLUSIVE EDUCATION: 0.44/1 (2006)
 
The 1993 Constitution of the Kingdom of Cambodia asserts "The State shall provide free primary and secondary education to all citizens in public schools. Citizens shall receive education for at least 9 years" (Article 68). Within this context, the result of 0.44/1 reflects the considerable challenges remaining before reaching this objective and the necessary efforts of Cambodian authorities to guarantee this fundamental cultural right and pursue measures to assure that it is secured in a complete, fair and inclusive manner. This result shows that on average, the target population aged 17-22 has only 6 years of schooling, and 27% of the population continues to live in education deprivation, having fewer than 4 years of schooling. Not only is 6 years significantly less than the targeted average of 10 years of schooling, this 27% reveals a heavy burden of persistent inequality in the enjoyment of this fundamental cultural right. Furthermore, significant regional disparities persist. In Cambodia’s most disadvantaged provinces, Mondulkiri and Ratanakiri, fewer than one in three residents aged 17-22 have more than four years of education. Moreover, women in these provinces face even greater disparity, having only 1.8 years of schooling on average compared with 3.2 years for men. Reduced access to secondary school in these provinces may in part be due to limited linguistic opportunities. These provinces have large indigenous populations and bilingual education continues to be limited to select primary schools.
 

The Ministry of Planning’s 2010 Report on Achieving Cambodia Millennium Development Goals (CMDG) indicates that although improvements have been made regarding access to primary education, enrollment continues to decrease in secondary education, especially for girls for whom the drop-out rate is already high before the lower secondary years. The CMDGs aim to ensure that by 2015 all children -and in particular girls, children in difficult circumstances and those belonging to ethnic minorities- have access to and complete quality free and compulsory primary education.

 

5 MULTILINGUAL EDUCATION: 40% (2004)  The Constitution of the Kingdom of Cambodia recognizes the Khmer language as the official language and script, and Article 69 establishes that “the State shall Protect and promote the Khmer language as required.” Though primary importance is attributed to preserving Khmer language and...
Multilingual Education: ()
5 MULTILINGUAL EDUCATION: 40% (2004)
 
 The Constitution of the Kingdom of Cambodia recognizes the Khmer language as the official language and script, and Article 69 establishes that “the State shall Protect and promote the Khmer language as required.” Though primary importance is attributed to preserving Khmer language and culture, Cambodia’s Rectangular Strategy (2008), specifies that “’Education for All’ includes no discrimination based on language, and Article 67 of the Constitution declares that “the State shall adopt an educational program according to the principle of modern pedagogy including technology and foreign languages.” 
 
Appropriately, foreign languages are recognized as required core subjects in school curricula. According to the national 2005-2009 Policy for Curriculum Development (still in use in 2012-2013), 40% of the hours to be dedicated to languages in the first two years of secondary school (grades 7-8) is to be dedicated to the teaching of international languages (predominantly, English and French). The remaining 60% of the time is to be dedicated to the teaching of the official national language- Khmer. No time is required for the teaching of local or regional languages despite the 22 languages found in the country (Ethnologue, 2009).
 
However, it should be mentioned that indigenous language opportunities in primary school have increased in recent years. Select bilingual education programmes have resulted in the “Guidelines on implementation of bilingual education programs for indigenous children in highland provinces,” approved by the Minister of Education in August 2010. These guidelines outline a set of activities designed to expand bilingual education opportunities, based on a model developed and piloted by CARE International and gradually adopted in provinces with a significant indigenous population. The primary aim of these programmes is not the promotion of diversity but to assist in the integration of indigenous populations in the Khmer education system; instructional hours dedicated to the indigenous language are gradually reduced to 0 hours in favour of teaching in Khmer.

