Heritage sustainability: ()
22HERITAGE SUSTAINABILITY: 0.56/1 (2013)
Bosnia and Herzegovina’s result of 0.56/1 is an intermediate result regarding the establishment of multidimensional framework for the protection, safeguarding and promotion of heritage sustainability. The degree of commitment and action taken by the authorities of Bosnia and Herzegovina varies according to the component of the framework. While many public efforts are dedicated to registrations and inscriptions, conservation, valorization and management, and stimulating support; persisting gaps remain regarding knowledge and capacity-building, community involvement, raising awareness and education.
Responsibility for heritage is greatly decentralized in Bosnia and Herzegovina and coverage of public authorities is fragmented. Decision-making processes, as well as the registration of heritage sites is in the jurisdiction of the two entities of Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as the Brčko District, while the Ministry of Civil Affairs at the State level has only a coordinative role. The Commission to Preserve National Monuments (CPNM) at the State level receives and decides on requests to designate property as national monuments, due to cultural, historical, religious, or ethical value. The CPNM has a register of cultural heritage of Bosnia and Herzegovina, as do the entity institutes for the protection of heritage/monuments. In all, there are 11 institutes for the protection of cultural heritage, with 151 employees. The entity and cantonal institutes perform some of the most significant professional, technical and administrative tasks in the field of heritage protection. Three additional institutes are exclusively responsible for natural heritage in the Republika Srpska, the Sarajevo Canton, and the Tuzla Canton; and an institute in the Central Bosnia Canton deals with heritage in regards to spatial planning. Cooperation between the various bodies poses many challenges.
Bosnia and Herzegovina scored 0.7/1 for registration and inscriptions, indicating that many efforts have resulted in sub-national, national and international registrations and inscriptions of sites and elements of tangible and intangible heritage. The 714 sites and objects of moveable property that have been registered by the CPNM illustrate these efforts at the State level. In addition, 2 national monuments have received the recognition of being World Heritage, and 20 national monuments have been included on the Council of Europe’s Prioritized Intervention List. In addition, recent efforts have resulted in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina inscribing elements of intangible heritage, demonstrating Bosnia and Herzegovina’s commitment to the 2003 Convention on the Safeguarding on Intangible Heritage as illustrated by the Governance dimension. As a result, the preliminary inventory of Bosnia and Herzegovina is now composed of 19 elements from both entities- the Republika Srpska and the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. One element of intangible heritage has been nominated for the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. However, no databases for stolen cultural property yet exist for either entity or the Brčko District, despite the ratification of the 1970 Convention.
Bosnia and Herzegovina scored 0.51/1 for the protection, safeguarding and management of heritage, indicating that while well-defined policies and measures are in place for the conservation, protection and management of heritage, additional efforts are needed to build capacity and involve communities. Although the Education dimension indicates that higher education courses exist in the field of heritage, in the last 3 years training programmes have only been conducted regarding illicit trafficking and have not addressed increasing the expertise of heritage sites’ management staff, the role of the armed forces in protecting heritage in the case of armed conflict, or the capacities of local communities to be involved in the protection and transmission of heritage. Likewise, in the past 2 years no concrete measures have been taken to involve minorities or indigenous peoples in the protection, conservation, safeguarding or transmission of heritage, or involve them in the fight against illicit trafficking.
Bosnia and Herzegovina scored 0.49/1 for the transmission and mobilization of support, which reflects the partial efforts taken to raise awareness of heritage’s value and its threats, as well as efforts to involve all stakeholders. While signage at heritage sites and an awareness-raising programmes are tools in use to alert the population of heritage’s value and the threats it faces, additional measures could be taken, including the development of education programmes in schools, differential pricing at sites, media campaigns, and the establishment of visitor centres at the most visited sites. Similarly, while efforts have already resulted in agreements with tour operators and the involvement of private foundations in heritage advocacy and funding, no concrete measures have been taken in the last 2 years to actively involve the civil society and/or private sector in the protection, conservation and transmission of heritage.