 

6 ARTS EDUCATION: 0% (2004) According to the 2005-2009 Policy for Curriculum Development, arts education is not compulsory and 0% of instructional hours are required to be dedicated to the subject in the first two years of secondary school (grades 7-8). Not regarded as a core subject, arts education is included under Science and Social...
Arts Education: ()
6 ARTS EDUCATION: 0% (2004)
 
According to the 2005-2009 Policy for Curriculum Development, arts education is not compulsory and 0% of instructional hours are required to be dedicated to the subject in the first two years of secondary school (grades 7-8). Not regarded as a core subject, arts education is included under Science and Social Studies in grades 1-3, under Social Studies in grades 4-6, offered under the optional Local Life Skills Programme (LLSP) in grades 7-10, and becomes an elective in grades 11-12. This indicator suggests a low level of public priority given to arts and culture subjects. In contrast, the national curriculum still states its aim to encourage the appreciation of arts, as well as the “value and importance of science, technology, innovation and creativity” (MoEYS, 2004). Prior to the 2004 curriculum reform, two hours of arts education were required per week (6% of instructional hours) in the first two years of secondary school. In the 2004 Needs Assessment for Arts Education, the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport elaborated on the difficulties encountered in implementing arts education, citing the shortage of teachers, textbooks and instructional materials as the main constraints.
 
Furthermore, a gap in the offerings of arts education over the course of the educational lifetime emerges when looking at the following indicator on tertiary and training programmes that are offered in Cambodia. Though some cultural programmes are offered at the higher education level, this gap in arts education during secondary schooling may obstruct developing students’ interest in professional careers in the culture sector.

 

7 PROFESSIONAL TRAINING IN THE CULTURE SECTOR: 0.7/1 (2012) Cambodia’s result of 0.70/1 indicates that although complete coverage of cultural fields in technical and tertiary education does not exist in the country, the national authorities have manifested an interest and willingness to invest in the training of cultural professionals....
Professional Training in the culture sector: ()
7 PROFESSIONAL TRAINING IN THE CULTURE SECTOR: 0.7/1 (2012)
 
Cambodia’s result of 0.70/1 indicates that although complete coverage of cultural fields in technical and tertiary education does not exist in the country, the national authorities have manifested an interest and willingness to invest in the training of cultural professionals. Indeed, the coverage of national public and government-dependent private technical and tertiary education is rather comprehensive in Cambodia, offering various types of courses to pursue a career in the culture sector. 
 
The Royal University of Fine Arts offers programmes in the fields of heritage, music and performing arts, and visual and applied arts. Likewise, the Royal University of Phnom Penh offers opportunities in the fields of heritage, as well as film and image courses related to media and communications. However, no specific programmes in film-making, cinema or photography exist in the country, and no programmes are offered in cultural management. Likewise, despite the high level of importance attributed to heritage in Cambodia, no technical training exists in the field of heritage. At present, heritage vocational training is centered on tourism and hospitality, but not on the technical aspects of heritage such as preservation, archiving, and cataloguing. It should also be noted that in the fields of music, performing arts, film and image, technical training is provided by NGOs such as Cambodian Living Arts and the Cambodian Film Commission. These efforts serve as examples for public authorities to ensure ongoing provision of such opportunities in appropriate public institutions. 
 
The 2008 Rectangular Strategy recognizes the lack of technicians and skilled workers in the country, and the overview of training opportunities provided by this indicator assists in identifying gaps in the current offerings that if filled could help build the skilled workforce of the culture sector and the emergence of a dynamic cultural class.

Gender-Equality

17 GENDER EQUALITY OBJECTIVE OUTPUTS: 0.62/1 (2013) The Constitution of the Kingdom of Cambodia states that “all forms of discrimination against women shall be abolished. The exploitation of women in employment shall be prohibited. Men and women are equal in all fields especially with respect to marriage and family matters…...
Gender equality objectives outputs: ()
17 GENDER EQUALITY OBJECTIVE OUTPUTS: 0.62/1 (2013)
 
The Constitution of the Kingdom of Cambodia states that “all forms of discrimination against women shall be abolished. The exploitation of women in employment shall be prohibited. Men and women are equal in all fields especially with respect to marriage and family matters…” (Article 45). In addition, the Constitution guarantees the respect for citizens’ fundamental rights contained in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international human rights instruments.
 
The result of 0.62/1 reflects a medium degree of objective gender equality and the efforts made by the Cambodian government in order to elaborate and implement laws, policies and measures intended to support the ability of women and men to enjoy equal opportunities and rights. Such a result is consistent with the average result for test phase countries of the CDIS, which is situated at 0.64/1.
 
A detailed analysis of the four areas covered by the indicator, reveals significant gaps where additional investments are needed to improve gender equality basic outputs. Little divergence is recorded for the average number of years of education for men and women aged 25 years and above, or for labour force participation rates of men and women. Yet, progress can still be made regarding political participation and gender equity legislation. Women represent only 20.3% of parliamentarians since the 2008 elections. Nevertheless, this percentage still indicates that the situation has improved greatly since the 1993 elections when only 5.8% of elected representatives were women. Still, 20.3% remains a low result compared to the target of 30% set by the Cambodia Millennium Development Goals (CMDGs) for the year 2015. Currently, no quota system exists to favour women’s political participation. Regarding other gender equity legislation, several legal instruments are already in place to protect against domestic violence and sexual harassment: the reformed Criminal Code; the 2005 Law on the Prevention of Domestic Violence and Protection of Victims, the National Action Plan to Combat Violence Against Women, the 2008 Law on the Suppression of Human Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation and the amended Marriage and Family Law. However, though these laws and measures show that Cambodia is moving in the right direction to create a legislative framework, the implementation of laws on domestic violence is obstructed by inconsistent enforcement and cultural norms that continue to hamper women’s rights. Policies require people, and a further look into the additional subjective indicators below reveals the persistence of negative cultural values, attitudes and practices in Cambodia, which reinforce the subordinate role of women and hamper their full and equal participation in all spheres of life.

 

18 PERCEPTION OF GENDER EQUALITY (ADDITIONAL INDICATORS) 94% of married women feel that they have a say in how their own cash earnings are spent, either individually or jointly with their husbands, suggesting that employment is a source of empowerment for Cambodian women. Similarly, 93% of married women felt that they have a role in household...
Perception of gender equality: ()
18 PERCEPTION OF GENDER EQUALITY (ADDITIONAL INDICATORS)
 
94% of married women feel that they have a say in how their own cash earnings are spent, either individually or jointly with their husbands, suggesting that employment is a source of empowerment for Cambodian women. Similarly, 93% of married women felt that they have a role in household decision-making regarding major household purchases, daily necessities and visits to her family. 
 
In contrast with the positive figures, serious negative culturally based perceptions on gender equality and the role of women in the society persist in other key areas like violence against women. Indeed, only 66% of the population believe that a husband is never justified in beating his wife; the other 34% of the population agrees that beating one’s wife can be justified for the following reasons: she burns the food, argues with him, goes out without telling him, neglects the children, refuses to have sexual intercourse with him, or asks him to use a condom. Variation exists across age groups, ranging from 62.1% of the population between the ages of 40-44 to 69.1% of the population aged 20-24 agreeing that domestic violence is never justified.  An astoundingly low figure of 54.3% of women agree that being beaten can never be justified, while 77.6 % of men agree with this statement. This indicates that domestic violence is not only accepted by over one-third of the population, but it is more widely accepted amongst women, nearly half of which believe it is justifiable. 
 
>> This cross-analysis of the subjective and objective indicators reveals that both select gaps in objective outputs remain in Cambodia, as well as inconsistencies between the implementation of forward-looking gender equity legislation and the population’s attitudes and values in this area. Advocacy efforts are needed to target attitudes and women’s perceptions of themselves, as well as the persisting cultural norms that may hinder the equal assurance of basic fundamental rights. The Ministry of Planning’s report on Achieving Cambodia’s Millennium Development Goals (2010) also concluded that challenges remain to address attitudes and behaviors underlying gender-based violence and the stigmatization of victims.

Governance

8  STANDARD-SETTING FRAMEWORK FOR CULTURE: 0.43/1 (2012) Cambodia’s result of 0.43/1 indicates that several gaps remain in the country’s standard-setting framework for culture. To strengthen Cambodia’s framework, additional key international legal instruments can be ratified and further national measures can be taken to...
Standard-setting framework for culture: ()
8  STANDARD-SETTING FRAMEWORK FOR CULTURE: 0.43/1 (2012)
 
Cambodia’s result of 0.43/1 indicates that several gaps remain in the country’s standard-setting framework for culture. To strengthen Cambodia’s framework, additional key international legal instruments can be ratified and further national measures can be taken to protect and promote cultural development, cultural rights and cultural diversity. 
 
Cambodia’s score of 0.57/1 at the international level highlights key areas for improvement while indicating that the country is already party to several major international instruments affecting culture, including the 1966 International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the 1972 Convention concerning the Protection of World Cultural and Natural Heritage, the 2003 Convention for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage and the 2005 Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions. Cambodia is still working towards the integration of select universal declarations and recommendations for the protection of cultural assets into national laws. Key instruments that have not been explicitly integrated include the Stockholm Action Plan on Cultural Policies for Development and the UNESCO Recommendations concerning the Status of the Artist and the Promotion and Use of Multilingualism and Universal Access to Cyberspace. Additionally, while Cambodia is party to select international and regional instruments on copyright and intellectual property rights, there are key absences such as Cambodia’s non-ratification of the 1996 WIPO Copyright Treaty or the 1986 WIPO Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works. Nevertheless, Cambodia is party to the 1952 Universal Copyright Convention and to the WTO Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), as well as specific bilateral and regional instruments concerning intellectual property rights. The latter are not taken into consideration in the construction of this indicator. These include the 1996 Agreement on Trade Relations and Intellectual Property Rights Protection with the United States of America, the 1997 Memorandum of Understanding on Intellectual Property with Thailand, and the 1999 ASEAN Framework Agreement on Intellectual Property Cooperation. 
 
At the national level, a score of 0.37/1 indicates that additional efforts by Cambodian authorities are necessary to enact national legislation to assist in implementing international obligations. Select international principles have already been included in national instruments, such as the incorporation of cultural diversity in the 2010 Royal Decree for the establishment of a national Living Human Treasures System in Cambodia, and the inclusion of the rights of indigenous people in the 2009 Policy for the Development of Indigenous People. However, there are no provisions or measures taken at the national level to require respect for linguistic diversity, the promotion of arts education, or to secure an environment that is favourable to the development of the cultural industries. Additional gaps in the normative framework include the lack of recognition of cultural rights relative to scientific progress and creative activities, and the absence of regulations dealing with cultural patronage, public subsidies, tax exemptions and incentives designed to specifically benefit the culture sector. Furthermore, national sectoral laws are limited to heritage, leaving other culture sub-sectors unregulated. According to the Ministry of Culture and Fine Arts, a draft law for the performing arts has been stalled for several years. Finally, regarding intellectual property challenges, although limited national legislation is in place, increased awareness may be necessary to improve artists’ limited knowledge of their intellectual property rights under the 2003 Law on Copyright and Related Rights.

 

9 POLICY AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR CULTURE: 0.36/1 (2012) The result of 0.36/1 illustrates a low degree of development of a policy and institutional framework for culture, and that additional efforts by national authorities are needed to establish targeted policies and mechanisms to promote culture and to establish an adequate political...
Policy and institutional framework for culture: ()
9 POLICY AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR CULTURE: 0.36/1 (2012)
 
The result of 0.36/1 illustrates a low degree of development of a policy and institutional framework for culture, and that additional efforts by national authorities are needed to establish targeted policies and mechanisms to promote culture and to establish an adequate political and administrative system to implement the legal instruments seen above. Indeed, Cambodia’s result is significantly below the average result of test phase countries of the CDIS for this indicator, which is 0.79/1. 
 
Cambodia scored 0.27/1 for the Policy Framework sub-indicator, drawing attention to several gaps, most notably the lack of a national policy or strategic framework to promote culture, cultural sectors, creativity and cultural diversity, as well as the absence of culture in national development plans and strategies. Although culture has been indirectly included in development strategies such as the Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers of 2002-2005 and 2006, the main reference is to tourism and not culture in its own right. Other key gaps in the policy framework include the absence of sectoral policies, which currently only exist for heritage and have been developed in recent years in connection with tourism. There are no sectoral policies, strategies or frameworks for books and publishing, music, cinema, radio and television, or other cultural sectors. However, the first national Cultural Policy is currently being elaborated and thus this indicator is likely to change considerably in the near future.
 
Cambodia scored 0.42/1 for the Institutional Framework sub-indicator, which assesses the operationalization of institutional mechanisms and the degree of cultural decentralization. Many crucial institutional bodies are already in place, including the Ministry of Culture, the Culture Committee in Parliament, and decentralized authorities at the provincial level. Yet, significant areas for improvement remain, particularly in regards to funding mechanisms.  Currently, there are no public funding or subsidy mechanisms, or publically funded organizations for the promotion of specific cultural sectors. This coincides with the absence of a regular and stable programme budget for culture. The National Strategic Development Plan (NSDP) indicated that for 2009, only 0.51% of the national budget was allocated to culture and that this was projected to decrease to 0.47% in 2013. In addition, no regulatory authorities for audio-visual media exist and in the last 12 months there have been no training programs for public authorities or administrators working in culture.

 

10 DISTRIBUTION OF CULTURAL INFRASTRUCTURES: 0.15/1 (2012) The Constitution of the Kingdom of Cambodia recognizes the right to participate in cultural life. However, the distribution of cultural infrastructure in Cambodia indicates limited opportunities for the population to enjoy and participate in culture. Although not specific to culture,...
Distribution of cultural infrastructures: ()
10 DISTRIBUTION OF CULTURAL INFRASTRUCTURES: 0.15/1 (2012)
 
The Constitution of the Kingdom of Cambodia recognizes the right to participate in cultural life. However, the distribution of cultural infrastructure in Cambodia indicates limited opportunities for the population to enjoy and participate in culture. Although not specific to culture, the 2008 Rectangular Strategy for Cambodia prioritizes the further development of infrastructure.
 
On a scale from 0 to 1, Cambodia’s result for this indicator is 0.15, 1 representing the situation in which selected cultural infrastructures are available and equally distributed amongst regions according to the relative size of their population. The score of 0.15 thus reflects that very limited cultural infrastructures are available nation-wide and significant inequality in distribution persists.
 
When looking at the figures for the three different categories of infrastructures, the results are 0.18/1 for Museums, 0.13/1 for Exhibition Venues Dedicated to the Performing Arts and 0.13/1 for Libraries and Media Resource Centers. According to available national statistics, only the provinces of Battambang, Siem Riep and the Phnom Penh municipality have access to a variety of infrastructures. Alternatively, no cultural infrastructures of any kind can be found in Kampot, Oddar Meanchey, Pailin, Preah Vihear, Pursat, Ratanakiri or Stung Treng provinces. Likewise, in eight provinces there are no Museums, no public Libraries were registered outside urban centres, and only five provinces have Exhibition Venues for Performing Arts– Battambang, Kampong Chhnang, Siem Riep, Takeo and Phnom Penh. These gaps indicate that a comprehensive system of public cultural infrastructures has yet to be developed. Improving equality of access to cultural infrastructures could increase opportunities to take part in cultural and creative activities, as well as promote the development of the creative industries by providing infrastructure for the production and consumption of cultural goods and services. NGO initiatives to provide mobile cultural infrastructures are one way that the obstacle is currently being addressed, but such projects remain punctual non-governmental actions. Though Cambodia’s results are below average, which is situated at 0.43/1, this is a crucial and common challenge among all countries that have implemented the CDIS.

 

11 CIVIL SOCIETY PARTICIPATION IN CULTURAL GOVERNANCE: 0/1 (2012) The 1993 Constitution of the Kingdom of Cambodia states that “Khmer citizens of either sex shall have the right to participate actively in the political, economic, social and cultural life of the nation" (Article 35). In contrast, the final result of 0/1 for this...
Civil Society participation in cultural Governance: ()
11 CIVIL SOCIETY PARTICIPATION IN CULTURAL GOVERNANCE: 0/1 (2012)
 
The 1993 Constitution of the Kingdom of Cambodia states that “Khmer citizens of either sex shall have the right to participate actively in the political, economic, social and cultural life of the nation" (Article 35). In contrast, the final result of 0/1 for this indicator highlights the absence of opportunities for cultural professionals and minorities to take part in the formulation and implementation of cultural policies, measures and programmes that concern them. 
 
While the draft national Cultural Policy proposes the creation of an Arts Forum for the participation and representation of cultural professionals, no formal mechanisms or structures for the participation of minorities in cultural governance are currently in place or being developed. Meetings, workshops or seminars organized by NGOs or civil society organizations seldom include dialogue with public authorities, and recognized indigenous issues are primarily limited to the recognition of indigenous collective identities and land possession. In the recent past, the Indigenous Rights Active Members (IRAM)’s Forum provided indigenous minorities a milieu for dialogue, and in 2008-2009, monthly forums for dialogue at the provincial level were guaranteed by NGOs. However, IRAM has not yet formalized its association status with national authorities.
 
The culture sector benefits from broadly based participatory processes to formulate and implement useful and effective policies and measures that meet the needs of the individuals and communities for whom they are intended. The absence of mechanisms for the participation of cultural professionals and minorities is a significant weakness in Cambodia’s cultural governance and an obstacle for fostering a vibrant culture sector.

Social-Participation

15 INTERPERSONAL TRUST: 7.7% (2008)  In 2008, 7.7% of Cambodians agreed that most people can be trusted. This result indicates a low level of trust and solidarity as the average for countries having implemented the CDIS is situated at 19.2% of the population. In contrast, the National Strategic Development Plan (2009-2013) recognizes the...
Interpersonal trust: ()
15 INTERPERSONAL TRUST: 7.7% (2008) 
 
In 2008, 7.7% of Cambodians agreed that most people can be trusted. This result indicates a low level of trust and solidarity as the average for countries having implemented the CDIS is situated at 19.2% of the population. In contrast, the National Strategic Development Plan (2009-2013) recognizes the importance for Cambodia to enhance national identity and solidarity, and to strengthen peace and reconciliation in the country. Analyzing the data further reveals variations between men and women, as well as across age groups. Only 5.2% of women say most people can be trusted, while nearly twice as many men agree (10.2%). The results for different age groups vary from 3.6% of the people aged 17-34 to 11.6% of people 65+, suggesting an increasing trend with age. Such low figures indicate that obstacles continue to hinder trust, solidarity and reconciliation in the country. In the Cambodian context, the years of the Khmer Rouge regime and warfare certainly have had an impact, tearing apart communities and relationships. The purges and ‘re-education’ of the era, as well as the separation of villages, people and families resulted in feelings of insecurity and interpersonal trust became difficult. The end of the regime was followed by years of poverty, instability and guerrilla warfare. These factors may explain residual cultural values, attitudes and norms that thwart an ideal social context.
 
In the same survey, 32.8% of Cambodians agreed that they can ‘trust in other people you interact with’. This additional indicator nuances the analysis of solidarity within Cambodia and suggests a higher degree of trust than the core indicator, assessing trust of others that are interacted with apart from those closest to the individual (i.e. other than relatives or neighbours).
 
While the NSDP has recognized the importance of such issues, progress is not stated as a clear objective and no indicators for monitoring change have been adopted. Furthermore, given the great disparity between the core and additional indicator, it is highly recommended to clearly establish social objectives in national development plans and integrate social questions into regular national surveys to investigate and monitor the topic of trust more thoroughly.

CDIS Methodology was developed thanks to the financial support of
Government of Spain

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UNESCO

Section for the Diversity of Cultural Expressions (CLT/CRE/DCE)

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email: cdis@unesco.org